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  • Power Systems

    J. F. Gieras

    Advancements in Electric Machines

  • Jacek F. Gieras

    Advancements inElectric Machines

    With 235 Figures

  • Jacek F. Gieras, FIEEEUTC Hamilton Sundstrand FellowApplied Research, Rockford, Illinois, USAFull Professor of Electrical Eng.University of Technology and Life SciencesBydgoszcz, Polandjgieras@ieee.org

    ISBN: 978-1-4020-9006-6 e-ISBN: 978-1-4020-9007-3

    Power Systems ISSN: 1612-1287

    Library of Congress Control Number: 2008932939

    This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of thematerial is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations,recitation, broadcasting, reproduction onmicrofilm or in any other way, and storage in databanks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisionsof the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permissionfor use must always be obtained from Springer. Violations are liable for prosecution underthe German Copyright Law.

    The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publicationdoes not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt fromthe relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use.

    Cover design: deblik, Bauer, Thomas

    Printed on acid-free paper

    9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

    springer.com

  • Preface

    Traditionally, electrical machines are classified into d.c. commutator (brushed)machines, induction (asynchronous) machines and synchronous machines.These three types of electrical machines are still regarded in many academiccurricula as fundamental types, despite that d.c. brushed machines (exceptsmall machines) have been gradually abandoned and PM brushless machines(PMBM) and switched reluctance machines (SRM) have been in mass pro-duction and use for at least two decades.

    Recently, new topologies of high torque density motors, high speed motors,integrated motor drives and special motors have been developed. Progress inelectric machines technology is stimulated by new materials, new areas ofapplications, impact of power electronics, need for energy saving and newtechnological challenges. The development of electric machines in the nextfew years will mostly be stimulated by computer hardware, residential andpublic applications and transportation systems (land, sea and air).

    At many Universities teaching and research strategy oriented towards elec-trical machinery is not up to date and has not been changed in some coun-tries almost since the end of the WWII. In spite of many excellent academicresearch achievements, the academiaindustry collaboration and technologytransfer are underestimated or, quite often, neglected. Underestimation of therole of industry, unfamiliarity with new trends and restraint from technologytransfer results, with time, in lack of external financial support and drastic de-cline in the number of students interested in Power Electrical Engineering. Itis not true that todays students are less interested in heavy current electricalengineering, but it is true that many educators have little to offer them.

    Universities are no longer leaders in the development of modern electri-cal machinery. A quick study of recent advancements in electrical machinery,patent database, web sites of funding agencies and the list of references givenat the end of this book shows that most inventions related to electric machin-ery have been done by practising engineers. Technological breakthroughs areborn in small companies established ad hoc for the development of a specificproduct and R&D centers of large corporations.

  • VI Preface

    This book discusses the state-of-the art of electric machines, associatedcomponents and contemporary trends of their development. Novel electricmachines considered in this book have been limited to rotary electric machines.Linear electric machines and linear actuators have not been included. Thereare three objectives of this book:

    to promote electrical machines as the most popular machines of everydaylife and increase awareness in this area;

    to stimulate innovations in electrical machines and electromechanicaldrives;

    help educators to revitalize Power Engineering curricula and change re-search strategy towards what industry and mankind needs.

    Looking at the map of the world, research and development activity in elec-trical machines since the end of 19th Century has been located in CentralEurope, the U.K., the United States and the Soviet Union. After the WWII,Japan joined this group of leaders and recently South Korea. Development ofmodern electric machines and electromechanical drives require large injectionof funds, unavailable in most countries, so that the role of the European Unionand Russia has been gradually diminishing. Without any doubt, the UnitedStates is now the world leader in the development of new types of electricmachines, their nonstandard topologies and application of novel materials totheir construction.

    I want to thank the people that were helpful in making this book possible.Mr William B. Kroll, the Director of Systems and Engineering at Hamil-ton Sundstrand has encouraged me to write this book and mentored me inaerospace business. Professor Miroslaw Dabrowski of the Technical Univer-sity of Poznan, Poland has read Chapter 1. Professor Janusz Turowski of theTechnical University of Lodz, Poland has read Chapter 10. Dr Roger Wang ofthe University of Stellenbosch, South Africa has read Chapter 3. Dr RobertChin of ABB Sweden has read Chapter 9. My daughter Izabella Anna Gieras,the Director of Technology Management at Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak,MI, U.S.A. has read Chapter 6. Mr William B. Kroll, Dr Stephen R. Jonesand Ms Colleen Carroll of Hamilton Sundstrand have read the whole book.They have all made many useful suggestions.

    Many thanks to Ms Anneke Pott and Ms Nathalie Jacobs of Springer forvery efficient collaboration and assistance in preparation of this book.

    Last, but not least, I would like to thank my wife Janina, and our childrenIzabella Anna, Karolina Maria and Michael Benjamin, for their love, patience,sacrifice, and understanding. I feel sorry that I have never had enough timefor them.

    Any comments, criticism, and suggestions for improvements are most wel-come and may be sent to the author at jgieras@ieee.org

    Rockford, Illinois, U.S.A., March 2008 Jacek F. Gieras

  • Contents

    1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1 Why electric machines continue to naturally grow . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Status of electric motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

    1.2.1 A.c. motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.2.2 Brushless PM motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.2.3 Stepping motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.2.4 Switched reluctance motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.2.5 Servo motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    1.3 Progress in electric machines technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121.4 Mechatronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.5 Microelectromechanical systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.6 Superconductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141.7 Solid state converters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191.8 Energy conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211.9 Power quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231.10 Recyclable electric machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

    2 Material engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272.1 Laminated silicon steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272.2 High saturation ferromagnetic alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312.3 Amorphous ferromagnetic materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362.4 Soft magnetic powder composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362.5 Permanent magnets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

    2.5.1 Characteristics of PM materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432.5.2 Rare-earth permanent magnets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442.5.3 Halbach array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

    2.6 Wire insulation with heat activated adhesives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482.7 High temperature materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

    2.7.1 High temperature ferromagnetic materials . . . . . . . . . . . . 492.7.2 High temperature insulating materials and conductors . 49

    2.8 Superconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

  • VIII Contents

    2.8.1 Classification of HTS wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502.8.2 HTS wires manufactured by American Superconductors 532.8.3 HTS wires manufactured by SuperPower . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562.8.4 Bulk superconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

    2.9 Nanostructured materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 622.9.1 Carbon nanotubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .