Afghanistan ppt

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<ul><li> 1. Afghanistan Nationalism By: Ebony UribeCindy Nguyen</li></ul> <p> 2. Nationalism Definition </p> <ul><li>Refers to an ideology, a sentiment, a form of culture, or a social movement that focuses on the nation. It is a type of collectivism emphasizing the collective of a specific nation. </li></ul> <ul><li>Nationalism Drive</li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Control</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Power </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Domination </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Unity </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 3. History </p> <ul><li>Crossroad between different civilizations. </li></ul> <ul><li>522 BCE--486 BCE- Persia conquerd Afghanistan </li></ul> <ul><li>329 BCE 326 BCE- Alexander the Great of Macedonia</li></ul> <ul><li>conquered Afghanistan </li></ul> <ul><li>652- Arabs introduce Islam. </li></ul> <p> 4. History cont. </p> <ul><li>1332-Descendants of Ghorid rulers conquer Afghanistan.</li></ul> <ul><li>1613-1689- Uprising against Moghul government. </li></ul> <ul><li>1736 - Nadir Shah (head of Persia) </li></ul> <ul><li>occupies parts of Afghanistan. </li></ul> <ul><li>1747- Shah is assassinated. Afghans, establish modern Afghanistan.</li></ul> <p> 5. History cont. </p> <ul><li>1773- 1793- Rule of Timur Shah. Internal revolts. </li></ul> <ul><li>1826- Dost Mohammad Khan establishes control.</li></ul> <ul><li>1836- Britain invades. </li></ul> <ul><li>1843- Annihilation of British troops=</li></ul> <ul><li>Afghanistan is independent again. </li></ul> <ul><li>1934- USA formally recognizes Afghanistan. </li></ul> <p> 6. History Cont. </p> <ul><li>1994-Taliban militia are born. </li></ul> <ul><li>2001- Taliban destroy historical momentums.</li></ul> <p> 7. 9/11</p> <ul><li>Taliban - September 11 th : suicide attacks on the U.S. kill more than 3,000 people and destroy the two towers of the World Trade Center and part of the Pentagon.</li></ul> <p> 8. Opposition Suppressed</p> <ul><li>Ahmad Shah Masood</li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>In April 2001, he was visiting Europe to gain supportagainst the Taliban. </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Two days before 9/11, Masood was killed by assassins posing as journalists.</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Abdul Haq</li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Was trying to create a popular uprising in Afghanistan against the Taliban in the wake of the September 11th attacks.</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Executed by the Taliban in October 2001. </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 9. Languages</p> <ul><li>Most common languages </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Eastern Farsi/ Dari</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Pashto</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Other</li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Uzbek &amp; Turkmen</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>30 minor languages</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Bilingualism is common </li></ul> <ul><li>Big difference in literacy rates for males and females. </li></ul> <p> 10. Religions </p> <ul><li>Mid-1980s </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>~ 30,000-150,00 Hindus &amp; Sikhs in varies cities (mainly Jalalabad, Kabul, &amp; Kandahar) </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>99% Muslim</li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>74-80% Sunni </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>19-25% Shia </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Small Jewish community</li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Last one is Zablon Simintov</li></ul></li></ul> <p> 11. Taliban 12. Education </p> <ul><li>Obstacles </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Lack of funding </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Unsafe school building</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Cultural norms</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Lack of women teacher</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Rapid change in the face of higher education </li></ul> <ul><li>After 2001, Kabul University was reopenedto both genders.</li></ul> <p> 13. Education cont. </p> <ul><li>2006: American University of Afghanistan opened its door &amp; accepted students from Afghanistan &amp; the neighboring countries </li></ul> <ul><li>New military school with purpose of properly training &amp; educating their soldiers </li></ul> <p> 14. Media </p> <ul><li>Media was very restricted</li></ul> <ul><li>Censorship slowly loosend after 2001</li></ul> <ul><li>Reporters Without Borders listed the media environment as 1 stfor most free </li></ul> <p> 15. Ethnic Groups </p> <ul><li>41% Pashtun</li></ul> <ul><li>38% Tajik</li></ul> <ul><li>10% Hazara</li></ul> <ul><li>6% Uzbek</li></ul> <p>Population large variety of Ethnic groups No exact distribution </p> <ul><li>2% Turkmen</li></ul> <ul><li>1% Nuristani</li></ul> <ul><li>1% Baloch</li></ul> <ul><li>1% other</li></ul> <p> 16. Economy </p> <ul><li>One of worlds poorest countries. </li></ul> <ul><li>Recovering from decades of conflict. </li></ul> <ul><li>Has improved significantly since fall of Taliban. </li></ul> <ul><li>Extremely poor, landlocked, and highly dependant on foreign aid, agriculture, and trade with neighboring countries. </li></ul> <ul><li>Main source of income is agriculture. </li></ul> <ul><li>Industry based on agriculture and pastoral raw materials. </li></ul> <p> 17. Economy Continued </p> <ul><li>Sheep farming is extremely valuable. </li></ul> <ul><li>Rich in natural resources. </li></ul> <ul><li>$8 billion in bilateral debt. </li></ul> <ul><li>$500 million in debt to Multilateral Development Banks. </li></ul> <ul><li>Unit of money= Afghani </li></ul> <ul><li>Population below poverty line= 53% </li></ul> <ul><li>Unemployment rate= 40% </li></ul> <p> 18. Taliban's New Target Mobile -Phone Towers</p> <ul><li>destroyed a mobile-phone tower </li></ul> <ul><li>No telephone signals during the evening and overnight</li></ul> <ul><li>Taliban want to damage economy</li></ul> <ul><li>Mobile networks are</li></ul> <ul><li>important for</li></ul> <ul><li>ordinary Afghans</li></ul> <p> 19. Current Event- June 8, 2009 </p> <ul><li>New troops to defeat Taliban. </li></ul> <ul><li>Marine buildup will occur in Hemland. </li></ul> <ul><li>USA is helping Afghan government vs. Taliban. </li></ul> <p> 20. Future of Afghanistan </p> <ul><li>Taliban moves away </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Less US troops </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Country unites </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Less censorship </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Improved education </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Kabul rebuilt</li></ul></li></ul> <p> 21. </p> <ul><li>The </li></ul> <ul><li>End </li></ul>


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