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Andreea Dicu Alexandra Musat Carmen Neghina Psycho-economics Psychology Advertisin g

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Andreea Dicu (slide design) Carmen Neghina Probably my best presentation so far. An insider's view into advertising.

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Page 1: Advertising Psychology

Andreea Dicu Alexandra Musat Carmen NeghinaPsycho-economics

PsychologyAdvertising

Page 2: Advertising Psychology

04/07/2023 Advertising Psychology 2

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Agenda

Advertising revealed

Advertising tactics

Elaboration Likelihood Model

Communication Model/Techniques1) Who say?2) What?3) By what means?4) To whom?

Methods of measuring advertising effects

Trends and future developments

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Advertising Revealed

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What do you think about advertising?

Fun

DeceptiveAggressive

Hard Work

Creative

Innovative

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What is advertising in theory?

Sponsor

Paid form of communication

Persuasive

Mass Media

Large Audience

Non-Personal

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Definition of advertising

“Advertising is paid non-personal communication from an identified sponsor using mass media to persuade or influence an audience.”

(Wells, Burnett & Moriarty, 2003, p. 10)

An advertising idea is a credible and provocative statement of substance about the brand’s main consumer benefit.

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Major objectives

Capture attention

Arouse and hold interest

Make a useful lasting

impression

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Effects of advertising

Cog

nitive

•awareness / recognition of the ad, brand, or product/service•memory about the ad, brand, or product/service

Affective

•Interest•product liking•positive emotional response to an ad•emotional bonding

Conative

•purchase consideration•buying the product

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Unique Selling Proposition

• A motivating idea, uniquely associated with a particular brand, which is to be registered in the mind of the consumer

• The U.S.P. – is about uniqueness– must sell– must make a proposition

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Unique Selling Proposition

• In best cases our brand or product is unique in itself or is determined to be something unique for a special target group

• Can you give examples?– Coca cola– Porsche – Rolex

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Unique Selling Proposition

UniqueAdvertising that promises a unique

benefit,or a benefit that is perceived as

distinct and/or superior

SellingSignificant and relevant

to consumers - persuasiveenough to incite action

PropositionA clear, compelling

consumer benefit that isdelivered by the product

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Unique Selling Proposition

Uniquetaste, shape, color, different

flavors

SellingBottles, cans &

kegs

PropositionThe Beck‘s experience

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Brand Wheel

What the brand is / what the brand looks like: Physical/functional characteristics of the brand

Rational advantage for me. What the brand does: The results of using the brand.

Psychological advantage of using the brand: How the brand makes me feel about myself / how others feel about me, using the brand

If the brand were a person:How would it be?

Brand Essence: The core of the brand.The sum of characteristics in the wheel.

Brand Essence

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Brand Wheel

DRIVING EXCELLENCE

German, Masculine, Luxury, Expensive,well-engineered. Quality, Performance,Roadholding, Heritage, Bssssssing!

Sports performance in luxury comfort,Best of both worlds. Is what it does

Wise heads on young shouldersA passionate driver

Serious but not serious-minded, charismatic, outgoing, joie de vivre,half german, half human. The steel fist in a velvet glove

Brand Essence

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Advertising Tactics

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A framework of psychological meaning

Stimuluse.g. TV ad

Billboard Image ad

Tangible Attributese.g. size

color brightness

music

Data drivene.g. sight

touch sound

Intangible Attributese.g. modern

fun exciting

Concept Drivene.g. cognitive associations

cognitive abstractions

Psychological Meaning

Individual characteristicse.g. attitudes perceptual selectivity personality

Social characteristicse.g. gender social class marital status occupation

Situational characteristicse.g. time to make decision number of available choices

Attribute Bundle Perceptual Mode Context

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Consumers that are motivated and able to process the message will devote more thought to the message contained in advertisement“elaboration”

Attitude change depends on the quality of the arguments

Elaboration Likelihood Model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986)

Implies two routes to persuasion:

Central route to persuasion

Peripheral route to persuasion

Consumers that are not motivated and/or unable to process the message will switch to a less involved and elaborate processing of information

Attitude change depends on the peripheral cues

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Examples of peripheral cues

• celebrity• attractive source• sources with high credibility • expert sources• humor• erotic stimuli

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Elaboration Likelihood Model

– Motivation to process the message can be influenced by

• personal relevance of the product• need for cognition (a tendency to engage in and enjoy effortful

analytic activity)• personal responsibility

– Ability to process the message can be influenced by• distraction• prior knowledge• intelligence• message comprehensibility

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Elaboration Likelihood Model

Central route to persuasion

Peripheral route to persuasion

• relatively enduring / shows a greater temporal persistence

• more predictive of behavior

• shows a greater resistance to counter-persuasion

• less enduring / relatively temporary

• unpredictive of behavior

• shows a greater susceptibility to counter-persuasion

Attitu

de c

hang

e

Consequences of elaboration

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Communication Model

Who?

Says what?

By what means?

To whom?

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Communication Model

Source characteristics

1) Credibility

Lower credibility sources - when the receiver’s thoughts about the product are favorable

Higher credibility sources – when the receiver’s thoughts are negative

Profession has a greater effect upon perceived credibility than the spokesperson

2) Attractiveness

3) Gender

Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?

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Communication Model

Source characteristics

1) Credibility

2) Attractiveness

For low involvement products – coffee, perfumeAttractive models do not enhance recall, but facilitate ad recognition

3) Gender

Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?

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CredibilityAttractiveness

Source

Gender

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CredibilityAttractiveness

Source

Gender

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Communication Model

Source characteristics

1) Credibility

2) Attractiveness

3) Gender

Gender of models should match the image of the product held by usersAny role depiction should be realistic and natural rather than stereotypical and false

Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?

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CredibilityAttractiveness

Source

Gender

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Communication Model

Who?

Says what?

By what means?

To whom?

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Communication Model

Message appeal - the overall style of the advertising

Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?

Rational appeal?

One- vs. two- sided and comparative appeals?

Emotional appeal?

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Communication Model

The MAC Model

Memory only – most of the choices we make are determined by habitMemory plus affect – most of the conscious choices that make us pause are determined by affectMemory plus affect plus cognition – some ads make us think, as well as do some decision

Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?

Ads

Competitors for attention Pe

rcep

tual

filte

rs Memory

Affect

Cognition

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Communication Model

The MAC Model

Consider a major purchase choice you made in the past. Did you use some rational basis to create a consideration set,

or did you just fall in love with it when you saw it?

Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?

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Communication Model

The role of emotion

Coca-Cola – “Have a Coke smile”

Pepsi-Cola – “Get that Pepsi feeling”

General Motors – “Get that great GM feeling”

AT&T – “Reach out and touch someone”

Saab – “One car you can buy where your emotions aren’t compromised by your intellect”

Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?

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Communication Model

The role of emotion

Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?

A Typology of Emotional Content

Positive Negative

Pleasure JoyFriendliness

SadnessLoneliness

Arousal VitalityLiveliness

Overstimulation

Dominance CompetenceSelf-fulfillment

Futility

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Pleasure

Message appeal

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ArousalVitality

Message appeal

Liveliness

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Dominance

Message appeal

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Communication Model

Fear appeals as arousalOptimal range of tensionPoint of inflection where increasing tension activates anxiety –> negative feelings

Audio-Visual

Print

Energy generationAnxiety & Energy generation

ThresholdTension

No picture Picture

Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?

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Fear

Message appeal

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Fear

Message appeal

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Fear

Message appeal

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Fear

Message appeal

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Fear

Message appeal

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Communication model

Humor appeal"Trying to figure out why something is funny is like dissecting a

frog. You'll come up with answers, but the frog always dies.“ Mark Twain

One of the most common techniques, but hard to realize

The belief that humor can increase advertising effectiveness has led to its unprecedented popularity

However, it can work for you or it can work against you!

Peripheral cue - drawing attention to the ad

Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?

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Humor

Message appeal

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Humor

Message appeal

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Communication Model

Subliminal Messagesthe use of hidden or otherwise imperceptible stimuli to manipulate viewers or listeners to behave in ways they otherwise would not.

The Vicary “Eat Popcorn/Drink Coke” Study

Below thresholdSubjective thresholdObjective threshold

Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?

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Communication Model

Who?

Says what?

By what means?

To whom?

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Communication ModelWho? Says what? By what means? To whom?

Copy theme

Visual reprezeantations

Music

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Communication Model

1) Copy theme

Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?

Surface level Text

Underlying level Text

Different ads using the same kinds of techniques (characters, jingles)

Signification system structured around connatative signified

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Communication Model

1) Copy themeUse of figurative language and rhetorical devices

Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?

Metaphor

•used in creating brand identity•Beetle (small and quick)•Mustang (very fast)

Slogans•reinforce the recognizability of a brand name•Joint the Pepsi generation

Imperative forms

•this creates the effect of advice coming from an unseen authoritative source•Trust your senses

Formulas •create the effect of making meaningless statements sound truthful•A Volkswagen is a Volkswagen

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Communication Model

2) Visual representations

„What visual images express can only be approximated by words, but never fully captured by them. Words represent an artificially imposed intellectual system removed from primal feeling; images plunge us into the depth of experience itself.“ (Barry, 75)

Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?

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Communication Model

2) Visual representations

Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?

Attracting Attention

• Violating reality

• Surrealism and visual metaphor

• Visual parodies

• Direct eye gaze

Eliciting Emotion

• Vertical camera angle, Power, and Status

• Looking down, Nurturance, Subservience

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Violating reality

Attracting attention

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Communication Model

2) Visual representations

Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?

Attracting Attention

• Violating reality

• Surrealism and visual metaphor

• Visual parodies

• Direct eye gaze

Eliciting Emotion

• Vertical camera angle, Power, and Status

• Looking down, Nurturance, Subservience

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Visual Metaphor

Attracting attention

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Visual Metaphor

Attracting attention

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Communication Model

2) Visual representations

Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?

Attracting Attention

• Violating reality

• Surrealism and visual metaphor

• Visual parodies

• Direct eye gaze

Eliciting Emotion

• Vertical camera angle, Power, and Status

• Looking down, Nurturance, Subservience

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Visual parodies

Attracting attention

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Visual parodies

Attracting attention

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Communication Model

2) Visual representations

Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?

Attracting Attention

• Violating reality

• Surrealism and visual metaphor

• Visual parodies

• Direct eye gaze

Eliciting Emotion

• Vertical camera angle, Power, and Status

• Looking down, Nurturance, Subservience

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Direct eye gaze

Attracting attention

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Communication Model

2) Visual representations

Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?

Attracting Attention

• Violating reality

• Surrealism and visual metaphor

• Visual parodies

• Direct eye gaze

Eliciting Emotion

• Vertical camera angle, Power, and Status

• Looking down, Nurturance, Subservience

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Vertical camera Angle, Power, and Status

Eliciting Emotion

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Communication Model

2) Visual representations

Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?

Attracting Attention

• Violating reality

• Surrealism and visual metaphor

• Visual parodies

• Direct eye gaze

Eliciting Emotion

• Vertical camera angle, Power, and Status

• Looking down, Nurturance, Subservience

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Looking down, Nurturance, Subservience

Eliciting Emotion

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Communication Model

3) Music

Attention gaining valueAbility to engage a listener’s attention through speed and loudnessRole in advertising – attract and hold attentionHowever, can be act as a distractive factor

Message congruenceThe extent to which purely instrumental music conveys meanings (feelings, images, thoughts) that are congruent with those evoked by ad messages

Who? Says what? By what means? To whom?

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Communication Model

Who?

Says what?

By what means?

To whom?

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Targeting Cultures

LanguageCommunication StyleSymbolsCultural Values

Communication ModelWho? Says what? By what means? To whom?

LinguisticsCultural Suitability

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Linguistics

Targeting Cultures

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Cultural Suitability

Targeting Cultures

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Targeting Cultures

LanguageCommunication StyleSymbolsCultural Values

Communication ModelWho? Says what? By what means? To whom?

ExplicitImplicit

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Explicit

Targeting Cultures

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Targeting Cultures

LanguageCommunication StyleSymbolsCultural Values

Communication ModelWho? Says what? By what means? To whom?

ColorsNumbers

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Colors and cultures

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Targeting Cultures

LanguageCommunication StyleSymbolsCultural Values

Communication ModelWho? Says what? By what means? To whom?

ReligionIndividualismMasculinity

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Religion

Targeting Cultures

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Communication Model

Targeting Cultures

US Melting Point

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Respond to:Themselves reflected in images

Fierce sarcasm/ Imagination, CreativityStupid / Smart MessagesDeconstructed Paradigms

StyleLuxury Goods and Mass Market

Targeting Generations

GEN-X

(24-35)

“US“ “I“ “ALL“

Respond to:Cues of achievement / Status / Heroes

Iconic Authority Heroes / Trailbrazers

The things that are earnedComfort

„I‘ve earned it luxury“Perks

Anti-Aging

Respond to:New Ideas

Companies with a Philosophy„Multi-Sensory“ ExperiencesMulti Generational Models

Fun / LearningParents as their Heroes

Interesting PeopleSenses of Community

BABY BOOMERS

(36-54)

GEN-Y

(6-23)

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Baby Boomers

Targeting Generations

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Gen X

Targeting Generations

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Gen Y

Targeting Generations

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Communication Model

„The consumer is not an idiot, she‘s your wife.“ - David Ogilvy

„I heard another one: She‘s not an idiot, she‘s your boss!“ - David Lubars, BBDO West

Targeting Genders

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Communication Model

What do women want?

Targeting Genders

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What Do Women Want?

Respect

Individuality

Stress Relief

Connection

Relationship

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Respect?

Targeting Genders

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Dove Pro-Age Campaign

Individuality

Targeting Genders

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Stress Relief

Targeting Genders

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Connection

Targeting Genders

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Relationship

Targeting Genders

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Measuring Effectiveness

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Why?

"Half the money I spend on advertising is wasted, and the trouble is I don't know which half. “

- John Wanamaker

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Traditional measures of effectiveness

EffectivenessAttitudes towards the ad

Brand / Product / Ad

recall

Purchase Intentions

Involvement

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Dillemma

Some commercials succeed at being memorable

without managing to persuade viewers, while other

are persuasive without being memorable

- David. W. Stewart, David H. Furse

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Best practice

Strategy or copy developement

Copy refinement Below the surface exploration

Disaster checks

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Future Trends in Advertising

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Mass is back in business

Goal: reach a mass audience

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Future trends

Future Trends

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Questions?

Thoughts?

Applause?

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Thank you for your attention!