Advances in the research of aquatic environment volume 2
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- Nicolaos Lambrakis George Stournaras Konstantina Katsanou Editors Advances in the Research of Aquatic Environment Volume 2 123
- Editors Prof. Dr. Nicolaos Lambrakis University of Patras Department of Geology Laboratory of Hydrogeology Patras Greece email@example.com Prof. Dr. George Stournaras University of Athens Department of Geology and Geoenvironment Athens Greece firstname.lastname@example.org Konstantina Katsanou University of Patras Department of Geology Laboratory of Hydrogeology Patras Greece email@example.com ISBN 978-3-642-24075-1 e-ISBN 978-3-642-24076-8 DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-24076-8 Springer Heidelberg Dordrecht London New York Library of Congress Control Number: 2011936434 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Violations are liable to prosecution under the German Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. Cover design: deblik, Berlin Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com)
- v Preface These two volumes contain the proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Hydrogeology and the 4th MEM Workshop on Fissured Rocks Hydrology, organ- ized by the Hellenic Committee of Hydrogeology in collaboration with the Cyprus Association of Geologists and Mining Engineers. The number of the manuscripts submitted to the Organizing Committee through- out 15 countries all over the world reflects the rapidly increasing interest that Hy- drology gains nowadays worldwide. The papers cover more or less all fields, such as mathematical modeling, statistical, hydro-chemical methods, etc., focusing on the environmental aspect. Aquatic environment, the main topic of the Congress, as it is shown by the title of the Proceedings Advances in the research of aquatic environment is covered by articles mostly dealing with ecological impacts versus water requirements, climate change implications on groundwater, anthropogenic impacts on the groundwater quality, groundwater vulnerability, and more. Both volumes follow the general structure of the Congress topics. Moreover the keynote lectures are also included. On behalf of the International Scientific Committee I would like to take this op- portunity to thank all the authors for their contributions, as well as all participants for their cooperation, which made this Congress possible. Additionally, I would like to express my gratitude to the staff of Springer and especially Christian Witschel and Agata Oelschlaeger for their hard work, patience and support. Last but not least, I would like to thank my wife Aggeliki and my children Athina and Ioannis for their patience and love. Prof. Nicolaos Lambrakis President of the Organizing Committee University of Patras Laboratory of Hydrogeology Rio Patras, Greece
- vii Address of the Hellenic Committee of Hydrogeology The Hellenic Chapter of IAH proudly presents the Proceedings of its 9th Interna- tional Hydrogeological Congress, integrated in the frame, established during the last decade, characterized by internationalization and an opening to adjacent scien- tific fields. This is the result of continuous and painstaking efforts of all the mem- bers of the Hellenic Committee of Hydrogeology and of our foreign colleagues who attended our congresses and contributed by their papers and key notes and chiefly by their presence. The discussed Congress is characterized by several features and particularities. First of all, it is the first time that our Congress deserts the big cities for the Hel- lenic periphery cities as it is Kalavrita, the city which entertains our present meet- ing. Second, the international economic crisis affected both the attendance of delegates and the sponsoring of the event. Despite these difficulties the partici- pants and the sponsors presence exceeded the expected range. Moreover, the fo- cusing given to our congress subject matter, the management of the aquatic envi- ronment, covers a very important topical and seasonable existing universal problem, especially under the effect of the climatic change. Finally, the associa- tion with our new publisher, Springer is something that improves the level of the Congress in the field of the presentation quality and of the international diffusion of the proceedings as well. The IAH Hellenic National Chapter wishes to express its gratitude to the Organiz- ing Committee and its Chairman, Prof. N. Lambrakis for what they have done, the Sponsors of the event in such a difficult period, the local authorities of the city and the region of Kalavrita, the authors of the papers and key notes, and the partici- pants for their important presence in the congress. For the Administration Council The President Prof. George Stournaras
- ix Acknowledgements The 9th International Hydrogeological Congress of Greece would not have been pos- sible to be carried out without the active engagement of many persons and the finan- cial support of Institutions and Organizations. I would like to express my gratitude to all of them. Moreover, I would like to thank in particular Mr Dimitris Dalianis for his perfect work in the construction and maintenance of the Congress website. I would also like to acknowledge Mrs Konstantina Katsanou, Panagoula Kriempardi and Katerina Karli, for their valuable contribution during the organization. Sponsors BANK OF GREECE M.E.W.S OF PATRAS UNIVERSITY OF PATRAS MARIOLOPOULOS KANAGINIS FOUNDATION AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS DR C.J.VAMVACAS LTD HIGH-TECH PRODUCTS- CONSULTANTS GEOTECHNICAL CHAMBER OF GREECE KLEOPATRA GOUVA CHEMICALS PARTNERSHIP LAZARIDIS
- xi Organizing Committee The 9th International Hydrogeological Congress and the 4th MEM Workshop of Fissured Rocks Hydrology of the Hellenic Committee of Hydrogeology in col- laboration with the Geological Society of Greece and the Cyprus Association of Geologists and Mining Engineers, was organized by the Laboratory of Hydro- geology, Department of Geology, University of Patras, with the cooperation of colleagues from several universities and authorities. The Organizing Committee consists by the following members: President: Nikolaos Lambrakis, University of Patras, Laboratory of Hydrogeology Vice President: Evangelos Nikolaou, IGME Greece General Secretary: Anastasia Pyrgaki, Region of Western Greece Executive Secretary: Konstantina Katsanou, University of Patras, Laboratory of Hydrogeology Koumoutsou Eleni Chelmos Vouraikos Geopark Treasurer: Eleni Zagana, University of Patras, Laboratory of Hydrogeology Members: Christos Petalas, Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus Univer- sity of Thrace Constantinos Constantinou, Geological Survey of Cyprus Grigorios Krestenitis, Region of Western Greece Markos Sklivaniotis, M.E.W.S.P of Patras Georgios Soulios, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Geology Georgios Stamatis, Agricultural University of Athens, Laboratory of Mineralogy- Geology Georgios Stournaras, Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, University of Ath- ens Leonardos Tiniakos Region of Western Greece
- xiii Scientific Committee Mohamed Aboufirass (N. Africa) Argyro Livaniou (Greece) Ian Acworth (Australia) Manuel Jos Margues (Portugal) Apostolos Alexopoulos (Greece) Paulos Marinos (Greece) Bartolome Andreo (Spain) Henrik Marszalek (Poland) Athanasios Argyriou (Greece) Boris Mijatovic (Serbia) Alicia Aureli (Italy) Jacque Mudry (France) Giovanni Barrocu (Italy) Konstantinos Nikolakopoulos (Greece) Konstantinos Chalikakis (France) Euagelos Nikolaou (Greece) Antonio Chambel (Portugal) Andreas Panagopoulos (Greece) Massimo Civita (Italy) George Panagopoulos (Greece) John Diamantis (Greece) George Papatheodorou (Greece) Alexandros Dimitrakopoulos (Greece) Didier Pennequin (France) George Dimopoulos (Greece) Christos Petalas (Greece) Romeo Eftimi (Albania) Fotios Pliakas (Greece) Christophe Emblanch (France) Maurizio Polemio (Italy) Dolores Maria Fidelibus (Italy) Antonio Pulido Bosch (Spain) Bjrn Frengstad (Norway) Dimitris Rozos (Greece) Michael Fytikas (Greece) Kim Rudolph-Lund (Norway) Michael Galabov (Bulgary) Nikolaos Sambatakakis (Greece) Jacques Ganoulis (Greece) Allen Shapiro (USA) Panagiotis Giannopoulos (Greece) George Soulios (Greece) Vasileios Kaleris (Greece) George Stamatis (Greece) George Kallergis (Greece) George Stournaras (Greece) George Koukis (Greece) Luigi Tulipano (Italy) John Koumantakis (Greece) Peter Udluft (Germany) Andre Kranjc (Slovenia) Sotirios Varnavas (Greece) Jiri Krasny (Czech Republic) Konstantinos Voudouris (Greece) Ioannis Kyrousis (Greece) Qin Xiaoqun (China) Patrik Lachassagne (France) Eleni Zagana (Greece) Nikolaos Lambrakis (Greece) Hans Zojer (Austria) John Leontiadis (Greece) Nikolaos Zouridakis (Greece) Michael Leotsinidis (Greece)
- xv Contents Volume 1 Water bodies and ecosystems Groundwater in integrated environmental consideration................................... 3 G. Stournaras Ecological requirements (Habitats Directive) versus water requirements (Water Framework Directive) in wetland ecosystems in Spain......................... 21 A. de la Hera, J.M. Forns, M. Bernus, J.J. Durn Ecological impacts due to hydraulic technical projects to ecosystems near Natura 2000 network ................................................................................. 29 Th.M. Koutsos, G.C. Dimopoulos, A.P. Mamolos Climate change Approaches for increasing and protecting fresh water resources in light of climate change................................................................................................... 41 G.A. Kallergis Estimation of hourly groundwater evapotranspiration using diurnal water table fluctuations ............................................................................................... 51 L.H. Yin, G.C. Hou, D.G. Wen, H.B. Li, J.T. Huang, J.Q. Dong, E.Y. Zhang, Y. Li Estimation of precipitation change over Greece during the 21st century, using RCM simulations..................................................................................... 57 J. Kapsomenakis, P.T. Nastos, C. Douvis, K. Eleftheratos, C.C. Zerefos Trends and variability of precipitation within the Mediterranean region, based on Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and ground based datasets .................................................................................................... 67 P.T. Nastos Climatic influence on Lake Stymphalia during the last 15 000 years ............... 75 I. Unkel, C. Heymann, O. Nelle, E. Zagana Climate change impact on the Almiros brackish karst spring at Heraklion Crete Greece...................................................................................................... 83 A.I. Maramathas, I. Gialamas
- xvi Contents Climate Change Implications on Groundwater in Hellenic Region .................. 91 G. Stournaras, G. Yoxas, Emm. Vassilakis, P.T. Nastos Climatic modelling and groundwater recharge affecting future water demands in Zakynthos Island, Ionian Sea, Greece............................................ 99 P. Megalovasilis, A. Kalimeris, D. Founda, C. Giannakopoulos Hydrology Using spectral analysis for missing values treatment in long-term, daily sampled rainfall time series...................................................................... 111 E. Fakiris, D. Zoura, K. Katsanou, P. Kriempardi, N. Lambrakis, G. Papatheodorou Suitability of DSM derived from remote sensing data for hydrological analysis with reference to the topographic maps of 1/50000............................. 121 K. Nikolakopoulos, E. Gioti A GIS method for rapid flood hazard assessment in ungauded basins using the ArcHydro model and the Time-Area method .................................... 129 M. Diakakis Flood hazard evaluation in small catchments based on quantitative geomorphology and GIS modeling: The case of Diakoniaris torrent (W. Peloponnese, Greece)................................................................................. 137 E. Karymbalis, Ch. Chalkias, M. Ferentinou, A. Maistrali Preliminary flood hazard and risk assessment in Western Athens metropolitan area............................................................................................... 147 M. Diakakis, M. Foumelis, L. Gouliotis, E. Lekkas Effects on flood hazard in Marathon plain from the 2009 wildfire in Attica, Greece ............................................................................................................... 155 M. Diakakis Flash flood event of Potamoula, Greece: Hydrology, geomorphic effects and damage characteristics................................................................................ 163 M. Diakakis, E. Andreadakis, I. Fountoulis Hydrograph analysis of Inountas River Basin (Lakonia, Greece)..................... 171 C. Gamvroudis, N. Karalemas, V. Papadoulakis, O. Tzoraki, N.P. Nikolaidis
- Contents xvii Hydrologic modelling of a complex hydrogeologic basin: Evrotas River Basin........................................................................................... 179 O. Tzoraki, V. Papadoulakis, A. Christodoulou, E. Vozinaki, N. Karalemas, C. Gamvroudis, N.P. Nikolaidis Evolution tendency of the coastline of Almyros basin (Eastern Thessaly, Greece)................................................................................ 187 G. Chouliaras, A. Pavlopoulos An insight to the fluvial characteristics of the Mediterranean and Black Sea watersheds ................................................................................. 191 S.E. Poulos Flooding in Peloponnese, Greece: a contribution to flood hazard assessment ......................................................................................................... 199 M. Diakakis, G. Deligiannakis, S. Mavroulis Estimation of sedimentation to the torrential sedimentation fan of the Dadia stream with the use of the TopRunDF and the GIS models .............................. 207 A. Vasiliou, F. Maris, G. Varsami Continuous media Hydrogeology Modeling of groundwater level fluctuations in agricultural monitoring sites.... 217 V. Vircavs, V. Jansons, A. Veinbergs, K. Abramenko, Z. Dimanta, I. Anisimova, D. Lauva, A. Liepa Groundwater level monitoring and modelling in Glafkos coastal aquifer......... 225 A. Ziogas, V. Kaleris A data-driven model of the dynamic response to rainfall of a shallow porous aquifer of south Basilicata - Italy........................................................... 233 A. Doglioni, A. Galeandro, V. Simeone Evaluating three different model setups in the MIKE 11 NAM model............. 241 Ch. Doulgeris, P. Georgiou, D. Papadimos, D. Papamichail Potential solutions in prevention of saltwater intrusion: a modelling approach ........................................................................................ 251 A. Khomine, Sz. Jnos, K. Balzs Geophysical research of groundwater degradation at the eastern Nestos River Delta, NE Greece..................................................................................... 259 I. Gkiougkis, T. Tzevelekis, F. Pliakas, I. Diamantis, A. Pechtelidis
- xviii Contents Piezometric conditions in Pieria basin, Kavala Prefecture, Macedonia, Greece............................................................................................ 267 T. Kaklis, G. Soulios, G. Dimopoulos, I. Diamantis Water Balance and temporal changes of the surface water quality in Xynias basin (SW Thessaly) ......................................................................... 275 N. Charizopoulos, G. Stamatis, A. Psilovikos Hydraulic connection between the river and the phreatic aquifer and analysis of the piezometric surface in the plain west of Mavrovouni, Laconia, Greece................................................................................................. 283 N. Karalemas Groundwater recharge using a Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) system in NE Greece..................................................................................................... 291 F. Pliakas, A. Kallioras, I. Diamantis, M. Stergiou Enhancing Protection of Dar es Salaam Quaternary Aquifer: Groundwater Recharge Assessment.................................................................. 299 Y. Mtoni, I.C. Mjemah, M. Van Camp, K. Walraevens Analysis of surface and ground water exchange in two different watersheds... 307 M. Bogdani-Ndini Evaluation of multivariate statistical methods for the identification of groundwater facies, in a multilayered coastal aquifer................................... 315 E. Galazoulas, C. Petalas, V. Tsihrintzis Delimitation of the salinity zone of groundwater in the front between the municipalities of Moschato and Glyfada of the prefecture of Attica........... 323 Ch. Mpitzileki, I. Koumantakis, E. Vasileiou, K. Markantonis Hydrogeological conditions of the upper part of Gallikos river basin............... 331 C. Mattas, G. Soulios A methodological approach for the selection of groundwater monitoring points: application in typical Greek basins........................................................ 339 A. Panagopoulos, Y. Vrouhakis, S. Stathaki Stochastic Modeling of Plume Evolution and Monitoring into Heterogeneous Aquifers............................................................................. 349 K. Papapetridis, E.K. Paleologos
- Contents xix Hydrogeological conditions of the lower reaches of Aliakmonas and Loudias rivers aquifer system, Region of Central Macedonia, Northern Greece ................................................................................................ 357 N. Veranis, A. Chrysafi, K. Makrovasili Estimation of Hydrological Balance of Rafinas Megalo Rema basin (Eastern Attica) and diachronic change of the surface water quality characteristics.................................................................................................... 365 P. Champidi, G. Stamatis, K. Parpodis, D. Kyriazis Karst Hydrogeology Dynamic Characteristics of Soil Moisture in Aeration Zones under Different Land Uses in Peak Forest Plain Region................................... 375 F. Lan, W. Lao, K. Wu Situation and Comprehensive Treatment Strategy of Drought in Karst Mountain Areas of Southwest China................................................................. 383 X. Qin, Z. Jiang Study on epikarst water system and water resources in Longhe Region........... 391 W. Lao, F. Lan Hydrogeochemical Characterization of carbonate aquifers of Lepini Mountains .......................................................................................... 399 G.Sappa, L. Tulipano Salt ground waters in the Salento karstic coastal aquifer (Apulia, Southern Italy)..................................................................................... 407 M.D. Fidelibus, G. Cal, R. Tinelli, L. Tulipano An oceanographic survey for the detection of a possible Submarine Groundwater Discharge in the coastal zone of Campo de Dalias, SE Spain..... 417 M.A. Daz-Puga, A. Vallejos, L. Daniele, F. Sola, D. Rodrguez-Delgado, L. Molina, A. Pulido-Bosch Aquifer systems of Epirus, Greece: An overview ............................................. 425 E. Nikolaou, S. Pavlidou, K. Katsanou Application of stochastic models to rational management of water resources at the Damasi Titanos karstic aquifer in Thessaly Greece................. 435 A. Manakos, P. Georgiou, I. Mouratidis
- xx Contents Solution of operation and exploitation issues of the Almiros (Heraklion Crete) brackish karst spring through its simulation with the MODKARST model............................................................................ 443 A. Maramathas The hydrodynamic behaviour of the coastal karst aquifer system of Zarakas - Parnon (Southeastern Peloponissos) ............................................. 451 I. Lappas, P. Sabatakakis, M. Stefouli Application of tracer method and hydrochemical analyses regarding the investigation of the coastal karstic springs and the submarine spring (Anavalos) in Stoupa Bay (W. Mani Peninsula) ............................................... 459 G. Stamatis, G. Migiros, A. Kontari, E. Dikarou, D. Gamvroula Submarine groundwater discharges in Kalogria Bay, Messinia-Greece: geophysical investigation and one-year high resolution monitoring of hydrological parameters................................................................................ 469 A.P. Karageorgis, V. Papadopoulos, G. Rousakis, Th. Kanellopoulos, D. Georgopoulos Water tracing test of the Ag. Taxiarches spring (South Achaia, Peloponnese, Greece). Infiltration of the Olonos-Pindos geotectonic unit, Upper Cretaceous-Paleocenic carbonate rocks.................................................. 477 N. Tsoukalas, K. Papaspyropoulos, R. Koutsi Effective infiltration assessment in Kourtaliotis karstic basin (S. Crete) .......... 485 E. Steiakakis, D. Monopolis , D. Vavadakis, . Lambrakis The use of hydrographs in the study of the water regime of the Louros watershed karst formations................................................................................ 493 K. Katsanou, A. Maramathas, N. Lambrakis Hydrogeological conditions of the coastal area of the Hydrological basin Almyros, Prefecture Magnesia, Greece............................................................. 503 Ch. Myriounis, G. Dimopoulos, . Manakos Contribution on hydrogeological investigation of karstic systems in eastern Korinthia........................................................................................... 511 K. Markantonis, J. Koumantakis Contribution to the hydrogeological research of Western Crete ....................... 519 E. Manutsoglu, E. Steiakakis
- Contents xxi Karstic Aquifer Systems and relations of hydraulic communication with the Prespa Lakes in the Tri-national Prespa Basin .................................... 527 . Stamos, . Batsi, . Xanthopoulou Flow geometry over a discharge measuring weir within inclined hydrogeological channels.................................................................................. 535 J. Demetriou, D. Dimitriou, E. Retsinis The contribution of geomorphological mapping in the Ksiromero karstic region: land use and groundwater quality protection......................................... 543 M. Golubovic Deligianni, K. Pavlopoulos, G. Stournaras, K. Vouvalidis, G. Veni The MEDYCYSS observatory, a Multi scalE observatory of flooD dYnamiCs and hYdrodynamicS in karSt (Mediterranean border Southern France) ............................................................................................... 551 H. Jourde, C. Batiot-Guilhe, V. Bailly-Comte, C. Bicalho, M. Blanc, V. Borrell, C. Bouvier, J.F. Boyer, P. Brunet, M. Cousteau, C. Dieulin, E. Gayrard, V. Guinot, F. Hernandez, L. Kong, A. Siou, A. Johannet, V. Leonardi, N. Mazzilli, P. Marchand, N. Patris, S. Pistre, J.L. Seidel, J.D. Taupin, S. Van-Exter Hydrogeological research in Trypali carbonate Unit (NW Crete)..................... 561 E. Steiakakis, D. Monopolis , D. Vavadakis, E. Manutsoglu Volume 2 Fissured rock Hydrogeology Hydrogeological properties of fractured rocks (granites, metasediments and volcanites) under the humid tropical climate of West Africa .............................................. 3 M. Kota, H. Jourde Identification of conductible fractures at the upper- and mid- stream of the Jhuoshuei River Watershed (Taiwan) ..................................................... 11 P.Y. Chou, H.C. Lo, C.T. Wang, C.H. Chao, S.M. Hsu, Y.T. Lin, C.C. Huang Advances in understanding the relation between reservoir properties and facies distribution in the Paleozoic Wajid Sandstone, Saudi Arabia .......... 21 H. Al Ajmi, M. Keller, M. Hinderer, R. Rausch
- xxii Contents Geoelectrical assessment of groundwater potential in the coastal aquifer of Lagos, Nigeria............................................................................................... 29 K.F. Oyedele, S. Oladele Drainage and lineament analysis towards artificial recharge of groundwater... 37 D. Das Fracture pattern description and analysis of the hard rock hydrogeological environment in Naxos Island, Hellas................................................................. 45 A.S. Partsinevelou, S. Lozios, G. Stournaras Quantitative investigation of water supply conditions in Thassos, N. Greece........................................................................................ 53 Th. Tzevelekis, I. Gkiougkis, Chr. Katimada, I. Diamantis Hydrological properties of Yesilcay (Agva) Stream Basin (NW Turkey) ........ 61 H. Keskin Citiroglu, I.F. Barut, A. Zuran Application of the SWAT model for the investigation of reservoirs creation... 71 K. Kalogeropoulos, C. Chalkias, E. Pissias, S. Karalis Evaluation of geological parameters for describing fissured rocks; a case study of Mantoudi - Central Euboea Island (Hellas) .............................. 81 G. Yoxas, G. Stournaras First outcomes from groundwater recharge estimation in evaporate aquifer in Greece with the use of APLIS method.......................................................... 89 E. Zagana, P. Tserolas, G. Floros, K. Katsanou, B. Andreo Multiple criteria analysis for selecting suitable sites for construction of sanitary landfill based on hydrogeological data; Case study of Kea Island (Aegean Sea, Hellas)......................................................................................... 97 G. Yoxas, T. Samara, L. Sargologou, G. Stournaras Adumbration of Amvrakias spring water pathways, based on detailed geophysical data (Kastraki - Meteora) .............................................................. 105 J.D. Alexopoulos, S. Dilalos, E. Vassilakis Fracture pattern analysis of hardrock hydrogeological environment, Kea Island, Greece ............................................................................................ 113 V. Iliopoulos, S. Lozios, E. Vassilakis, G. Stournaras
- Contents xxiii Hydrochemistry Geochemical and isotopic controls of carbon and sulphur in calcium- sulphate waters of the western Meso-Cenozoic Portuguese border (natural mineral waters of Curia and Monte Real) ............................................ 125 M. Morais, C. Recio The impact on water quality of the high carbon dioxide contents of the groundwater in the area of Florina (N. Greece)....................................... 135 W. DAlessandro, S. Bellomo, L. Brusca, S. Karakazanis, K. Kyriakopoulos, M. Liotta Pore Water - Indicator of Geological Environment Condition.......................... 145 . bramova, L. bukova, G. Isaeva Nitrogen sources and denitrification potential of Cyprus aquifers, through isotopic investigation on nitrates.......................................................... 151 Ch. Christophi, C.A. Constantinou The behaviour of REE in Agios Nikolaos karstic aquifer, NE Crete, Greece ... 161 E. Pitikakis, K. Katsanou, N. Lambrakis Hydrochemical study of metals in the groundwater of the wider area of Koropi ........................................................................................................... 169 K. Pavlopoulos, I. Chrisanthaki, M. Economou Eliopoulos, S. Lekkas Factors controlling major ion and trace element content in surface water at Asprolakkas hydrological basin, NE Chalkidiki: Implications for elemental transport mechanisms........................................................................................ 177 E. Kelepertzis, A. Argyraki, E. Daftsis Trace and ultra-trace element hydrochemistry of Lesvos thermal springs ........ 185 E. Tziritis, A. Kelepertzis Stable isotope study of a karstic aquifer in Central Greece. Composition, variations and controlling factors ...................................................................... 193 E. Tziritis Evaluation of the geochemical conditions in the deep aquifer system in Vounargo area (SW Greece) based on hydrochemical data .............................. 201 E. Karapanos, K. Katsanou, A. Karli, N. Lambrakis
- xxiv Contents Phenanthrene Sorption nto Heterogeneous Sediments Containing Carbonaceous Materials in Fresh Water and in Marine Environments: Implications for Organic Pollutant Behavior During Water Mixing................. 211 K. Fotopoulou, G. Siavalas, H.K. Karapanagioti, K. Christanis Hydrochemical investigation of water at Loussi Polje, N Peloponnesus, Hellas ................................................................................................................ 219 R. Koutsi, G. Stournaras Chemistry of Submarine Groundwater Discharge in Kalogria Bay, Messinia-Greece................................................................................................ 229 A. Pavlidou, I. Hatzianestis, Ch. Zeri, E. Rouselaki Chemical characterization of the thermal springs along the South Aegean volcanic arc and Ikaria island............................................................................ 239 S. Karakatsanis, W. DAlessandro, K. Kyriakopoulos, K. Voudouris Application of an in-situ system for continuous monitoring of radionuclides in submarine groundwater sources.................................................................... 249 C. Tsabaris, D.L. Patiris, A. Karageorgis, G. Eleftheriou, D. Georgopoulos, V. Papadopoulos, A. Prospathopoulos, E. Papathanassiou Conceptual Model and Hydrochemical Characteristics of an Intensively Exploited Mediterranean Aquifer...................................................................... 257 V. Pisinaras, C. Petalas, V.A. Tsihrintzis Hydrogeological conditions of the Kotyli springs (N. Greece) based on geological and hydrogeochemical data ............................................................. 265 C. Angelopoulos, E. Moutsiakis Water quality and agriculture Subsurface contamination with petroleum products is a threat to groundwater quality........................................................................................... 275 N. Ognianik, N. Paramonova, O. Shpak Assessment of specific vulnerability to nitrates using LOS indices in the Ferrara Province, Italy....................................................................................... 283 E. Salemi, N. Colombani, V. Aschonitis, M. Mastrocicco Groundwater nitrogen speciation in intensively cultivated lowland areas ........ 291 N. Colombani, E. Salemi, M. Mastrocicco, G. Castaldelli
- Contents xxv Hydrogeological and hydrochemical characteristics of North Peloponnesus major ground water bodies................................................................................ 299 K. Nikas, A. Antonakos Assessment of natural and human effect in the alluvial deposits aquifer of Sperchios river plain.................................................................................... 307 E. Psomiadis, G. Stamatis, K. Parpodis, A. Kontari Groundwater contamination by nitrates and seawater intrusion in Atalanti basin (Fthiotida, Greece) ................................................................................... 317 V. Tsioumas, V. Zorapas, E. Pavlidou, I. Lappas, K. Voudouris Characterisation of water quality in the island of Zakynthos, Ionian Sea, Western Greece ................................................................................................. 327 G. Zacharioudakis, Ch. Smyrniotis Groundwater vulnerability assessment in the Loussi polje area, N Peloponessus: the PRESK method ................................................................ 335 R. Koutsi, G. Stournaras Intrinsic vulnerability assessment using a modified version of the PI Method: A case study in the Boeotia region, Central Greece............................ 343 E. Tziritis, N. Evelpidou Groundwater vulnerability assessment at SW Rhodope aquifer system in NE Greece ......................................................................................................... 351 A. Kallioras, F. Pliakas, S. Skias, I. Gkiougkis Comparison of three applied methods of groundwater vulnerability mapping: A case study from the Florina basin, Northern Greece...................... 359 N. Kazakis, K. Voudouris Degradation of groundwater quality in Stoupa- Ag.Nikolaos region (W.Mani Peninsula) due to seawater intrusion and anthropogenic effects........ 369 G. Stamatis, D. Gamvroula, . Dikarou, . Kontari Quality Characteristics of groundwater resources in Almyros Basin coastal area, Magnesia Prefecture Greece ..................................................................... 377 Ch. Myriounis, G. Dimopoulos, A. Manakos Quality regime of the water resources of Anthele Sperchios Delta area Fthiotida Prefecture ........................................................................................... 385 N. Stathopoulos, I. Koumantakis, E. Vasileiou, K. Markantonis
- xxvi Contents Assessment of groundwater quality in the Megara basin, Attica, Greece ......... 393 D. Gamvroula, D. Alexakis, G. Stamatis Environmental associations of heavy and trace elements concentrations in Sarigiol ground water coal basin area ........................................................... 401 K.. Vatalis, K. Modis, F. Pavloudakis, Ch. Sachanidis Marine and human activity effects on the groundwater quality of Thriassio Plain, Attica, Greece...................................................................... 409 V. Iliopoulos, G. Stamatis, G. Stournaras Transport of pathogens in water saturated sand columns.................................. 417 V.I. Syngouna, C.V. Chrysikopoulos A preliminary study for metal determinations in Seawater and Natural Radionuclides in Sediments of Glafkos estuary in Patraikos Gulf (Greece)..... 427 K. Kousi, M. Soupioni, H. Papaeftymiou Purification of wastewater from Sindos industrial area of Thessaloniki (N. Greece) using Hellenic Natural Zeolite....................................................... 435 A. Filippidis, A. Tsirambides, N. Kantiranis, E. Tzamos, D. Vogiatzis, G. Papastergios, A. Papadopoulos, S. Filippidis Geothermics and thermal waters Monitoring heat transfer from a groundwater heat exchanger in a large tank model......................................................................................................... 445 B.M.S. Giambastiani, M. Mastrocicco, N. Colombani Origin of thermal waters of Nisyros volcano: an isotopic and geothermometric survey.................................................................................... 453 D. Zouzias, K.St. Seymour Hydrogeochemical characteristics and the geothermal model of the Altinoluk-Narli area, in the Gulf of Edremit, Aegean Sea ................................ 463 N. Talay, A.M. Gzbol, F.I. Barut Groundwater hydrochemistry of the volcanic aquifers of Limnos Island, Greece ............................................................................................................... 471 G. Panagopoulos, P. Giannoulopoulos, D. Panagiotaras Geothermal exploration in the Antirrio area (Western Greece) ........................ 479 T. Efthimiopoulos, E. Fanara, G. Vrellis, E. Spyridonos, A. Arvanitis
- Contents xxvii The role of water in constructions projects Sedimentary media analysis platform for groundwater modeling in urban areas..................................................................................................... 489 R. Gogu, V. Velasco, E. Vzquez - Sue, D. Gaitanaru, Z. Chitu, I. Bica Seasonal ground deformation monitoring over Southern Larissa Plain (Central Greece) by SAR interferometry........................................................... 497 I. Parcharidis, M. Foumelis, P. Katsafados Ruptures on surface and buildings due to land subsidence in Anargyri village (Florina Prefecture, Macedonia)............................................................ 505 G. Soulios, Th. Tsapanos, K. Voudouris, T. Kaklis, Ch. Mattas, M. Sotiriadis
- Fissured rock Hydrogeology
- 3 Hydrogeological properties of fractured rocks (granites, metasediments and volcanites) under the humid tropical climate of West Africa M. Kota1 , H. Jourde Laboratoire HydroSciences Montpellier UMR 5569 Universit Montpellier 2 Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France 1 Now at International Institute for Water and Environmental Engineering (2iE), 1 rue de la Science, 01 BP 594 Ouagadougou 01 Burkina Faso firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract This study aims to propose a vertical structuring of water production zones for three types of fractured rocks encountered in Ivory Coast, West Africa. In a first step, the methodology consists of the characterization of the weathering profiles based on: i) bedrocks and weathering layers observations at outcrop; ii) interpretation and synthesis of geophysical data and lithologs from different bore- holes. In a second step, the evolution with depth of flow rate (air-lift discharge rates) as well as the frequency and the density of water production zones during drilling are statistically analyzed. Then, the distributions of these various proper- ties versus the depth are fitted to probability laws. For each of the geological for- mations (granites, metasediments and volcanites) the related weathering profile comprises, from top to bottom, four separate layers: alloterite, isalterite, fissured layer and fractured fresh basement; these weathering profiles are systematically covered by a soil layer. In granites, the maximal values of flow, frequency and density of the water production zones (WPZ) are situated around 40 m depth sys- tematically within the fractured fresh granite layer. In metasediments and volcan- ites, the maximal values of flow, as well as the maximal frequency and density of WPZ are identified at two distinct depths. The first WPZ, around 40 m depth, is associated to the fissured layer for both profiles; the second WPZ, around 80 m depth is associated to the fractured fresh sandstone layer for the weathering pro- file in metasediments and to the fractured fresh metabasalt layer, for the weather- ing profile in volcanites. 1 Introduction Hard rocks show vertical and horizontal heterogeneities as a result of both the spa- tial variation of the lithology, as well as the geometric and hydraulic properties of their distinct composite parts. This complexity of the aquifer limits the ability of N. Lambrakis et al. (Eds.), Advances in the Research of Aquatic Environment, Vol. 2 DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-24076-8, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011
- 4 M. Kota, H. Jourde hydrogeologists to fully understand, describe and predict the hydrodynamic be- havior of this type of hydrosystem. The scarcity of available data, their inconsis- tencies with the potential conceptual processes and mechanisms to be predicted, and their inherent ambiguity do not justify the promotion of models that include all mechanisms in a deterministic manner (Finsterle et al. 2002). Recognizing this limitation, several authors (Geirnaert et al. 1984; Wright 1992; Taylor and How- ard 2000; Freyssinet and Farah 2000; Dewandel et al. 2006) developed conceptual models describing simplified lithological sequences above the crystalline base- ment. Most of these studies concerned granite formation, and few investigations addressed volcanosedimentary formations. Their heterogeneity may be the reason why no conceptual model is proposed for these formations. This study aims to propose a standard hydrogeological conceptual model for granite and volcanosedimentary rocks describing water production zones as a function of the vertical layering of each geological formation weathering profile under humid tropical climate condition. 2 Geological context of the Dimbokro catchment Dimbokro catchment (6300 km2 ) in which many hydrogeological data are avail- able is chosen as a study case to characterize granites, metasediments and volcan- ites. This catchment is part of the Nzi River catchment located in the central east of Ivory Coast, West Africa (Fig. 1). The rocks set up is attributed to the Birimian tectono-volcanism phase (2000-1880 million years ago (my)) that af- fect lower proterozoic formations in many part of west Africa (Ivory Coast, Burk- ina Faso, Ghana, Niger etc.). Birimian derives from Birim the name of a river in Ghana and refers to volcanites as well as to volcanosedimentary and detritical sediment deposits, set up within numerous furrows or intercratonic basins The geological formations of Dimbokro catchment are roughly divided into two major groups which experienced different tectono-metamorphic changes (Yao et al. 1990, 1995): i) the volcanosedimentary complex and ii) the biotite granites. Synthesis of the geological history is made by Peltre (1977) and Yao et al. (1995). Set up of the granites domain began at Liberian tectono-volcanism (2900 to 2400 my) and precedes the volcanosedimentary domain. In Lower Proterozoic, the reactivation of deep faults by Eburnean tectono-volcanism phase (about 2200 my) remobilizes Liberian granites and opened in the Liberian platform long and narrow subsidence. At this period, interstratifications of lava and associated sediments flowed out through marginal faults towards an open sea, and formed the volcanosedimentary complex. The Birimian tectono-volcanism phase (2000 to 1880 my) also called main deposit phase rejuvenated granites rocks and generated thick detrital accumula- tions made of conglomerates and sandstones, overlaying volcanosedimentary rocks. This accumulation phase supposes the existence of a high relief and strong erosion due to intense tectonic movements. Then the detrital accumulation coming
- Hydrogeological properties of fractured rocks under the climate of West Africa 5 from erosion processes is folded during this tectonic paroxysm, which transformed this volcanosedimentary complex formation into schists. The metamorphism poorly affected the volcanosedimentary complex formations. These formations show a clayey tendency with grey or green colour passing in yellow green depend- ing on rock weathering degree. The study site is under the influence of the intertropical convergence with a pluviometric regime characterized by two rainy seasons. The first one is situated between April and June. The second extends between September and November. The average rainfall of the study site is 1200 millimeters. Fig. 1. Geology of the Dimbokro catchment. 3 Vertical structuring of the weathering profiles as a function of the geological units The interpretation of lithologs (obtained from the cuttings collected each meter, during the drilling phase) and geophysical data (vertical electrical sounding) on the one hand, and the field observation (weathering profiles, as well as granites and volcanosedimentary bedrocks on outcrops) during the field campaign of 2008 and 2009 on the other hand are considered for characterizing the vertical structur- ing of granites and volcanosedimentary formations. Observation at outcrop and the analysis of 32 lithologs for granites, 33 lithologs for metasediments and 37 lithologs for volcanites reveal that vertical layering of the weathering profile in each rock type comprises from the top to the bottom the following separated layers (Fig. 2): alloterite, isalterite, fissured layer and frac- tured fresh basement. Each profile is covered by a soil layer. Though granites, metasediments and volcanites of the Dimbokro catchment ex- perience the same weathering and erosion cycles during the paleoclimatic fluctua- tions from Eocene to recent quaternary period, they exhibit many differences and
- 6 M. Kota, H. Jourde similarities. In granites, the weathering profile is relatively thin due to the absence of iron crust which protects weathering products against dismantling. In metasediments iron crusts develop better than in granites; in these rocks the alterite (alloterite and isalterite) is of kaolinitic type and thus more resistant to dismantling. Consequently, metasediments exhibit thicker profiles than granites. Fig. 2. Vertical layering of the weathering in granite, metasediment and volcanites. In volcanites, the weathering profiles are generally complete and have the larg- est thickness, which again is related to a well developed iron crust that protect the rocks from dismantling. The high reliefs associated with the rocks show that they have been subjected to less dismantling than metasediments and granites. In each profile, the fissured layer is dominated by horizontal fissures (discontinuities in the alteration zone). But the structures of the fresh basement are different: In granites, the fractured fresh basement comprises a predominance of horizon- tal fractures (discontinuities in the fresh basement) In metasediments and volcanites the fractured fresh basement is characterized by vertical fractures intersected by horizontal discontinuity due to quartz veins intrusions. Regarding the thicknesses it is noted that: In granites, alloterite, isalterite and fissured layers have similar thicknesses.
- Hydrogeological properties of fractured rocks under the climate of West Africa 7 In metasediments, the thickness of the fissured layer is lower than the ones of the alloterite and isalterite layers that both have similar thicknesses. In volcanites, the thickness of the fissured layer is also lower than the one of the alloterite and isalterite layers. 4 Vertical structuring of water production zones (WPZ) in the different geological units In order to better understand the hydrodynamic behavior of the weathered mantle and the fractured basement, the WPZ associated with conductive fracture zones are characterized according to the depth from the top of the weathering profile (in- terface soil/ alloterite). The evolution of flows (air-lift discharge rates) and both the frequency and the density of water production zones during drilling is studied statistically. Then, the distributions of these various parameters versus depth are fitted to probability laws (Fig. 3). The flow rates of each class of depth in granites, metasediments and volcanites are obtained by using the geometric means of air lift flow rates recording in each class of depth. The choice of geometric means is linked to the fact that it takes into account the disparities (standard deviation) in flow rates between the classes of depth in the same rock on one hand and between in the classes of depth in the three types of rocks on the other hand. Evolution of flow rates (air lift discharge rates) according to depth shows that the most important flows are recorded in volcanites. Indeed, in volcanites, flow rates grow with depth and reach a maximum of 5 m3 /h between 80 and 100 m (in the fractured fresh metabasalt layer) before a drastic decrease. In metasediments, the maximums of flows are observed between 40 and 60 (in fissured layer) and between 80 and 100 m (in fractured fresh sandstone) with almost identical air lift discharge rates of 2.75 m3 /h. Beyond 100 m this discharge decreases with the depth. Compared to metasediments, granites show lower flows. In granites, flow increases until a maximum of 1.8 m3 /h between 40 and 60 m (in fractured fresh granites layer). In metasediments and volcanites, WPZ are undifferentially localized in isalter- ite layer, fissured layer and fractured fresh basement layer while in granites, they are only localized in fissured layer and fractured fresh basement. In each of the profiles, the frequency of WPZ (all layers of the profile having been taken into ac- count) is distributed in a log-normal way. In granites and metasediments, WPZ are observed from 10 m and up to 80 and 100 m below the top of the weathering pro- file. The maximum of WPZ is observed at about 45 m depth for both the weather- ing profile in granite (in the fractured fresh granites layer) and in metasediments (in the fissured layer). In volcanites, the occurrence of WPZ is deeper; it extends between 30 m and 110 m below the top of the weathering profile.
- 8 M. Kota, H. Jourde In granites, evolution of density (number of WPZ per unit length of WPZ) re- veals that the highest density of WPZ is localized between 40 m and 60 m depth (in the fractured fresh granites layer), around 40 m depth in metasediments (in the fissured layer) and around 60 m depth in volcanites (in the fissured layer). Even if the densities are in the same order of magnitude, the highest densities (29 x 10-2 ) of WPZ are recorded in volcanites and in granites and the lowest (24 x 10-2 ) in metasediments. Fig. 3. Evolution of frequency, density and rates of WPZ according to depth. a. in granites. b. in metasediments. c. in volcanites.
- Hydrogeological properties of fractured rocks under the climate of West Africa 9 Below this highest density level, the density of WPZ decreases with depth for each of the profiles. However, a significant increase of the density of WPZ occurs around 80 m depth in metasediments; this level is associated to fractured fresh sandstone layer. The same phenomenon is also observed in granites and volcanites around 75 and 100 m respectively, but in a slightly less significant manner. In hard rocks, this decrease of fracturing density with depth was described by the works of Wyns et al. (1999 and 2002), and Dewandel et al. (2006). The simultaneous analysis of the evolution of the frequencies, the densities and the flows of WPZ shows that in granites and metasediments, the evolution of the flows of WPZ is coherent with those of the frequencies and densities; while in volcanites, the evolution of flows of WPZ is coherent with those of frequency and densities in the first 60 m depth. Beyond 60 m depth, it is not the case anymore: the class of depth associated with the maximal flows corresponds to the class of depth for which the frequency and the density of WPZ are not high. In volcanites, deepest wells are the most productive. For these wells, the deep fractures are localized in fractured fresh mtabasalte layer characterized by low frequency and density of WPZ. High flows supplied by these fractures are proba- bly related to their size (regional fault) or to their interconnection with other sys- tems of fractures. Many studies defined the optimal depth that a drilling has to achieve to obtain a satisfactory productivity in hard rocks (Taylor and Howard 2000). Most of these studies showed that the productivity decreases with depth, what was interpreted for a long time as being associated with closure of fractures because of the lithostatique pressure (Berger et al. 1980) in depth; the present study and the other works (Wyns et al. 1999; Dewandel et al. 2006; Neves and Morales 2007) show that the decrease of the productivity with the depth would also be related to the decrease of the density of fractures in-depth. 5 Conclusions Weathering profile characterization in granites, metasediments and volcanites in Dimbokro catchment reveals that each of the three profiles comprises four sepa- rate layers overlaid by a soil layer (alloterite, isalterite, fissured layer and frac- tured fresh basement). In granites, the weathering profile is relatively thin. Meta- sediments exhibit thicker profiles than granites. In volcanites, the weathering profiles are generally complete and have the largest thickness. As hydrogeological impacts of this geological structuring, occurrence of WPZ is less deep in granites and metasediments than in volcanites. WPZ are localized undifferentially in isaltrite layer, fissured layer and fractured fresh basement in metasediments and volcanites while in granites, they are only localized in fissured layer and fractured fresh basement.
- 10 M. Kota, H. Jourde In the framework of water resource exploitation in granites, metasediments and volcanites localized in West Africa under humid tropical climate, future hydraulic campaigns should constrain the drilling depth limit according to the geological domains and taking into account the classes of depth associated to the highest fre- quency, density and flow rates of WPZ. This will allow obtaining a good yield in terms of well productivity and hydraulic campaign cost. References Berger J, Camerlo J, Fahy J.C, Haubert M (1980) Etude des ressources en eaux souterraines dans une rgion de socle cristallin: la Boucle de cacao en Cte dIvoire. Bull. BRGM. Sr. II. Sect. III. 4, 3350-338 Dewandel B., Lachassagne, P., Wyns R., Marchal J C., Krishnamurthy NS (2006) A general- ized 3-D geological and hydrogeological conceptual model of granites aquifers conrolled by single or multiphase weathering, Journal of Hydrology 330, 260-284 Finsterle, S., Fabryka-Martin JT., Wang JSY (2002) Migration of a water pulse through fractured porous media. Journal of contaminant Hydrology 54 (2002) 37-57 Freyssinet P., Farah A S (2000) Geochemical mass balance and weathering rates of ultramafic schists in Amazonia, Chemical Geology 170 (2000), 133-151 Geirnaert W, Groen M, Van Der Sommen J, Leusink A (1984) Isotope studies as a final stage in groundwater investigations on the African shield, challenges in African Hydrology and water resources (Proceeding of the Harare Symposium, July 1984). IAHS publ. 144, 141-153 Neves M A, Morales N (2007) Well productivity controlling factors in crystalline terrains of southeastern Brazil, Hydrogeology Journal 15, 471-482 Peltre P (1977) Le V baoul: Hritage gomorphologique et paloclimatique dans le trac du contact fort-savane, Cahier ORSTOM, 190 Taylor R., Howard K (2000) A tectono-geomorphic model of the hydrogeology of deeply weath- ered crystalline rock: Evidence from Uganda, Hydrogeology Journal, 8:279-294 Wright E P (1992) The hydrogeology of crystalline basement aquifers in Africa, Geological So- ciety, London, Special Publications, Vol. 66, doi: 10. 1144/GSL.SP.1992.066.01.01, 1-27 Wyns R., Gourry JC., Baltassat JM., Lebert F (1999) Caracterisation multiparametres des hori- zons de subsurface (0-100 m) en contexte de socle altr. In: I. BRGM, IRD, UPMC (Eds), 2me Colloque GEOFCAN, Orlans, France, 105-110 Yao D, Delor C, Gadou G, Kohou P, Okou A, Konat S, Diaby I (1995) Notice explicative de la carte gologique feuille de Dimbokro, Mmoire SODEMI, Abidjan (Cte dIvoire)
- 11 Identification of conductible fractures at the upper- and mid- stream of the Jhuoshuei River Watershed (Taiwan) P.Y. Chou, H.C. Lo, C.T. Wang, C.H. Chao, S.M. Hsu, Y.T. Lin, C.C. Huang Geotechnical Engineering Research Center, Sinotech Engineering Consultants, Inc., No. 7, Lane 26, Yat-Sen Road, Taipei 110, Taiwan PoYi.Chou@sinotech.org.tw Abstract The movement and storage of ground water in the mountainous re- gion has a significant impact on the dynamics of surface water flow. An adequate identification of the conductible fracture in the aquifer has thus received growing interest over the past decades. This paper summarizes the major findings from the first year of a hydrogeological investigation program initiated by the Central Geo- logical Survey, Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) of Taiwan since 2010, with a special focus on exploring in detail the fracture permeability. During the on-site investigation, geophysical logging was applied to delineate the lithostrati- graphic characteristics of bedrock aquifers. The hydraulic conductivity of 67 ob- servation segments was estimated by the constant head injection method. From the information gathered in this study, the hydraulic conductivities of the identified fractured medium above a depth of 40m are more than one order higher than that of the matrix. The occurrence of ground water in a fracture network, however, is found to be not solely governed by lithological composition, but more possibly by fracture porosity and spacing. A simple linear relationship was found by plotting the hydraulic conductivity against the product of total porosity and cubic aperture ratio (fracture spacing/sealed-off interval between the packers). 1 Introduction Accompanying with the growing concern on the sustainability of available water resource, to gain more in-depth knowledge on the potential yield of aquifers is a crucial task. The movement of ground water within the mountainous region is ei- ther dominated by fracture continua, the porous medium, or even by both. The connectivity of discontinuities and the vector gradient of hydraulic heads are likely the most important factors determining the fracture/matrix permeability. Prior to evaluating whether a specific stratum of geometry is capable of yielding and storing a sufficient amount of ground water by means of any sophisticated numerical models, it is necessary to perform the downhole geophysical investiga- tion to gain more insights into the lithologic composition of stratum unit. N. Lambrakis et al. (Eds.), Advances in the Research of Aquatic Environment, Vol. 2 DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-24076-8, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011
- 12 P.Y. Chou et al. The identification of conductible fracture in the mountainous-foothill region is often difficult. Within a fractured aquifer network, usually, not all the perceptible fractures will be hydrologically connected. The use of a combination of composite well logs and in-hole tracer tests could provide more than sufficient information regarding to the complex geometries and layering, however, especially when working with limited budget and time, a set of systematic and concise criteria for the quick in-situ identification of conductible fractures is indeed required. The Central Geological Survey, Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) of Taiwan has initiated a large-scale hydrogeological investigation program since 2010 that aimed at exploring in detail the hydraulic properties of bedrock aquifers in Taiwan mountainous-foothill region. This study presents estimates of hydraulic conductivity obtained by the constant head injection test and, further, to assess the relationship among hydraulic conductivity, fracture porosity and spacing. 2 Geological setting The study area is located in the Western Foothills of Taiwan within the latitude and longitude of 23 52' N and 120 25' E, respectively. It covers the up- and mid- dle-stream basin of the Jhuoshuei River with an area of 1,577 square kilometer. As shown in Fig. 1, the elevation lies between 142 and 1658 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.). Owing to the collision of tectonic plates (Mouthereau and Lacombe 2006) a series of westward fold-and-thrust belts can be observed. The geological formation in this study area can be roughly separated from East to West into four regions by the orientation of faults. Region I at the most eastern side ranges in age from Eocene to Miocene, where the predominant lithology is massive slate rock accompanied with metasandstones and metasiltstones. Region II extends from Eo- cene to early Oligocene, the upper part is dominated by hard shale stone and the lower part is coarse quartz sandstone hosted. Region III, bounded by the Shuilikeng, Chelungpu and Tachienshan faults, is underlain by Miocene to Pleis- tocene sedimentary rocks. A distinct pattern of lithological distribution can be found in this region that closely related to the influence of folding, faulting and metamorphism. Region IV at the most western side is mainly consisted of uncon- solidated alluvium and relatively young deposits from late Pliocene to Pleistocene. Topographic slopes in region I, II and III are from 30-60, relatively, more gentle topographic slopes (0-30) are found in the region IV. A total of 29 vertical fully penetrating boreholes (see Table 1) were drilled to a depth of 100 meters (328ft.) below the land surface. The ground water level (m) from the earth surface was measured on-site during the test in the wet season.
- Identification of conductible fractures of the Jhuoshuei River Watershed (Taiwan) 13 Table1.Boreholesdescription. TopographicregionIIIIII BoreholeB11B12B13B02B10B21B04B05B06B08B09B16B17B18 Geometricheight (m.a.s.l.) 391472468431357638409295764633403280227631 Groundwaterlevelbe- neaththesurface(m) 14.077.086.14.59.036.54.511.010.04.016.514.34.023.0 TopographicregionIIIIV BoreholeB19B20B22B24B25B26B27B29B01B03B07B14B15B23B28 Geometricheight (m.a.s.l.) 476165894375671211721911201316142345341312749188 Groundwaterlevelbe- neaththesurface(m) 20.053.013.013.315.47.06.018.52.04.04.780.028.59.08.8
- 14 P.Y. Chou et al. Rock samples were recovered and allowed for an initial on-site lithostratigraphic identification, as well as various laboratory analyses afterward. Fig. 1. Geological map of the study area. 3 Methodology In each borehole a series of borehole loggings were conducted in situ to identify the probable pathways of ground water. The electric log and the full waveform sonic log (from Robertson Geologging Ltd. UK) were adopted. These two sondes have long been used in the field of geosciences, a comprehensive overview has been provided in the study of Timur and Toksoz (1985), and Lau (1998). In this present research, the electric log was used to measure the spontaneous potential, electrical resistivity and natural gamma radiation, while the full waveform sonic log was applied to detect the sonic travel-time at a specific depth within the bore- hole. By using the acoustic-velocity logging, aquifer porosity can also be deter- mined based on a time-average equation. Borehole televiewer was performed to un-wrap the oriented circular borehole- wall images, which facilitated the interval of interest can be precisely straddled when performing packer tests. In addition, the fracture related characteristics such as the dip-azimuth, aperture width, and infilling material of fractures can also be quantified by further mapping efforts. The application of borehole televiewer on
- Identification of conductible fractures of the Jhuoshuei River Watershed (Taiwan) 15 fracture identification has been adopted in earlier studies (Hartenbaum and Raw- son 1980; Williams and Johnson 2004; Morin 2005; Hubbard et al. 2008). Two types of televiewer were adopted in this project to identify the appearance of frac- ture zones: the high resolution acoustic televiewer (HiRAT) and the optical televiewer (OPTV) (from Robertson Geologging Ltd. UK). The maximum pres- sure allowance of both types of televiewer is 20MPa. Based on the geophysical log and televiewer profiles, four criteria were taken into consideration to identify the conductible fractures: (1) Reduced gamma-ray response; (2) Divergence of the short normal-resistivity log relatively to the long one; (3) Larger acoustic-velocity derived porosity; (4) Appearance of discernible spacing (>0.01m). Since after the conductible fractures in each borehole were identified, the hydraulic conductivity of the selected observation segments was de- termined by the constant head injection test (CHIT) with double packers system. This technique has been widely employed elsewhere to determine the hydraulic properties of a fractured stratum (e.g. Morin et al. 1988; Howard et al. 1992; Brown and Slater 1999; Niemi et al. 2000; Mejas et al. 2009). The detailed appa- ratus of the double packer assemblies employed in this study were described by Ku et al. (2009), and the procedures of testing were following the designation of American Society for Testing and Materials method (ASTM D4630-96 2002). The sealed-off interval was fixed at 1.5m. Water was injected with a constant pressure of 0.2Mpa or at least in excess of the ambient hydrostatic heads. At least two observation segments were specified in each borehole. To diminish the risk of failure due to borehole spalling, the packer testing was carried out from the obser- vation segment located at the lowest position in the borehole and then moving upward to the next. Each test took at least three hours including rig transfer, quick calibration, packer inflation, data recording and pressure recovery. The variation of hydraulic head and injected flow rate within the testing section were recorded per second and stored in a data-logger developed by the Sinotech Inc. 4 Data analysis and interpretation Sixty seven observation segments, including both fractured and non-fractured me- dia (matrix) in consolidated bedrock, were tested by CHIT. Hydraulic conductivity was derived by the interpretation of injected flow rate with the software AQTESOLV, version 4.5 (HydroSOLVE Inc. Reston, VA). In this study, the gen- eralized radial flow model proposed by Barker (1988) was adopted and written as: r h r rr K t h S n ns 1 1
- 16 P.Y. Chou et al. where Ss represents the specific storage of aquifer [L-1 ]; h(r, t) denotes the change in hydraulic head [L] with time, r represents the radial distance from the borehole [L]; K represents the hydraulic conductivity [LT-1 ]; n denotes the flow dimension according to the distance from the borehole (1 for linear flow, 2 for cylindrical flow, 3 for spherical flow). The magnitudes of hydraulic conductivity are plotted on a logarithmic scale against the depth in borehole as shown in Fig. 2. The corre- sponding distribution of the magnitudes with respect to the occurrence of fractures as well as the type of rock is also presented. -120 -80 -40 0 1.E-09 1.E-07 1.E-05 1.E-03 Hydraulic conductivity (m/sec) Depthofobservationsegment(m) Fractures of metamorphic rock Matrix of metamorphic rock Fractures of sedimentary rock Matrix of sedimentary rock Fig. 2. Plot of the estimated hydraulic conductivity on a logarithmic scale with respect to different types of rock against depth in borehole. The estimated hydraulic conductivity above a depth of 40m (i.e. the upper part of bedrock lying beneath the regolith layer) seems to show a slightly higher mag- nitude than at the greater depth, however, the overall hydraulic conductivities ap- pear to be no significant depth correlation. With a view to evaluate the water- bearing capacity of fracture and matrix, a further subdivision can be made in terms of the magnitude of hydraulic conductivities as follows: (1) semi conductible me- dium: 10-5 < K < 10-3 m/s; (2) partial conductible medium: 10-7 < K < 10-5 m/s; (3) non-conductible medium: K < 10-7 m/s. It is found that the identified fractures at the upper part of the bedrock possess semi-to-partial conductive capacity, while the fractures at the lower part of the bedrock exhibit a wider range of distribution pattern. Additionally, the occurrence of fractures in this study area shows ap- proximately one order of higher hydraulic conductivity than of the matrix. Fig. 3 attempts to further reveal the correlation of hydraulic conductivity (K) between total porosity (derived from acoustic velocity), and aperture ratio (frac- ture spacing/sealed-off interval between the packers, 1.5m). The open fractures with spacing less than 0.01m are not taken into account.
- Identification of conductible fractures of the Jhuoshuei River Watershed (Taiwan) 17 Y = 2254 X, R2 = 0.14 Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.16 (n = 45) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.E-09 1.E-08 1.E-07 1.E-06 1.E-05 1.E-04 1.E-03 Hydraulic conductivity (m/sec) Porosity(%) Y = 4626 X, R2 = 0.29 Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.30 (all identified fractures, n = 45) Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.54 (data without outliers, n = 40) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.E-09 1.E-08 1.E-07 1.E-06 1.E-05 1.E-04 1.E-03 Hydraulic conductivity (m/sec) Apertureratio(%)Y = 2532 X, R2 = 0.58 Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.41 (all identified fractures, n = 45) Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.76 (data without outliers, n = 40) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.E-09 1.E-08 1.E-07 1.E-06 1.E-05 1.E-04 1.E-03 Hydraulic conductivity (m/sec) PorosityApertureratio Y = 2269 X, R2 = 0.69 Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.44 (all identified fractures, n = 45) Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.84 (data without outliers, n = 40) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.E-09 1.E-08 1.E-07 1.E-06 1.E-05 1.E-04 1.E-03 Hydraulic conductivity (m/sec) Porosity(Apertureratio)3 Fig. 3: Hydraulic conductivity in the logarithm scale versus total porosity (up-left), aperture ratio (up-right), product of total porosity and aperture ratio (down-left), and product of total porosity and cubic aperture ratio (down-right). As shown in Figure 3, when considered individually, there is only a weak posi- tive correlation found between hydraulic conductivity and the total porosity (Pear- son's r = 0.16), while a moderate correlation is found with respect to the aperture ratio (Pearson's r = 0.30, all data included; Pearson's r = 0.54, excluding outliers). Interestingly, a slightly stronger correlation (Pearson's r = 0.41, all data included; Pearson's r = 0.76, excluding outliers) is shown when plotting the product of total porosity and aperture ratio versus the hydraulic conductivities. It indicates that the transport of ground water does not controlled by either the intra-aggregate pores, or the inter-aggregate spacing alone, but regulated by both proportionally. After exploring various possible relations, a simple linear relationship (Hydraulic con- ductivity K = 0.00044[Porosity (Aperture ratio) 3 ], coefficient of determination R2 = 0.69) was identified by plotting the hydraulic conductivity against the prod- uct of total porosity and cubic aperture ratio. Note that this relationship has not taken the fracture orientation into account. A further testing of this relation with respect to three-dimensional fracture orientation is recommended.
- 18 P.Y. Chou et al. 5 Discussions and recommendations This paper reports the summary of a just-completed project aiming toward under- standing the fracture permeability in mid-Taiwan mountainous-foothill region. It is also the purpose of this study to provide a theoretical and empirical based guide- line for quick identification of conductible fractures. On the basis of 29 vertical boreholes at the upper- and mid-stream site of Jhuoshuei River basin, the conjunc- tive use of geophysical logging and televiewer imaging was carried out and used for determining the lithologic characteristics. Four hypothesized criteria were pro- posed which are applicable to identify the presence of permeable zone. The hy- draulic conductivity at the predetermined depths was estimated by the constant head injection method. According to the data collected during the first year, it is found that the major- ity of the identified fractured medium, especially above a depth of 40m, shows more than one order of higher hydraulic conductivity than of the non-fractured medium. However, the transport of ground water in the mountainous region does not independently controlled by either the inter-aggregate spacing, or the intra- aggregate pores alone, but, possibly, regulated by both proportionally. A simple linear relationship was identified by plotting the hydraulic conductivity against the product of total porosity and cubic aperture ratio. This relation could provide as an initial guide in assessing the potential yield of aquifer with the help from a drilling borehole. More systematic research is needed to formulate this relation with re- spect to fracture orientation. References Barker JA (1988) A generalized radial flow model for hydraulic tests in fractured rock. Water Resour Res 24, 1796-1804 Brown D., Slater LD (1999) Focused packer testing using geophysical tomography and CCTV in a fissured aquifer. Q. J. Eng. Geol. Hydrogeol. 32, 173-183 Hartenbaum BA, Rawson G (1980) Subsurface Fracture Mapping from Geothermal Wellbores, U. S. Department of Energy Report DOE/ET/27013-T1 Howard KWF, Hughes M, Charlesworth DL, Ngobi G (1992) Hydrogeologic Evaluation of Fracture Permeability in Crystalline Basement Aquifers of Uganda. Hydrogeol. J. 1, 55-65 Hubbard B, Roberson S, Samyn D, Merton-Lyn D (2008) Instruments and Methods - Digital op- tical televiewing of ice boreholes. J. Glaciol. 54, 823-830 Ku CY, Hsu SM, Chiou LB. Lin GF (2009) An empirical model for estimating hydraulic con- ductivity of highly disturbed clastic sedimentary rocks in Taiwan. Eng. Geol. 109, 213-223 Lau KC (1998) A review of downhole geophysical methods for ground investigation. Technical Note No. TN 4/98, Geotechnical Engineering Office, Hong Kong Mejas M, Renard P, Glenz D (2009) Hydraulic testing of low-permeability formations: A case study in the granite of Cadalso de los Vidrios, Spain. Eng. Geol. 107, 88-97 Morin RH (2005) Hydrologic properties of coal beds in the Powder River Basin, Montana I. Geophysical log analysis. J. Hydrol. 308, 1-4
- Identification of conductible fractures of the Jhuoshuei River Watershed (Taiwan) 19 Morin RH, Hess AE, Paillet FL (1988) Determining the Distribution of Hydraulic Conductivity in a Fractured Limestone Aquifer by Simultaneous Injection and Geophysical Logging. Ground Water. 26, 587-595 Mouthereau F., Lacombe O (2006) Inversion of the Paleogene Chinese continental margin and thick-skinned deformation in the Western Foreland of Taiwan. J. Struct. Geol. 28, 1977-1993 Niemi A, Kontio K, Kuusela-Lahtinen A, Poteri A (2000) Hydraulic characterization and upscal- ing of fracture networks based on multiple-scale well test data. ater Resour. Res. 36, 3481- 3497 Timur A., Toksoz MN (1985) Downhole geophysical logging. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 13, 315-344 Williams JH, Johnson CD (2004) Acoustic and optical borehole-wall imaging for fractured-rock aquifer studies. J. Appl. Geophys. 55, 151-159
- 21 Advances in understanding the relation between reservoir properties and facies distribution in the Paleozoic Wajid Sandstone, Saudi Arabia H. Al Ajmi1 , M. Keller2,4 , M. Hinderer3 , R. Rausch4 1 Ministry of Water and Electricity, Water Resources Development Department, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, email: email@example.com 2 Geozentrum Nordbayern, Abteilung Krustendynamik, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen, Germany 3 Institut fr Angewandte Geowissenschaften, TU Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstrasse 9, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany 4 Gesellschaft fr Technische Zusammenarbeit International Services (GTZ-IS), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract The Wajid Sandstone is one of the most important groundwater reser- voirs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The knowledge of the dimensions and the distribution of its sedimentary facies are essential for high quality reservoir inter- pretation. Hitherto, the facies and their dimensions are only roughly known from extrapolation of subcrop data and geophysical surveys. Sedimentological logging and correlation of the sections led to an interpretation of the depositional processes and a more detailed facies model. Based on system- atic lithofacies and architectural element analysis, the so far established and pub- lished facies characteristics derived from subcrop information of the depocenter in the West of the Kingdom and also from the outcrop area have to be modified. These data have important implications on reservoir properties of the Wajid sandstone. The sandy deposits guarantee a high primary porosity and permeability up to 1 D. Bioturbation leads to pronounced anisotropy in some horizons. Of ma- jor importance, however, are late diagenetic cementation effects which focus on faults, fractures and horizontal to subhorizontal discontinuities. Most widespread is iron cementation which makes up almost impermeable seals and separates res- ervoirs horizontally and vertically. The primary control on reservoir quality is due to a gradual facies change from W to E. Fine-grained silty layers are increasingly intercalated towards the E but are almost completely absent in the W. Conse- quently, in the western area, the Wajid Group forms a combined reservoir but in the subsurface is separated into two layers. N. Lambrakis et al. (Eds.), Advances in the Research of Aquatic Environment, Vol. 2 DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-24076-8, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011
- 22 H. Al Ajmi et al. Introduction In Saudi Arabia, the Paleozoic Wajid Sandstone is an important groundwater res- ervoir and in the subsurface, several individual aquifers have been distinguished (GTZ-DCo 2007). The properties of the individual aquifers and their correlation to facies and depositional environment, however, are only poorly known. We present preliminary results of a detailed investigation on facies, lithology, and depositional environment in the Wajid Sandstone (Fig.1). It is subdivided into five formations, the Dibsiyah, Sanamah, Qalibah, Khusayyayn, and Juwayl formations (Kellogg et al. 1986). Fig. 1. Outcrops of the Wajid Sandstone and its members (modified from Al Husseini, 2004) in SW Saudi Arabia.
- Advances in understanding the relation between reservoir properties and facies distribution 23 In general, biostratigraphic control on the deposits of the Wajid Sandstone is very poor. It has been dated mainly indirectly through correlation of geophysical data to the subsurface (Evans et al. 1991). Following this correlation, the Dibsiyah is of Cambrian or Ordovician age; the Sanamah corresponds to the latest Ordovi- cian. The Qalibah is interpreted to correspond to the Early Silurian, while the Khusayyayn was deposited during Devonian and Early Carboniferous time. The Juwayl comprises glacigenic deposits and their formation is attributed to the Up- per Carboniferous and Lower Permian glaciation. Dibsiyah Formation The Dibsiyah is a succession of medium-grained to conglomeratic sandstones with few intercalations of finer siliciclastic horizons. The Dibsiyah is subdivided into a lower and an upper part. The lower unit has a minimum thickness of about 60 m at Jabal Dibsiyah, the upper part a minimum thickness of 130 m. The lower Dibsiyah consists of a succession of cross-bedded medium to coarse- grained sandstones and fine conglomerates. The dominant color of the sediments is gray, many of the horizons, however, have a red color. Sedimentary structures include lateral accretion complexes and low-angle, 2D-trough cross bedding. In the 3rd dimension, these structures continue in very persistent cross-bedding with near planar lower and upper bounding surfaces. Bioturbation is present from the lowest exposed horizons to the top of the unit. Horizontal burrows have been ob- served on few bedding planes. Vertical burrows of Skolithos sp. are locally abun- dant in the sandstones of all lithologies, including conglomeratic sandstones. Very scarce Cruziana sp. has also been observed. The upper Dibsiyah is composed of medium to coarse-grained sandstones. Lo- cally, lenses or thin layers of red siltstone to fine-grained sandstone are interca- lated. The dominant sedimentary structure is low-angle, 2D-trough cross bedding of the same type observed in the lower unit. They are laterally very persistent and individual units can be traced over several hundred meters. Herringbone cross stratification is present locally and always associated with the large 2D bedforms. Lateral accretion complexes are also present in this upper part of the Dibsiyah; in- dividual complexes may show foresets up to 2 m high and several centimeters thick. They often show a sigmoidal geometry. Many of them are traceable across entire outcrops. Bioturbation is much more important than in the lower unit. One of the main elements is Skolithos sp. that is present widely scattered within individual hori- zons, somewhat crowded to almost frame-building in some horizons. These pipe rocks, common in many Cambrian and Ordovician siliciclastic successions, are also known as Tigillites. In the upper Dibsiyah, thickness of Skolithos pipe rocks varies between some 10 centimeters to several meters. Simple Skolithos bur- rows are often associated with larger burrows attributed to Bergaueria sp. The
- 24 H. Al Ajmi et al. almost reef-like horizons of Skolithos and/or Bergaueria are up to 13 meters thick. Most of the internal sedimentary structures have been destroyed by burrow- ing; however, the primary cross-bedding is often faintly visible. The presence of a variety of burrowing organisms and Cruziana sp. in both units testifies to deposition of the entire Dibsiyah in a marine environment. In their majority, the low-angle, 2D through cross-bedded horizons represent tidal chan- nels. The lateral accretion complexes are interpreted as large submarine megarip- ples or dunes typical of meso- to macrotidal environments (Einsele 2000). The lower unit received coarser detritus than the upper unit. This might indicate that the rivers delivering the detritus had higher transport capacity than during de- position of the upper unit or that the coast was close by, in turn indicating a rela- tively low sea level. Towards the upper part of the Dibsiyah, sea-level was rela- tively rising so that after deposition of large submarine dunes, these dunes or megarippels were burrowed by Skolithos and Bergaueria. The depth of burrowing (up to 50 cm) indicates that the animals had abundant time during which no addi- tional sediment was supplied that would have forced the organisms to try to evade. This is in agreement with models that suggest that Skolithos burrows are domi- nantly formed during times of transgression or maximum flooding (e.g., Hamon et al. 2005). Depositional environments were shifting rapidly so that there is a re- peated succession of burrowed and non-burrowed sediments. Sanamah Formation / Qusaiba Shale The Sanamah is a succession of coarse-grained sandstones and conglomerates in its lower part and fine-grained sandstones, siltstones, and some shales in its upper part. The lower Sanamah rests unconformably on the Dibsiyah and fills an erosional relief up to several 10s of meters deep. In many sections outside the actual chan- nels, and beneath the upper Sanamah, there is just a thin veneer (6 10 m) of low- er Sanamah preserved. The basal part of the upper unit was deposited across the post-lower Sanamah topography and has a similar distribution as the sediments of the lower unit. The upper part of the succession is only exposed in the Jibal al Qahr. Although genetically related to the Sanamah Formation, these deposits might represent the subsurface Qusaiba Shale of the Qalibah Formation in this part of Saudi Arabia. In the Jabal Atheer section, the lower Sanamah is 92 m thick. There is no con- tinuous section of the Qusaiba in the study area but in the Jibal al Qahr about 50 m are exposed beneath the unconformity with the Khusayyayn. The lower Sanamah consists of a succession of conglomerates, conglomeratic sandstones, and medium- to coarse grained sandstones. The conglomerates fill large channels and in most cases are the basal fill of the pre-existing topography. They are composed individual lobes, each several 10 of centimeters thick and
- Advances in understanding the relation between reservoir properties and facies distribution 25 graded, from pebble size at the base to medium or coarse sand in the upper part. Where the basal conglomerate layers had filled up the relief, subsequent layers and channels are locally laterally amalgamating, forming more widespread depos- its (on outcrop scale). Conglomerates are not only present as channel fills but also form part of migrating bars. They mainly show an overall fining-upward or show a lateral decrease in grain size. Above this succession there is a package of gray to yellowish medium to coarse-grained sandstones. In many outcrops, these sand- stones are massive and lack apparent internal structures. Locally, these massive sandstones eroded into the underlying sediment producing overhanging walls. Outside the main valleys, the thin veneer of lower Sanamah consists of channel- ized conglomerates and conglomeratic sandstones with well-developed high- angle, 3D trough cross bedding. Clast- and matrix-supported conglomerates and coarse conglomeratic sand- stones represent the basal channel-fill facies association (Keller et al. 2011). They are interpreted as coarse glacial outwash sediment near melt water outlets. A fa- cies association of massive to cross-bedded sandstones, arranged in clinoforms, fills up the upper part of the valleys. These sediments are interpreted as Gilbert- type deltas prograding from sandur plains into the water-filled valleys during gla- cier retreat. Together with glacial striations, striated clasts, and similar corre- sponding features, these sediments indicate a glacial origin of this part of the Wa- jid Sandstone (Keller et al. 2011). The upper Sanamah starts with an iron-cemented horizon, up to 20 cm which is overlain by some shales and siltstones. Locally sandstones were deposited that in- dicate large-scale slumping. Up section, white fine- to medium-grained sandstones alternate with shales. In its upper part, the upper Sanamah or Qusaiba consists of a succession of light colored fine sandstones, siltstones, and shales. The sediments are thinly bedded and locally show some burrows. Close to the preserved top of the succession, mud cracks have been observed. The basal deposits were laid down rather rapidly, so that the sands were subject to slumping. The lateral variability of the sedimentary successions (Stump and Van der Eem 1996) and the mud cracks indicate that they were probably not de- posited on an open shelf but either in marginal marine environments (deltas) or in a lake setting. Khusayyayn Formation The Khusayyayn Formation (> 52m) is a monotonous succession of medium to coarse-grained sandstones and unconformably rests on older strata. The Khusay- yayn consists of a stacked succession of giant cross-bedded sandstones; individual complexes locally are up to 2 meters high. The foresets are several centimeters thick and are often graded. Grain size mainly decreases from coarse sand to me- dium sand, but locally pebbles have been found in the basal layer of individual
- 26 H. Al Ajmi et al. foresets. These thick cross-bedded units are associated with herringbone cross stratification and small low-angle, 2D trough-bedded structures. Discrete packages within the succession were found, which seem to occur in all sections. At Jabal Khusayyayn, the succession starts with mainly coarse-grained, large-scale cross- bedded units. This is followed by small-scale bed forms in which medium to coarse sand dominates. Higher up, a massive sandstone unit was found which shows evidence of slumping and dewatering (flame structures). This unit in turn is followed by some 10 meters of fine to coarse-grained sandstones in small-scale bed forms with abundant channels. The uppermost unit again is dominated by large-scale bed forms and coarse-grained, often pebbly sandstones. We interpret the Khusayyayn to have been deposited on a high-energy open shelf. This is indicated by the lateral continuity of the large cross-bedded units. They represent submarine megaripples or dunes and testify to strong unidirec- tional currents of tidal origin. The low-angle-trough cross-bedded units represent tidal channels. A tidal environment is also indicated by herringbone cross stratifi- cation repeatedly observed in the sections. Juwayl Formation The Juwayl Formation (> 100 m) shows the highest lithologic variability among the Paleozoic sandstones. It was deposited across an erosional surface that deeply cuts into the underlying strata. The Juwayl is present in two outcrop belts trending NW - SE corresponding to two major glacial valleys (Kellogg et al. 1986). Thick, massively bedded fine to coarse-grained sandstones are a major con- stituent of the Juwayl. In places, they lack apparent sedimentary structures; in other places, these sandstones consist of stacked channels, often with lateral accre- tion phenomena. Locally, these sandstones cut vertically into the underlying sand- stones and formed positive morphologic forms. Up section, these sandstones are overlain by reddish sandstones with high-angle, 3D through cross bedding and some ripple-drift cross bedding. Another succession starts with thin conglomeratic sandstones with few pebbles. Up section, finely laminated shales are present. The alternation of mm-thick sand- stone and clay laminae indicates a varve origin of these sediments. Large base- ment boulders and conglomerate clasts are present within these shales. The varve sediments and the associated boulders and clasts leave little doubt that these sediments were deposited in a proglacial lake. The big boulders repre- sent dropstones indicating the presence of icebergs. Consequently, the accompa- nying sediments also should be of periglacial origin. The 3D trough cross-bedded sediments were deposited by braided rivers and possibly partly represent braid delta deposits that formed in one the glacial lakes. The massive sandstones with- out apparent internal structure may represent eskers or drumlins deposited beneath
- Advances in understanding the relation between reservoir properties and facies distribution 27 or in front of the moving ice. The steep walls of the channels indicate that the sediment may have been frozen during erosion. Implications for aquifer properties The sedimentary succession of the Wajid Sandstone is dominated by medium- to coarse-grained sandstones. Fine sandstones, pebbly sandstones, and conglomerates are present but of less importance. Siltstones and shales are rare. Almost the entire stratigraphic succession is characterized by very weak cementation and the near total absence of matrix, i.e., of silt and clay in the sediments. This fact has conse- quences for the reservoir potential of the Wajid Sandstone. In all members, there is a primary visible porosity which has been estimated to vary between 20% and 30% of the rock. This is in agreement with studies by Evans et al. (1991) who re- port average porosities of 20% for the Dibsiyah, 21% - 25% for the Sanamah, 23% for the Khusayyayn, and locally 30% for the Juwayl. Similarly, Dirner (2007) and Filomena (2007) report porosities between 18% and 31% for the Wajid Sandstone. Together with high effective permeabilities of 1 to 8 darcies, this makes the Wajid Sandstone principally an important reservoir rock. A recent study (GTZ-DCo 2007) has shown that in the subsurface, the Wajid Sandstone succession represents two individual fractured bedrock aquifers sepa- rated by an aquitard. The lower aquifer is represented by the Dibsiyah and the Sa- namah, effectively separated from the upper one by the siltstones and shales of the Qusaiba. The upper aquifer comprises the Khusayyayn and the Juwayl. The distribution of the sedimentary successions of the Wajid Sandstone in the outcrop belt shows a different picture. The Dibsiyah crops extensively in the west- ern part of the study area where it is overlain by the Sanamah. The combined thickness of the Dibsiyah plus the unconformable Sanamah rarely exceeds 200 m. As porosities and permeabilities are on the order of the same magnitude, they should form a homogenous reservoir (equivalent to the lower aquifer in the sub- surface). The Khusayyayn is the most widespread unit in the study area and has excellent porosities and permeabilities. The Juwayl is present in two NW - SE trending outcrops that represent the former erosional relief (Kellogg et al. 1986). The petrophysical properties are close to the underlying Khusayyayn, so that these two units together form another combined reservoir (the upper sandstone sequence in the subsurface). The major difference to the subsurface is the absence of an ef- fective aquiclude or aquitard, which in the subsurface is represented by thick shales of the Qusaiba. The lithology and the patchy distribution of the sediments, caused by cut-out of strata beneath the Khusayyayn unconformity; make the Qu- saiba an ineffective aquitard. Consequently, as there is no separator between the lower and the upper sandstone sequence, in the Wajid outcrop belt, there is only one major reservoir.
- 28 H. Al Ajmi et al. Conclusions In the study area, the Wajid Sandstone consists of 5 distinct lithologic units: The Dibsiyah, the Sanamah, the Qusaiba, the Khusayyayn, and the Juwayl formations. The Dibsiyah Formation is a marine succession dominated by tidal deposits which up section grade into open shelf deposits. After deposition of the Dibsiyah, a pronounced relief was developed and filled with glacial sediments of the Sana- mah. The Qusaiba is a predominantly fine-grained succession of patchy distribu- tion. The depositional environment may have been a marginal marine setting or even a palustrine environment. It is overlain by the Khusayyayn Formation, which is a very uniform succession and which has the widest distribution of the units. It is composed of an alternation of submarine dunes and tidal sediments. Two large valleys were carved into these deposits prior to the deposition of the glacigenic Juwayl Formation. The latter shows a variety of sedimentary facies; however, the spatial and temporal relations between these deposits are not yet clear. Except for the Qusaiba, all rocks show well developed porosities and perme- abilities between 20% and 30% and 1000 md to 8000 md. In the absence of an ef- fective aquitard, these rocks form one major reservoir. References Al-Husseini MI (2004) Pre-Unayzah unconformity, Saudi Arabia. In: Al-Husseini MI (ed) Car- boniferous, Permian and Triassic Arabian Stratigraphy. GeoArabia Special Publ. 3, 15-59 Dirner S (2007) The Upper Wajid Group south of Wadi Ad Dawasir (KSA), an outcrop ana- logue study of a Paleozoic aquifer. Dipl. thesis, Univ. Tbingen, 102 pp (unpublished) Evans DS, Lathon RB, Senalp M, Connally TC (1991): Stratigraphy of the Wajid Sandstone of South- western Saudi Arabia. SPE Middle East Oil Show, Bahrain, Paper SPE 21449, 947-960 Filomena CM (2007) Sedimentary Evolution of a Paleozoic Sandstone Aquifer: The Lower Wajid Group in Wadi Ad Dawasir, South Western Saudi Arabia. Dipl.thesis, Univ. Tbingen, 126 pp (unpublished) GTZ-DCo (2007): Completion report, Wajid water resources studies (unpublished) Hamon Y, Merzeraud G, Combes PJ (2005) High-frequency relative sea level variation cycles recorded in sedimentary discontinuities. Bull. Soc. Geol. France 176, 57 - 68 Keller M, Hinderer M, Al-Ajmi H, Rausch, R (2011) Palaeozoic glacial depositional environ- ments in SW Saudi Arabia: Process and Product. Geol. Soc. London Spec. Paper Kellogg, K.S., Janjou, D., Minoux, L. & Fourniget, J. (1986) Explanatory notes to the Geologic Map of the Wadi Tathlith Quadrangle, sheet 20 G. Ministry Petrol. Min. Res Stump TE, Van Der Eem JG (1996) Overview of the stratigraphy, depositional environments and peri- ods of deformation of the Wajid outcrop belt, south-western Saudi Arabia. In: Al-Husseini MI (ed), Geo '94, the Middle East Petroleum Geosciences Conference, 867-876
- 29 Geoelectrical assessment of groundwater potential in the coastal aquifer of Lagos, Nigeria K.F. Oyedele, S. Oladele Department of Geosciences, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria Abstract Rapid urbanization in Lagos has increased the demand for water in re- cent years. With the aim of delineating the geometry and distribution of fresh wa- ter aquifers in the study area, Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) were carried out at 25 locations; five each on a 100m long traverse and 1-D inversion of the VES data with pseudo 2-D presentation was carried out. The inverted resistivity models were calibrated with borehole data in the vicinity of the survey area. Maximum of four layers geo-electric layers were delineated: Hard peaty clay (15-52 ohm-m), sandy clay (58-119 ohm-m), fine sand (107-258 ohm-m) and medium sand/ coarse sand (260-568 ohm-m). The variety of sands in the area constitutes the aquifers in the study area. Depths to the tops of these aquifers range from 0-100m in both confined and unconfined conditions. This study recommends only the confined aquifers for development as the unconfined ones are prone to contaminations. 1 Introduction In recent years there has been a growing awareness in the field of groundwater management of the need to accurately assess groundwater resources. To accom- plish this, it is essential to have accurate knowledge of aquifer with a view to iden- tify the ones with good potential to furnish portable water in economic quantity. Partly Due to high rate of urbanization, the demand for water has increased glob- ally (UNDP 2006). Lagos particularly is hit more by demand for water due to phe- nomenal increase in population and urbanization (Longe 2011). The problem is escalated when view against the inability of Water Corporation to provide portable water to the populace. In the light of this, the groundwater is the source to the res- cue. Attempts to exploit groundwater resources have made groundwater search an all comers affairs. This has lead to indiscriminate exploitation of groundwater re- sources and the attendant poor results. The purpose of electrical surveys is to de- termine the subsurface resistivity distribution by making measurements on the ground surface as these measurements help to estimate the electrical resistivity of the subsurface. The subsurface electrical resistivity is associated with various geo- logical factors such as the mineral and fluid content, porosity and degree of water saturation in the rock, ionic concentration of the pore fluid and composition of the N. Lambrakis et al. (Eds.), Advances in the Research of Aquatic Environment, Vol. 2 DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-24076-8, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011
- 30 K.F. Oyedele, S. Oladele subsurface material (Kelly 1976). The study area is situated at Gbagada, near the coastline of Lagos (Fig 1). Longe (2011) determined transmissivity values of the multi-layered aquifer system of Lagos to range between 345.6 and 2,332 m2 /day while the storage coefficient values range between 2.8x10-4 and 4.5x10-4 . Adepe- lumi et al (2008) mapped the intrusion of sea water into coaster aquifer of Lagos using VES technique of Direct Current (DC) resistivity method. Longe et al. (1987) revealed multilayered aquifer system for the metropolis in their study of the hydrogeology of Lagos. The present work is concerned with groundwater ex- ploration through delineation of aquifer geometry using Vertical Electrical Sound- ings (VES) results to give a tangible solution to the demand for exploitation of wa- ter resources for sustainable economic growth in the heavily populated area of Lagos. This study will improve our knowledge of geometry and distribution of aquifer units in the study area, which in turn leads to better decision-making re- garding exploitation of groundwater resources. 2 Geological and Hydrogeological Setting The studied area (Fig. 1) is located within the Nigerian sector of the Dahomey- basin, near the eastern margin of the Basin. Stratigraphy of the eastern Dahomey basin has been discussed by various workers and several classification schemes have been proposed. Fig. 1. Study area showing sounding locations.
- Geoelectrical assessment of groundwater potential in the coastal aquifer of Lagos, Nigeria 31 These notably include those of Jones and Hockey (1964); Omatsola and Ade- goke (1981); Coker et al. (1983); Billman (1992), Elueze and Nton (2004). The stratigraphy of Cretaceous to Tertiary sedimentary sequence of the eastern Da- homey basin can be divided into: Abeokuta Group, Imo Group, Ilaro Formation, Coaster plain sands and recent alluvium. The Recent alluvium deposits, the conti- nental Benin sands and the Ilaro Formations were identified as the major aquifers. The aquifers are essentially made of sands, gravels or a mixture of the two [Bu- reau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (1979)]. 3 Data acquisition and processing Geo-electrical methods are the most popular techniques among the geophysical methods for both regional and detailed groundwater explorations because of their wide range of applicability and low cost. For the purpose of this work, 25 VES with a maximum half current electrode separation of 200 m have been carried out along five transects in west-east direction (Fig.1) using PASI Earth Resistivity Meter. Schlumberger configuration was employed for the geoelectrical soundings. The VES stations are 25m apart and profiles separated by distance of 10m in order to image the subsurface at high resolution. VES involves increasing the electrode separations around a mid-point, usually with a logarithmic electrode separation, in order to delineate the layering of strata at increasing depth. In the study area, the VES results show four to five subsurface layers after conventional curve matching and applying the inversion iteration method. Characteristic resistivity sounding curve obtained after inversion are shown in Figure 2. Table 1. Litholog from existing borehole. Lithology Depth (m) Greyish clay 0 - 1.2m Peat 1.2 - 4.3m Sandy clay 4.3 - 9m Brownish clay 9 - 18.8m Medium sand 18.8 - 19.4m Soft greyish clay 19.4 - 27.2m Medium sand 27.2 - 36m It should be noted that VES method is suitable only in case of 1-D structure. 1- D inversion is often used to define aquifer geometry that is intrinsically multifac- eted. This interpretational practice is erroneous due to unacknowledged multidi- mensional property. This limitation of 1-D modeling makes 2-D representation in- dispensable since the aquifers are expected to be more complex than a 1-D model
- 32 K.F. Oyedele, S. Oladele that VES is able to model. Figure 3 show 2D presentation of interpolated 1D resis- tivity inversion along traverses 1-5 using WinGLink Software (2007). The geoe- lectric layers were subsequently calibrated with lithology log from existing bore- hole in the vicinity of the survey area (Table 1). The spatial distribution of geoelectric materials at different depths of 10m, 25m, 50m and 75m were also generated to overview their occurrence at depths. a b ApparentResistivity(ohm.m) b. Station: VES 12 a. Station: VES 3 100 101 102 10 2 AB/2 (m) 101 102 103 Rho (ohm.m) 104 103 102 101 Depth(m) 100 104 103 102 101 Depth(m) 100 102 103 Rho (ohm.m) ApparentResistivity(ohm.m) 10 2 AB/2 (m) 100 101 102 Fig. 2. Typical VES sounding curves showing (a) VES 3 (b) VES 12.
- Geoelectrical assessment of groundwater potential in the coastal aquifer of Lagos, Nigeria 33 4 Discussions of Results Interpretation of data was carried out with the aim of delineating geo-electrical pa- rameters of the sequences present in the study area, with a view to identify areas of high groundwater potential. 2-D presentation of interpolated 1D resistivity in- version enabled obtaining a more accurate spatial model of the subsurface than the individual 1-D models. The interpretation shows that the study area contained a maximum of 5 layers and a minimum of 4 layers. 0 25 50 75 100 0 25 50 75 100 0 25 50 75 1000 25 50 75 100 0 25 50 75 100 100 75 50 25 0 100 75 50 25 0 100 75 50 25 0 100 75 50 25 0 100 75 50 25 0 Metres Metres Metres Metres Metres Metres MetresMetres MetresMetres 307 220 157 112 80 57 41 29 21 15 449 337 253 190 143 107 80 60 45 15 178 146 119 98 66 54 44 36 282 219 170 132 102 79 61 48 37 568 383 258 174 117 79 53 36 Resistivity (Ohm) Resistivity (Ohm) Resistivity (Ohm) Resistivity (Ohm) Resistivity (Ohm) A B C D E Fig. 3. a. 2-D presentation of interpolated 1-D resistivity inversion along traverse 1, b. 2-D pres- entation of interpolated 1-D resistivity inversion along traverse 2, c. 2-D presentation of interpo- lated 1-D resistivity inversion along traverse 3, d. 2-D presentation of interpolated 1-D resistivity inversion along traverse 4 and e. 2-D presentation of interpolated 1-D resistivity inversion along traverse 5. Figure 3a shows the subsurface resistivity model along traverse 1 which indi- cates that the area is underlined by varying resistivity materials delineated by sharp changes in electrical resistivity values. This model is characterized by four geoelectric layers. The topsoil is essentially hard peaty clay with resistivity rang- ing from 15-41ohm-metres. The topsoil is observed from the surface to depth ranging from 15 to 35m. Underling this layer is sandy clay having resistivity and thickness ranges from 58-112 ohm-meters and 13-73m respectively. This layer outcrops at the beginning on the traverse to about 20m mark. The third layer is es- sentially fine sand having resistivity between 115 and 220 ohm-metres and repre-
- 34 K.F. Oyedele, S. Oladele sents a confined aquifer of about 15-35m thickness. The fourth lithology corre- spond to coarse sand of resistivity greater than 220ohm-metres observable only at the middle of the transect, occurring probably as pocket within the fine sand. To- gether they represent good aquifers that can furnish portable water. The model resistivity section of traverse 2 is shown in Figure 3b. It is shows good lithology geometry semblance with model section of traverse 1. The profile surface shows variation in lithology by alternation of hard clay and fine sand. While the fine sand (79-170 ohm-m) is relatively thin (>10m), the hard clay (35-52 ohm-m) varies in thickness from 10m to 25m at the center of the traverse. A very thin layer (3-9m) of sandy clay (61-79 ohm-m) underlies the clay formation. Fine sand (79-170 ohm-m) with occurrence of pocket of coarse sand (170- 219 ohm-m) is the fourth layer. These sand bodies correspond to the aquiferous zone beneath this traverse, the depth to the top of which varies from 27- 80m along the traverse. The model resistivity section of traverse 3 shown in Figure 3c illustrates a four layer condition. The surface of this traverse shows occurrence of sandy clay (60- 107 ohm-m) at the western and eastern flanks where they attained thicknesses of 32m and 9m respectively and hard clay material sandwiched in between. The clay was hardened due to loss of water in the dry season. Underlying the surficial sandy clay at depths between 9 -35m is peaty clay (34- 50 ohm-m).The clay is in turn underlain by sandy clay (60-107 ohm-m) typically about 12-15m thick at this depth. The fourth layer represents fine sand (107-210 ohm-m). Depth to the top and thickness of the fine sand ranges from 32-75m and 7- > 60 m respectively. Pocket of coarse sand demarcated in the first two traverses is also partly mapped beneath this traverse. The sands together represent the aqui- fer unit which is important for water supply purposes. The cross section of traverse 4 (Fig. 3d) shows similar lithologic succession as the previous traverses: peaty clay, sandy clay and sand. The surface of traverse characterize by sandy clay and peaty clay. The topmost thin (75m depth beneath VES 17 location. But of groundwater importance is the thick (>25m) sand body at 75m depth and is essentially restricted to the eastern halve of the profile. The resistivity cross section of traverse 5 (Fig. 3e) shows slightly different suc- cession in that medium sand (>258 ohm-m) is juxtaposed with fine sand (117-258 ohm-m) on the surface. The medium sand and fine sand bodies represent aquifer- ous units which extend from the surface to about 20m and 55m depths respec- tively. These aquifers are unconfined and are therefore prone to contamination. Sandy clay (79-117 ohm-m) and clay underlie these aquifers at depths varying from 20-55m and 50-100m respectively. Figure 4 shows the maps of spatial distribution of geoelectric layers at depths of 10m and 25m. The two maps show similarity and the distribution of geomateri- als in space. The southern part is essentially fine to medium sand while the north-
- Geoelectrical assessment of groundwater potential in the coastal aquifer of Lagos, Nigeria 35 ern and the eastern areas consist of peat/clay and sandy clay respectively. How- ever, dissimilarity exists at the northeastern corners of the two maps. Aquiferous geomedia dominates the northern part of the study area at 50m depth (Fig. 4c) ex- cept for a pocket of clay at the northeastern region. The southern area has clay/ sandy clay coverage. At depth 75m (Fig. 4d) the northern area is dominated by clay/sandy clay materials except at easternmost part where there is occurrence of relatively high resistivity sand material. A 251.5 B C D 35.7 20158 18533 21870 68.2 58 118 85 Resistivity (Ohm-metre) Resistivity (Ohm-metre) Fig. 4. Spatial distribution of geoelectric layers at (a) 10m (b) 25m depths (c) 50m and (d) 75m depths (the colour code is map specific and should be related to the colour bar). Conclusion This study focuses on mapping of geometry and distribution of aquifers in part of Lagos, Nigeria. Four layered electro-stratigraphic earth models were constructed from which peaty clay, sandy clay fine and medium/coarse sands were delineated. The varieties of sand (107-568 ohm-m) are considered the potential water bearing zone and therefore are the targets for productive groundwater exploitation. The depth to the top of these aquifers however, varies from 0-100m. Pockets of clay often interrupt the lateral continuity of the aquifer system, which will negatively impact the yield of the aquifers. Occurrences of aquiferous materials at shallow depths of 10m 25m and 75m are essentially confined to the southern area while sand materials are restricted to the northern half at 50m depth. This study there- fore, recommends exploitation of groundwater resources from the confined aqui- fers and discourages abstraction of water from unconfined aquifers and the local- ized bodies of sand in that they are prone to contaminations and limited or poor yields respectively.
- 36 K.F. Oyedele, S. Oladele References Adeleye, D.R, (1975): Nigeria late Cretaceous Stratigraphy and paleography; AAPG Bulletin , volume 59, issue12, pages 2302-2313 Adepelumi A. A., Ako B. D., Afolabi O., Ajayi T. R. and Omotoso E. J. (2008): Delineation of saltwater intrusion into the freshwater aquifer of Lekki Peninsula, Lagos, Nigeria. Environ Geol 00254-008-1194-3 Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (1979): Pre-drilling hydrogeological report area 18 and 19 sub-mitted to the Federal Department of Water Resources, Lagos, Nigera, 1-60 Coker, S.J., Ejedawe, J.E. and Oshiorienua (1983). Hydrocarbon source potentials of Cretaceous rocks of Okitipupa Uplift, Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology. Vol. 22 pp163-169 Elueze, A.A. and Nton, M.E., (2004). Organic geochemical appraisal of limestones and shales in part of eastern Dahomey basin, southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology, vol. 40, no. 1 pp 29-40 Kelly, W.E. (1976): Geoelectric sounding for delinating groundwater contamination, Ground wa- ter V.-14, pp.6-10 Longe, E.O. (2011): Groundwater Resources Potential in the Coastal Plain Sands Aquifers, La- gos, Nigeria Res. J. Environ. Earth Sci., 3(1): 1-7 Longe E. O, Malomo S, Olorunniwo MA (1987): Hydrogeology of Lagos Metropolis. Afr J Earth Sci 6(2):163174 Omatsola, M. E. and Adegoke, O. S. (1981). Tectonic evolution and Cretaceous stratigraphy of the Dahomey basin. Journal of Mining Geology, 18 (1), P.130 -137 UNDP (2006): Country evaluation: assessment of development results of Nigeria, pp 180 Winglink (2007): Integrated interpretation software. Version 2.20.01. Geosystem corporation, Milan
- 37 Drainage and lineament analysis towards artificial recharge of groundwater D. Das Department of Environmental Science,University of Kalyani,India firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract Drainage and lineament characteristics of a watershed provide impor- tant clues about the hydrogeology of the area. Information about the above charac- teristics derived from satellite imageries (IRS-IB) aided by field verifications and subsequently analyzed in Geographical Information System (GIS) environment can provide a composite map and which can be used for adopting a suitable strat- egy for managing watersheds in a better way particularly in relation to the aug- mentation of the status of groundwater by artificial recharge methods. On the basis of the above concept, drainage, lineament and hydro geomorphic study of the upper catchment area of Kumari basin, Purulia, eastern India have been performed for demarcating prospective sites for construction of artificial re- charge structures. Granitic lithology and uneven topography indicate that the sur- face run-off is high and infiltration is low and therefore groundwater recharge is inadequate in the area. So, mainly to keep the irrigation practice and drinking wa- ter supply alive, groundwater condition has to be improved by artificial recharge method. Integrating different types of thematic layers like drainage density, linea- ment density, hydro geomorphology in a GIS environment; it has been possible to generate a composite map showing prospective sites for construction of artificial recharge structures. 1 Introduction Natural replenishment of groundwater is often inadequate and is unable to keep pace with the excessive demand of it. This has resulted in decline of water table and depletion of resources. In order to augment the water table conditions, artifi- cial recharge has become an important and fruitful management strategy through suitable constructions. Natural recharge in India is mainly restricted within three months periods ranging from 10 to 100 days. Artificial recharge methods can pro- vide additional recharge after the monsoon to sustain a groundwater supply for about next couple of months. India receives annually about 4000 billion m3 water through precipitation both during the south west and northwest monsoon, out of this, about 1280 billion m3 is lost as evaporation, about 850 billion m3 seeps into the soil and the remaining 1870 billion m3 constitutes the average surface water N. Lambrakis et al. (Eds.), Advances in the Research of Aquatic Environment, Vol. 2 DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-24076-8, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011
- 38 D. Das flow. Theoretically, this water is sufficient to provide 1.0 m depth on the entire cultivated area in the country. But only about 50 percent of surface water can be put into beneficial use because of topographical and other constraints. Out of the country's utilizable water resource of about 1100 billion m3 , surface water and groundwater account for about 60 percent and 40 percent respectively. Estimates reveal that areas receiving up to 1000 mm annual precipitation hold a potential to add 63 million m3 water equivalent through runoff (Sharma 2002). According to Veerana (2002) the entire annual water resource planning has to be done by con- serving rainfall either by storing in surface or in subsurface reservoir. In fact, any man made system by which the groundwater reservoir is augmented at a rate ex- ceeding to that obtained under natural conditions of replenishment is an artificial recharge system. 2 Review of literature The necessity of artificial recharge in India was recognized more than four dec- ades ago (Karanth1963). Artificial recharge studies in India have mainly concen- trated on the mechanism of recharge but recently a number of studies had focused on site selection process, especially with the help of remote sensing techniques (Anbazhagan and Ramaswamy 2002). Satellite imageries of visible (0.38 m - 0.72 m) to near infrared (0.72 m - 1.3 m) region of electromagnetic spectrum are very much useful in extracting information on aerial aspects of drainage basin and various hydro geomorphic features (Das1990).Observations from satellite da- ta must be complemented by field checks and existing geologic maps, topographic sheets which are very much useful as supplementary data sources. The identifica- tion of lineaments (Kazemi et al. 2009) has immense importance in hard rock hy- drogeology as rock fractures localize groundwater (Das 1990). The synergism be- tween remote sensing and GIS techniques is a major advantage in the use of an integrated approach (Saraf et al. 2001). 3 Geologic and Geomorphic setting of the area The area under present study belongs to Purulia district which is located in the southwestern part of West Bengal state of eastern India. Geologically the area constitutes a part of Chhotanagpur gneissic complex of Precambrian age, litholog- ically the area is composed mainly of granitic clan of rocks. Geomorphologically the area is an erosional landform with the presence of residual hills. Ajodhya hill, the main upland of the area, is the source of Kumari river and the river ultimately flows in the easterly direction. The upper catchment area of Kumari river, the ex- act study area has got an undulating micro relief with highs and lows. The maxi- mum elevation is found 660 m (spot height) above msl. The area receives an a.a.r.
- Drainage and lineament analysis towards artificial recharge of groundwater 39 of 1180 mm. However, natural recharge is poor due to hard crystalline nature of the country rock and undulated topography. A small portion is covered by alluvium and latosol and rest of the area is cov- ered by weathered profile of granite gneiss. Hard rock of this region is traversed by network of oriented fractures and also includes pegmatite-dykes. Some where the basement gneiss suffers much weathering and at such places rocks are man- tled by soil cover, the thickness of which varies place to place. The rocks of the area are traversed by several sets of joints among which the NNE-SSW master joints are prominent which show steep dip (>50). The common spacing of joints lies between 1 m-1.5 m. However, the vertical joints are widely spaced. The later- ite acts as a protective cover which is resistant to both chemical and mechanical weathering. 4 Objective of the study With the above backdrop present study involves a new attempt where the ap- proach is based on a watershed. Remote sensing application related to the various pertinent themes of the present investigation like hydro geomorphology, linea- ments, aerial aspects of drainage basins ultimately to derive drainage density with the consultation of Survey of India (SOI) topographic sheets has been performed in a particular watershed. The present area under study is the upper catchment area of Kumari basin, Purulia district, West Bengal, eastern India bounded by latitude 22 55-2315 N and longitude 8608-8638E. The following are the objectives of the present investigation: To create a digital data base for the area under study. To delineate areas suitable for artificial recharge. 5 Methodology The information on several pertinent themes mentioned earlier are derived through visual interpretation of IRS-lB, LISS-II, geocoded satellite data (Scale 1:50,000 standard FCC data of February 2001) (Fig. 1) in consultation with SOI toposheets (no.73 I/4,I/12,J/1,J/5,J/9) aided by field verifications. Digital enhancement or classification of surface features is not necessary for the present study. In addition, information has also been obtained about the area of weathered zone and a general idea about recharge and discharge zone (by a well inventory process). Drainage texture analysis has been performed on the basis of 3rd order basins for conven- ience of the study. Stream ordering has been performed on the basis of Strahler (1952). Lineament number density (isofracture) is derived from 1km1km grid analysis (Kumanan 2001) and it is classified in to low (poor presence of linea-
- 40 D. Das ments/grid) and high (considerable presence of lineaments/grid). Digitization of all the themes has been performed by the TNT mips 7.2 version of GIS software package. Subsequent overlay analysis (Burroughs and Mcdonnel 1998) is done to reveal the suitable sites for artificial recharge in the produced maps. Fig. 1. Satellite data(IRS-1B LISS II). 6 Observations Visual interpretation of IRS-lB satellite data aided by field observation revels that the Kumari river (Fig. 2) has got a perennial flow. The area comprises mainly ag- ricultural land of single cropping. The undulatory part of the study area shows a thickness of 3 m to 4 m of soil cover, at places the thickness of the soil cover in- creases up to 6 m. Water divides of the small sub-basins within the major basin under study shows lateritisation. The valley fills have their depth up to several me- ters, contains relicts of laterites. At places weathered residuum shows a thickness of about 15 m - 20 m. Ground water level reaches almost bottom during dry months (February to June).Here the tributaries in general drain towards SE direc- tion (Fig. 2). The main channel Kumari river (a 5th order stream) shows the effect of structural control in its appearance. Third order sub-basins have been studied in context of their large dimension which facilitate recognition of lithology, structure and nature of sediments in such basins. Right angle bends, a system of parallel tri- butaries of the same order just opposite to the main channel suggests their en- trenchment along lineaments. Number of tributaries align parallel to each other suggest a plane of weakness or a fracture zone. The graded profile of the river in some places has been entrenched into laterite plane.
- Drainage and lineament analysis towards artificial recharge of groundwater 41 Morphometrical study of 3rd order drainage basis has been performed with the help of Survey of India (SOl) topographic sheets (scale 1: 50,000), however, up- dating the information of minor to major streams has been performed with the help of IRS IB Satellite data (scale 1: 50,000) of February 2001. Drainage density theme has got one of the most influential impacts in deriving the result to locate the artificial recharge sites. High to moderate drainage density values are favor- able for run-off and do not encourage natural recharge. In the present investigation drainage density values have been classified into two categories, such as within 1.5 km/km to 3.5Km/Km is considered as the low drainage density value and above 3.5 Km/Km is considered as high drainage density value. Fig. 2. Drainage map of the area. Arrow mark shows the direction of flow. 7 GIS analysis result When a wide range of mono-disciplinary resource maps are available, the users must seek ways in which the available information can be combined to give an in- tegrated overview or reclassification or generation as needed (Burrough 1990).
- 42 D. Das Fig. 3. Sites for artificial recharge (lighter shaded areas). Fig. 4. Sites for artificial recharge (darker small polygons within lighter polygon).
- Drainage and lineament analysis towards artificial recharge of groundwater 43 The criteria for analysis are dependent on the objective and on the data sets. In the present investigation, all the thematic vector layers are developed on the basis of hydro geomorphology, lineament and drainage as they are the surface expres- sions of a potential aquifer. Overlay analysis has been performed between linea- ment density layer with hydro geomorphology layer and the product (Fig. 3) shows suitable sites for construction of artificial recharge structures and this has been overlaid by drainage density layer and the final out put (Fig. 4) shows sites for artificial recharge. 8 Discussion Remote Sensing provides unique and unbiased input in various natural resource inventory programs, owing to its multi spectral capability, synoptivity and repetiv- ity in coverage. As a significant step towards the direction of fruitful application of this technology, based on satellite imagery interpretation, in conjunction with existing geological, hydro geological information and topographic sheets, digital data base reveals the sites of artificial recharge of ground water. For this purpose, initially individual layer-wise maps are prepared for hydro geomorphology, drain- age, and lineaments. All these maps are separately digitized and overlaid in GIS environment ultimately for generating the site suitability map for artificial re- charge of ground water. In the study area, the main hydro geomorphic features are valley fills and weathered residuum of moderate thickness (somewhere it exceeds 15 m of thickness) with reasonable spatial extent. The deep seated interconnecting fractures are potential reservoirs of groundwater though the fractures or the joint systems of compact nature do not hold water. Valley fills are potentially good area for locating artificial recharge structures. Coincidence of valley fills and deep seated lineaments make good reservoir for groundwater accumulation through ar- tificial recharge and which will in turn augment water table in downstream direc- tion. Drainage density and lineament density are highly influential factors in iden- tifying the sites for artificial recharge. 9 Conclusion Hard - rock hydro geological conditions vary widely and its proper understanding is necessary for ground water development through artificial recharge including the site selection process. The comprehensive information provided by the com- posite maps has been proved to be highly useful in narrowing down the target zones for selection of artificial recharge sites. Thus the digital data base created for artificial recharge site selection purpose will go a long way for planning, de- velopment and management of ground water.
- 44 D. Das References Anbazhagan S, Ramaswamy S. M (2002) Remote sensing based artificial recharge studies - a case study from Precambrian terrain, India. In: Dillon, P. (eds) Management of Aquifer Re- charge for Sustainability. Proc. of the 4th International Symposium of Artificial Recharge. AA Balkema Publishers: 553-556. Adelaide, Australia Burrough (1990) PA Principles of GIS for Land Resource Assessment.Oxford science publica- tion,Oxford. Burroughs P P, McDonnel R A, Oxford university Press (1998)Principles of GIS.Oxford Das D (1990) Satellite remote sensing in subsurface water targeting. In: Proc. of the ACSM- ASPRS Annual Convention, 99-103.Denver, USA Karanth K R (1963) Scope of adopting artificial recharge in Babar Formation. In: Proc. of the symposium on groundwater. Geol. Survey of India, Miscellaneous Publication: 206-214. Cal- cutta, India Kazemi R, Porchemmat J,Kheirkhah M(2009)Investigation of lineaments related to groundwater occurrence in a Karstic area: A case study in Lar catchment, Iran Res. J. of Environ. Sci. 3(3):367-375, ISSN1819-3412 Kumanan C J (2009) Remote sensing revealed morphotectonic anomalies as a tool to neotectonic mapping-experience south India. http://www.crisp.nus.edu.s/ ~acrs2001/pdf/195kumanan.pdf Saraf A K, Choudhury P R, Sarma B, Ghosh P (2001) Impacts of reservoirs in groundwater and vegetation: A study based on Remote Sensing and GIS techniques. Int. J. of Remote Sens. Vol 22, No. 13pp 2439- 2448 Sharma, K. D. (2002), Rainwater management in India: Some policy issues. In: Subrahmanyam K (eds) Proc. of the workshop on the Water Crisis - Hope and Action for humanity's future. Hyderabad, India, National Geophysical Research Institute pp 1-8 Strahler, A. N. (1952), Dynamic basis of Geomorphology, Bull.Geol.S oc.America Vol 63 pp 923-938 Veerana, M. (2002), Artificial Recharge Methods of groundwater in hard-rock formations and case studies. In: Subrahmanyam K (eds) Proc. of the Workshop on the Water Crisis - Hope and Action for humanity's future. Hyderabad, India, National Geophysical Research Institute pp 117-125
- 45 Fracture pattern description and analysis of the hard rock hydrogeological environment in Naxos Island, Hellas A.S. Partsinevelou, S. Lozios, G. Stournaras Department of Dynamic Tectonic & Applied Geology, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis Ilisia, 15784 Athens, Hellas Abstract The main parameter that controls the groundwater flow regime in frac- tured aquifers is the fracture pattern. Its description is crucial for a hydro- geologic/hydraulic or geotechnical study. This paper, aims to describe and analyze the basic characteristics of the fracture pattern in Naxos Island, Greece. The pa- rameters that were analyzed are: a) the frequency and spatial location of the frac- tures, b) the orientation of fractures, c) the dimensions of fractures, d) the density of fractures and e) the degree of fracture intersection. These parameters were ana- lyzed separately for every dominant lithology of the study area. The analysis revealed that there are five classes of fracture orientation in the study area, indicating a straight link between faults and fractures. The fragmentation in all lithologies is characterized by high degree of uniformity and very high density and interconnection density of the fractures are observed in areas where the alter- nations between marbles, schists and amphibolites are very intense. 1 Introduction Naxos is the largest island of Cyclades and occupies a central position in the Ae- gean Sea. Its circumnavigation is equal to 44 nautical miles and its area reaches 430 km2 . Naxos is mountainous, having a central mountain range, which crosses the island from the northern to the southern part. The highest altitude is 1001 m, at Zeus peak, located in the central part of the range and it has extremely low pre- cipitation rates (Evelpidou et al. 2005). Like all the islands of Cyclades, Naxos faces a serious problem of water scar- city. This increasing need of groundwater for water supply, leads to a continuous interest for searching groundwater especially in hard rock hydrogeological envi- ronments. The groundwater flow regime in hard rocks depends on several factors, including the dimensions, nature, density, orientation and interconnection of the fractures (Botsialas et al. 2005). The purpose of this study was the description and analysis of the fracture pat- tern of Naxos Island, by emphasizing on the frequency, orientation, dimensions, N. Lambrakis et al. (Eds.), Advances in the Research of Aquatic Environment, Vol. 2 DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-24076-8, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011
- 46 A.S. Partsinevelou et al. density and degree of intersection of the fractures and the initial connection be- tween the discontinuities regime and the groundwater aquifers. For these purposes, satellite images and air photographs were collected and processed, so the lineaments of the study area could be mapped. An image linea- ment is a structural expression detected by remote sensing, which is a linear object with geological origin (Scanvic 1997). 2 Geological Setting of Naxos Island Geologically, the study area belongs to the Attic-Cycladic Massif. This massif has been developed by thrust faulting, ductile thinning and normal faulting and it is mainly built up by metamorphic rocks of several metamorphic facies (Jansen 1977). Naxos Island is described mainly as an elliptic dome with main direction N15o E which is consisted by schists, gneiss and marbles (Evelpidou 2003). In general, the geology of Naxos can be divided into three main units (Brichau 2004): The upper non-metamorphic unit The Cycladic blueschist unit The granodiorite massif Fig. 1. Simplified geological map of Naxos Island (Jansen 1973, modified).
- Fracture pattern description and analysis of the hard rock hydrogeological environment 47 The upper unit is a very thin and non-metamorphosed nappe which is consisted of Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary rocks and overlies the Cycladic blueschist unit and the granodiorite massif (allochthonous unit). The Cycladic blueschist unit is a metamorphic complex mainly characterized by a migmatite core which is sur- rounded by a multifolded sequence of marbles, metapelites, schists, amphibolites and gneiss. At the superiorly part of this unit metabauxites and meta- conglomerates are appeared. The granodiorite massif appears at the west of the is- land and it is consisted of an I-type granite which intrudes the Cycladic blueschist unit. Both the Cycladic blueschist and the granodiorite unit constitute the auto- chonous unit of the island. Also undeformed intrusives, mainly S-Type granites, are found in the northern part of the island (Galanos and Rokkos 1999). 3 Methodology Lineaments in general are defined as mapable linear surface features, which differ distinctly from the patterns of adjacent features and presumably reflect subsurface phenomena (OLeary et al. 1976). There are many types of lineaments such as li- neaments controlled by geological structures (faults and fractures), lineaments re- sulted from morphological effects (stream channels) and lineaments caused by human activity (roads). These types of lineaments can exist simultaneously in the same region and it is important to characterize properly each lineament during their mapping (Glcan 2005). Lineament mapping and specifically fault and fracture mapping is considered a very important issue for a hydrogeological research especially in hard rock envi- ronments. To extract the fracture pattern in the study area, it is necessary to map the area at many different scales. For this purpose, the integration of satellite im- ages and air photographs is necessary. For this study, one dataset of Landsat 7 ETM+ was subset and a combined sa- tellite image of Naxos Island was produced with a resolution of 15m per pixel and 8 available spectral bands to combine. The georeferenced images were orthorecti- fied using a digital elevation model with a cell size of 10m and finally projected on the Hellenic Geodetic Reference System (GGRS87). Also, a set of aerial pho- tographs (1/30.000 scale) was orthorectified at the same projection and an ortho- photo mosaic was produced reaching a high resolution of 5 meters per pixel. The high and the low resolution images were merged resulted in an image which has the same spectral characteristics of Landsat 7, but better resolution. The new im- age was used for lineaments extraction and interpretation and a furthermore study was made for the orientation, length, density, frequency and degree of intersection of the fractures.
- 48 A.S. Partsinevelou et al. 4 Fracture Description and Analysis The lineaments map of the island, as shown in Figure 2, demonstrates 887 features which have been extracted from satellite images and aerial photographs and corre- spond to fractures that exist in the study area. These fractures are the result of post-alpine movements. For the description and analysis of the fractures, six subareas were determined based on the lithology that dominates in each area of the island. Each of these six subareas refer correspondingly to marbles, schists and gneisses, migmatitic dome, S-type granite, I-type granite (granodiorite), post-alpine sediments and meta- conglomerates. The parameters that were analyzed in each subarea are: a) the fre- quency and spatial location of the fractures, b) the orientation of the fractures, c) the dimensions of the fractures, d) the density of the fractures and e) the degree of fractures intersection. Fig. 2. Lineaments map of Naxos Island in which are shown the six subareas based on the domi- nant lithology and the primary and secondary orientations of fractures and lineaments in Naxos Island. a) Faults rose plot (Galanos 1999), b) Lineaments rose plot in granite, c) Lineaments rose plot in marbles, d) Lineaments rose plot in meta-conglomerates, e) Lineaments rose plot in post- alpine sediments, f) Lineaments rose plot in the migmatite dome, g) Lineaments rose plot in sch- ists, h) Total lineaments of the study area rose plot, i) Fractures rose plot of measures taken dur- ing field work.
- Fracture pattern description and analysis of the hard rock hydrogeological environment 49 Frequency and spatial location of the fractures The lineament map (Fig. 2) shows that the fracture distribution is hardly homoge- neous. The frequency of the lineaments is high in the biggest part of the study area with an exception in the west of the study area, where the frequency of the frac- tures is very low to zero. The majority of the fractures are located on lithologies that correspond to the term hard rocks, which generally refers to igneous and metamorphic rocks (Krasny 1996, 2002). Therefore, the discussed character repre- sents a initial indication for the unified tectonic and hydrogeologic behavior of the hard rock environment. The minority of the fractures is located on the granodiorite massif and post-alpine sediments. Orientation of the fractures The orientation of the lineaments is analyzed by constructing rose diagrams (Fig. 2). Even though these diagrams are not length-weighted, they can indicate in each occasion the most dominant directions of the fractures. This analysis is very critical for the study of groundwater flow, as in most cases the orientation of the fractures is identical with the orientation of the preferential flow path. The faults rose plot indicates two sets of orientation classes. The three main classes have NNE-SSW, NE-SW and ENE-WSW strike, while the secondary ones have E-W and N-S strike. Important is that the lineaments rose plot indicates the same main orientation classes as the faults rose plot, a fact that suggests the link between faults and lineaments. The relationship between faults and lineaments can be found also from the rose plots of each subarea and measurements taken during field work, as they indicate also that the main and secondary orientations are the same. Also it should be noted that in the case of the granites, the meta- conglomerates and the post-alpine sediments, the main orientation classes are dif- ferent with the N-S, NE-SW and NW-SE directions to be dominant. These differ- ences should not be taken into account, as the number of the lineaments in these li- thologies is very small. Despite the differential tectonic reaction of the lithologic units, the uniformity of the fractures orientation becomes an additional indication for the tectonic and hydrogeologic regime. Size of the fractures Fracture dimensions (aperture and apparent aperture), are very difficult to be de- fined and the depth of the apertures makes the measurements even more compli- cated. Nevertheless, length measurements are relatively easy to be done and they are significant too, as a greater length of fractures affects the groundwater flow in
- 50 A.S. Partsinevelou et al. a more dominant way, than those of smaller length. A first statistical approach on the length of the fractures revealed that lengths between 600m and 1200m have the biggest frequency in the study area. Calculating the total length of fractures and the length of fractures per unit area in each lithology (Table 1) showed that these dimensions are reversely proportional. Also it is noted a high uniformity of the fragmentation in all lithologies, as the length of fractures per unit area does not differ very much in each subarea. Table 1. Total length of fractures in each subarea. Lithology Length of fractures (km) Area (km2 ) Length of fractures per unit of area (km) Marbles 552.361 207.200 2.660 Schists and Gneisses 362.748 117.300 3.090 Migmatite 120.815 35.700 3.380 Granodiorite and Post- Alpine sediments 112.120 60.200 1.860 Meta-conglomerate 55.830 7.200 7.750 Granite 27.469 3.700 7.420 Density of the fractures The purpose of the fracture density analysis is to calculate frequency of the frac- tures per unit area. With this analysis a map has been produced showing concen- trations of the lineaments over the study area (Fig. 3a). The map in Figure 3 showed that very high density is observed in areas where the alternations between marbles, schists and amphibolites are very intense, citing the high degree of hydraulic interconnection between the above lithologic units as surface water circulates through these discontinuities. This is verified in the next consideration (degree of fractures intersection). On the other hand, very low den- sity is observed in granodiorites, post-alpine sediments and in areas where one li- thology dominates. This verifies that these lithologies are not much affected by tectonic activity. Degree of fractures intersection The density of lineaments along with degree of lineaments intersection determine the degree of anisotropy of groundwater flow in the fracture network, as in envi- ronments with high degree of interconnection, groundwater flow is smoother and more uniformly.
- Fracture pattern description and analysis of the hard rock hydrogeological environment 51 Fracture intersection density is a map showing the frequency of intersections that occur in a unit cell. The purpose of using intersection density map is to esti- mate the areas of diverse fracture orientations. If the fractures do not intersect in an area, the resultant map will be represented by a plain map with almost no den- sity contours and the fractures are almost parallel or sub-parallel in an area. The lineaments intersection map of the study area (Fig. 3b) indicates high and very high intersection density in the same areas where there are observed very high density of lineaments. Fig. 3. Lineaments (a) density and (b) intersection density maps of Naxos island. 5 Conclusions The fracture pattern of an area is straightly connected with the hydrogeological conditions in a hard rock environment. A thorough study is practical for the right exploitation of groundwater supplies in regions with water scarcity problems. The analysis of the fractures in Naxos Island revealed that: The combination of Remote Sensing, GIS and field work, leads to a reli- able description of the fracture pattern in hard rock environments. Five orientation classes of fractures are located in the study area. The three main classes have NNE-SSW, NE-SW and ENE-WSW strike, while the two secondary classes have E-W and N-S strike. a b
- 52 A.S. Partsinevelou et al. Fractures have the same main orientation classes with faults, a fact which indicates the straight link between them. The biggest total length of fractures and the smallest length of fractures per unit area are observed in marbles. Measuring these dimensions in all li- thologies it reveals that they are reversely proportional. Also it is noted a high homogeneity of the fragmentation in all lithologies. Very high density and interconnection density of the fractures are observed in areas where the alternations between marbles, schists and amphibolites are very intense. References Botsialas K, Vassilakis E, Stournaras G (2005) Fracture pattern description and analysis of the hard rock hydrogeological environment, in a selected study area in Tinos island, Hellas. 7th Hellenic Hydrogeological Conference - Athens 2005, Volume II, pp. 91-100 Brichau St (2004) Constraining the tectonic evolution of extensional fault systems in the Cy- clades (Greece) using low-temperature thermochronology. PhD Thesis, Mainz University Evelpidou N (2003) Geomorphological and geographical observations on Naxos Island, using Remote Sensing and G.I.S. methods, PhD Thesis, N.K.U.A., Greece Evelpidou N, Leonidopoulou D, Vassilopoulos A, Stournaras G (2005) Procedures concluded to erosion geomorphological characteristics of Naxos, Mykonos, Tinos islands (Aegean Sea). 7th Hellenic Hydrogeological Conference - Athens 2005, Volume II, pp. 117-125 Galanos I, Rokkos D (1999) Exploring the possibility of lithological and structural mapping us- ing principal component analysis on Landsat TM images of Naxos island. Tech. Chron. Sci. J. TCG, I, No 3, pp. 89-91 Glcan S (2005) Lineament analysis from satellite images, north-west of Ankara, MSc Thesis, Middle East Technical University Jansen J., 1977.The geology of Naxos. Institute of Geological and Mining Research, Greece Krasny J., 1996. Hydrogeological Environment in Hard Rocks: An attempt at its schematizing and terminological consideration. Acta Univesitatis Carolinae Geologica, 40, 115-122 Krasny J (2002) Hard Rock Hydrogeology. 1st Workshop on Fissured Rocks Hydrogeology Pro- ceedings, Athens, pp. 11-18 OLeary DW, Friedman JD, Pohn HA (1976) Lineament, linear, lineation: Some proposed new standards for old terms. Geological Society America Bulletin, 87, 1463-1469. Scanvic JY (1997) Aerospatial remote sensing in geology. Rotterdam, Balkema, 239 p Stournaras G, Alexiadou Ch, Leonidopoulou D (2003) Correlation of hydrogeologic and tectonic characteristics of the hard rock aquifers in Tinos Island (Aegean Sea, Hellas). International Conference on Groundwater in Fractured Rocks, Prague
- 53 Quantitative investigation of water supply conditions in Thassos, N. Greece Th. Tzevelekis, I. Gkiougkis, Chr. Katimada, I. Diamantis Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Civil Engineering, Geotechnical Section, Laboratory of Engineering Geology, Xanthi, 67100, Greece. Abstract Lack of available water resources is a typical problem for the water supply of Greek islands which is difficult to be confronted with the use of groundwater resources (groundwater wells and springs). However, it is proved that the availability of water resources in Thassos island (N. Greece) is rather satisfac- tory due to the geological settings of the island itself. Although no water supply problems are observed during the winter months for the local population, the prob- lem becomes quite distinct during the summer period due to the sudden increase in population attributed to the touristic development of the island. The interpretation of the water supply balance (water consumption vs. available water resources) leads to the conclusion that this balance is positive during winter in all municipal districts and negative during summer in 60% of the municipal districts. 1 Introduction Thassos island is located at the most northern part of the Thracean Sea (N. Greece), being at a distance of 7 to 8 miles from the coast of Eastern Macedonia (very close to Keramoti Bay) and south of Nestos river delta. The water supply of all settlements of the island is satisfied by the use of groundwater wells, springs or in some cases by combination of both. The springs are located mainly at the mountainous zone of the island, while the groundwater wells are mainly installed at places of topographical depression (Fig. 1) (Diamantis et al. 1994). The availability of water supply mainly depends on the seasonal fluctuation of the island population (permanent/local and touristic population), the condition of the water supply distribution system (hence water losses) and finally on the amount of annual precipitation (Leontiadis et al. 1996; Karavitis and Kerkides 2002). Additionally, it is observed that general household uses of water (e.g. irri- gation of small house gardens) also affect the availability of water supply of the is- land. The evaluation of the balance between water consumption and water re- sources availability (with respect to water supply) indicates the water supply quantitative problems in different settlements at different seasons throughout the N. Lambrakis et al. (Eds.), Advances in the Research of Aquatic Environment, Vol. 2 DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-24076-8, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011
- 54 Th. Tzevelekis et al. hydrological year and therefore rational recommendations can be proposed in or- der overcome such water supply problems. 2 Geomorphological, geological and hydrogeological setting Thassos island regards three unique geomorphological settings: (a) the coastal set- ting, (b) the hilly and semi-hilly setting and (c) the mountainous setting. Most of the island area is covered by small torrents of radial order (with the eastern and north-eastern part being the centre) while the estuaries of these torrentsare are composed of small alluvial fans which are formed. From a geological point of view, Thassos island is a part of Rhodope massif, consisting mainly of metamorphic rocks (marbles, gneisses, shales) being devel- oped within successive stratigraphic horizons (Zahos 1977). A small area of extent is covered by tertiary formations mainly composed of conglomerates, while the quaternary formations (sands, gravels, pebbles and breccias) are present at the ar- eas covered by alluvial fans close to the coast (Fig. 1). The hydrogeological unities of the island are mainly classified into the follow- ing formations: (a) metamorphic rocks (except marbles), (b) marbles and (c) sedi- mentary rocks (at the hilly and semi-hilly parts of the coastal parts). Groundwater potential of the metamorphic rocks (apart from marbles) is rather limited; with the majority of the groundwater wells which are installed at these areas having a dis- charge of 818 m3 /h. The discharge of the mountainous springs is most of the cas- es approximately 2 m3 /h, with annual fluctuations which respond to the annual precipitation (Diamantis and Tzevelekis 1992). The main aquifer unities of the is- land are the marbles at parts which are karstified- providing with water of excel- lent quality and enough quantity for the supply of the local population (through groundwater wells and springs). 3 Quantitative analysis of the water availability Springs located at the parts of the mountainous zone are the main source of water supply of Thassos; while during the summer period -when their discharge is lim- ited due to limited precipitation- the water supply needs (mainly of the coastal set- tlements which are highly touristic) are supported by the installed groundwater wells.
- Quantitative investigation of water supply conditions in Thassos, N. Greece 55 Fig. 1. Geological map of Thassos Island and positions of wells and springs (from IGME Geo- logical map 1:200,000, modified). Tables 1 and 2, provide an overview of the water supply balance (consumption vs. available water resources) based on measurements and data of the Municipal Enterprise for Water Supply and Sewerage of Thassos (Katimada 2010). Table 1 shows the results from the interpretation of data for the period October June, which mainly regards the local (permanent) population, while Table 2 shows the results referring to August (period of touristic peak) where the population is six times higher than the permanent. Columns (1) and (2) of Table 1 show the mean discharge of the springs and groundwater wells during the winter period as they were recorded by the local au- thorities (Papacharalambos 2007).
- 56 Th. Tzevelekis et al. The calculations for mean monthly consumption shown in column (3) are based on the census 2001 data and daily consumption of 0.22 m3 /person /day. The daily consumption in column (4) considers also an amount of 18% of water losses (due to water supply network failures) based on relative assessment of the Municipal Enterprise for Water Supply and Sewerage of Thassos. The mean daily discharge in column (5) for both groundwater wells and springs considered 18hrs/day pump- ing operation of the groundwater wells and 24hrs/day water abstraction of the springs. The interpretation of the data presented in Table 1, shows that for the pe- riod October June, a significant excess of water supply is observed, and this ob- servation regards all the settlements of the island. A significant excess of available water resources is observed at the Municipal District of Potamia where karst springs are present. Table 2, columns (1) and (2) show the discharge from springs and groundwater wells for August, as they are recorded by the Municipal Enterprise for Water Sup- ply and Sewerage of Thassos, which appears in much lower rates. The calculations for the monthly consumption of August - column (3) - was based on the peak population (touristic peak) and daily consumption of 0.22 m3 /person /day for both natives (permanent) as well as tourists. The daily demand in column (4) refers on- ly to the weekends of August, considering an additional amount of water supply network loses of 18% (based on data of the Municipal Enterprise for Water Sup- ply and Sewerage of Thassos). At this point it has to be noted that the total popula- tion of the island; during the weekends of August reaches an amount of approxi- mately 77,000 people (against 13,765 habitats during the remaining period of the year) -including both tourists and locals- and therefore the calculations of column (4) regards the maximum possible water supply demands. The daily discharge in column (5) was calculated after considering a 24hrs/day abstraction of the karst springs and 18hrs/day pumping operation of the groundwater wells. The interpre- tation of the results of Table 2 shows that during August, 6 Municipal Districts show a shortage in water supply availability. The comparison of Table 1 and 2 reveals that the mean discharge of the springs is significantly lowered during the summer period, especially in August, while on the contrary, the mean discharge of the groundwater wells appears almost for the entire summer period (June September; with the exception of August). With re- spect to August, 7 Municipal Districts show a decrease of 10-20% while in the rest 3 the decrease ranges between 70-75%.
- Quantitative investigation of water supply conditions in Thassos, N. Greece 57 Table1.Watersupplybalance(consumptionvs.wateravailability)fortheislandofThassosduringtheperiodOctoberJune. Municipal District Springdischarge (m3 /d)October Juneduringwin- ter Maximumabstrac- tionratefrom groundwaterwells (m3 /d) Monthlyconsumption (m3 )duringOctober June(census2001) Meandailyconsumption (m3 /d)duringOctober June(18%networkwater losses) Dailywatersupplyrates(m3 /d) (24hrsdailywaterabstraction fromspringsand18hrsdaily pumpingoperationofgroundwa- terwells) Difference (m3 /d) (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6) Limenas9603,96020,7248153,9303,115 Panagia2,520-5,6032202,5202,300 Potamia63,1201,9208,32932864,56064,232 Theologos5,0884,20011,5374558,2387,783 Limenaria1,1522,20816,1836372,8082,171 Maries1,4409603,6901452,1602,015 Kallirahi1,0801,2488,4613332,0161,683 Prinos3,2401,2008,9823534,1403,787 Sotiras2889602,5871021,008906 Rahoni2,6882,8804,7521874,8484,661 TOTAL81,57619,53690,8483,57496,22892,654
- 58 Th. Tzevelekis et al. Table2.Watersupplybalance(consumptionvs.wateravailability)fortheislandofThassosduringAugust. Municipal Disctrict Totaldischarge(springs(2)and groundwaterwells(3))(m3 /d) Monthlycon- sumption(m3 ) Consumptionduringweek- ends(m3 /d)(18%network waterlosses) Dailywatersupplyrates (m3 /d)(24hrs/daywater abstractionfromsprings and18hrs/daypumping operationofgroundwater wells) Percentageofdaily watersupplywith respecttothere- mainingperiod Difference (m3 /d) (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7) Limenas9603,84099,1124,1693,8402.3%-329 Panagia1,680-29,5681,2441,68033.3%436 Potamia3,6001,68037,2041,5654,86092.5%3,295 Theologos4,3203,36069,9272,9426,84017%3,898 Limenaria9601,80079,6093,3492,31017.7%-1,039 Maries60024022,73795278063.9%-172 Kallirahi1921,24845,6521,9211,12844%-793 Prinos9601,20046,3781,9511,86055.1%-91 Sotiras24024014,58661442058.3%-194 Rahoni72096025,0871,0551,44070.3%385 TOTAL14,23214,568469,86019,76225,158
- Quantitative investigation of water supply conditions in Thassos, N. Greece 59 4 Conclusions The water supply availability in the island of Thassos mainly depends on the pop- ulation fluctuation between summer and winter period, the condition of the water supply network (percentage of water losses) as well as on the amount of annual precipitation (Katimada 2010). The availability in water resources is found to be satisfactory mainly in winter, in contrast to the majority of the Greek islands in the Aegean Sea, with the need of making proper interventions during the summer pe- riod to provide water to the local and the touristic population. During the winter period, there is an over-excess of available water resources for all the settlements of the island, with a daily supply rate of 96,228 m3 . The ex- cess in available water is estimated up to 92,654 m3 /daily, with the exception of the Municipal District of Potamia which amounts up to 64,232 m3 /day (67%) due to the presence of the karst springs at the area. The majority of the water supply needs are covered by the springs of the island, whereas the groundwater wells are mostly used for supporting purposes. During the summer period the total (both springs and groundwater wells) water supply amounts 25,158 m3 /day (74% less than the water supply in winter). There is a significant difference in water resources availability between the winter and summer period mainly due to the following reasons: (a) extreme population during the summer period (b) decrease in water discharge in springs and some groundwa- ter wells. Specifically in August, a month of touristic peak, only 4 out of 10 Mu- nicipal Districts, show water surplus. The water discharge from the springs is sig- nificantly limited during the summer, especially when the precipitation during the winter period is limited. During these conditions, there is a need for the exploita- tion of the groundwater wells of the coastal sedimentary aquifer and this practice results to the encroachment of seawater and hence to groundwater salinization. Due the fact above, the availability of water supply is not enough to fully cover the needs for the daily water consumption; problem which is more pronounced during August. Additionally some settlements show water shortage during some summer months mainly due to the decrease in spring discharge. The confrontation of the water supply problems in many Municipal Districts of Thassos, during the summer period can be achieved with the following measures: Development of specific water works for the improvement of the water exploitation of the springs Exploitation of new springs selecting from the existing springs that are not yet exploited (numbering in 81 springs), after studying their hydrogeologi- cal potential. Increase of the volume of available water by constructing special water tanks capable to store appropriate amounts Replacement of older parts of water pipelines of the water supply network in order to minimize further losses. Construction of small surface water works (water tanks, small dams)
- 60 Th. Tzevelekis et al. Joint management of water resources between different municipal districts (re-distribution of the water from springs and groundwater wells from places with water surplus to places of water shortage. References Diamantis , Tzevelekis Th, Georgiadis P (1994) Hydrogeological behavior of formations in Thassos Island. Problems with the exploitation of the water resources potential. Proceedings of the 4th Conference of the Geological Society of Greece, Volume III/4, 173-182, (in Greek) Zahos S (1977) Report for the geological mapping of Thassos Island, (in Greek). IGME, Institute of Geological and Mineral Exploration. Part of geological map (scale 1:200,000), (in Greek) Diamantis , Tzevelekis Th (1992) Hydrogeological and hydrochemical conditions in the coastal alluvial fans of Thasos island. Proceedings of the 2nd Hellenic Hydrogeological Conference. Bulletin of Cyprus Association of Geologists and Mining Engineers (6) 131-148, (in Greek) Karavitis C A, Kerkides P (2002) Estimation of the Water Resources Potential in the Island Sys- tem of the Aegean Archipelago, Greece, Water International, Volume 27, Issue 2, pages 243 - 254 Katimada Chr ( 2010) Water resources management of Thassos island in terms of origin, quality and quantity. Diploma Thesis. Department of Civil Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi, Greece, (in Greek) Leontiadis I L, Vergis S and Christodoulou Th (1996) Isotope hydrology study of areas in East- ern Macedonia and Thrace, Northern Greece, Journal of Hydrology, Volume 182, Issues 1-4, pp. 1-17 Papacharalampos Chr (2007) Assessment of the water supply needs of Thassos Island. Assess- ment for the Municipal Enterprise for Water Supply and Sewerage of Thassos (in Greek)
- 61 Hydrological properties of Yesilcay (Agva) Stream Basin (NW Turkey) H. Keskin Citiroglu1 , I.F. Barut2 , A. Zuran3 1 Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Engineering Faculty Department of Geological Engineering, 67100 Zonguldak, Turkey (email@example.com) 2 Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, 34116 Vefa- Istanbul, Turkey (firstname.lastname@example.org) 3 State Hydraulic Works 14th. Regional Directorate, 34696, K. Camlca-Istanbul, TURKEY (email@example.com) Abstract This study seeks to determine the hydrological and hydrogeological properties of the basin of Yesilcay (Agva) Stream which runs 19.2 km through the settlement of Agva and flows into the Black Sea (Turkey). To this end, the pre- cipitation and evaporation characteristics of the study area were calculated by means of the Thornthwaite (1948) and Schendel (1968) methods on the basis of the meteorological data for the last 45 years (1966-2010). It was deduced that the Schendel method yielded results very close to values of pan evaporation measured in the area. Therefore, this method is more suitable to use for the study area. The calculations performed reveal that precipitation occurring in the study area will not be sufficient to have access to the amount of water that can be used safely. Therefore, it is of great significance to utilize as water source the karstic lime- stones present in the study area, and Yesilcay and Goksu Streams flowing into the Black Sea. 1 Introduction Agva is a recreation and tourism centre on the Anatolian side of Istanbul close to the province of Izmit (Kocaeli, Turkey). It is a township of Sile and lies 40 km to the north. Construction activities in Agva, which lies on the Black Sea, are con- centrated in a delta situated between Goksu Stream and Agva Stream. Its climate has characterized by climates of the Black Sea region, the Balkans and Anatolia. Agva referred to as Yesilcay in official records is a Latin word meaning a village situated between two streams. It has a natural beach 50 m wide and 3 km long. Agva lies within the area where feasibility study is carried out for Isakoy, Sun- gurlu and Kabakoz Dams to be built in the framework of the Yesilcay Project. The present study is aimed at determining the hydrological and hydrogeological prop- erties of the Yesilcay (Agva) Stream Basin. N. Lambrakis et al. (Eds.), Advances in the Research of Aquatic Environment, Vol. 2 DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-24076-8, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011
- 62 H. Keskin Citiroglu et al. 2 Geological setting Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks occurring to the north of Istanbul comprise conglomerate with an intercalation of sandstone, siltstone, marl, claystone and li- mestone, and displays the properties of flysch (Yeniyol and Ercan 1989/1990). Marly elements of Upper Cretaceous age are encountered around Dudubayir Hill and extend to the west running along the coast. Marls crop out along the highway running between Isakoy and Agva (Ertek 1995). The Eocene limestones with lay- ers of medium thickness are composed of limestone and marls. Marls present in the study area and limestones overlying them harmoniously lie along the Black Sea coast and run from the east to the west. The stratigraphic formation contains clayey limestone, sandy limestone, sandstone and limestone. Quaternary sedi- ments made up of alluvium and beach sand cover a wide area around the township of Agva (Yesilcay) and Agva (Yesilcay) Stream. The sand is uncemented and has low clay content (Fig. 1). Fig. 1. Location and geological map of the study area (GDMR 2002). 3 Hydrology and hydrogeology of the study area Extensive meteorological studies were carried out in order to provide insight into the hydrological and hydrogeological properties of the study area. The arithmetic average was taken of meteorological data obtained from the records of The State Meteorological Station covering the last 45 years (TSMS 2010) and the precipita- tion and evaporation characteristics of the study area were determined. The maxi- mum amount of water lost due to evaporation and transpiration depending on the climatic conditions yields potential evapotranspiration (Etp). Potential evapotran- spiration (Etp) and real evapotranspiration (Etr) occurring in the study area were calculated by means of the Thornthwaite (1948) and Schendel (1968) methods on the basis of the data relating to average monthly temperature and relative humidity measured by The State Meteorological Station (Equations 1 and 2 respectively) (Thornthwaite 1948, Schendel 1968).
- Hydrological properties of Yesilcay (Agva) Stream Basin (NW Turkey) 63 iI t ip I t Etp a , 5 , 10 16 514.1 (1) 49239.01079.11071.71075.6 22537 IIIa 480 h t Etp (2) where Etp is potential evapotranspiration (mm), t average monthly temperature (C), i monthly temperature index, I total annual temperature index, p latitude cor- rection coefficient and h relative humidity (%). 3.1 Precipitation and temperature It is evident from the average of meteorological data for the last 45 years that pre- cipitation increases starting from October and continues to fall heavily until Feb- ruary. The total precipitation height for the study area in the last 45 years (1966- 2010) was found to be 812.1 mm. The area receives less precipitation in the months of May, June and July compared to the other months, and the most pre- cipitation falls in winter. 34.7% of total annual precipitation occurs in winter, 18.6% in spring, 13.7% in summer and 33% in autumn (Fig. 2a). Average annual temperature that is experienced in the area is 14.1 C, with the highest average an- nual temperature of 23.4 C occurring in August and the lowest in February with 5.6 C (Fig. 2b). The decrease in temperature occurring in November gives way to an increase starting from April. Fig. 2 a. Average precipitation and, b. temperature for the last 45 years (1966-2010).
- 64 H. Keskin Citiroglu et al. 3.2 Evaporation The amounts of evaporation calculated using the Schendel method (1968) and the water balance values are given in Table 1, and the graph depicting annual varia- tions in precipitation-potential evaporation in Figure 3a. The calculations per- formed reveal that October experiences the highest real evapotranspiration (Etr) (99.7 mm) and July the lowest (30 mm). Table 1. Water balance for the study area calculated using the Schendel (1968) method (period of 1966-2010). Features Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov.Dec. Total Precipitation P 96.6 68.7 68.1 46.0 36.9 30.7 30.0 50.5 72.2 100.895.5 116.2812.1 Temperature t 5.7 5.6 7.3 11.7 16.5 21 23.3 23.4 19.7 15.6 11.5 8.0 169.3 Relative humidity h75.6 73.5 72.4 69.2 69.2 66.1 67.6 69.7 70.7 75.1 74.9 74.7 858.7 Etp 36.2 36.6 48.4 81.2 114.5152.5 165.4 161.2 133.899.7 73.7 51.4 1154.6 P-Etp 60.4 32.1 19.7 -35.2 -77.6 -121.8-135.4-110.7-61.6 1.1 21.8 64.8 -342.4 Reserve water 100 100 100 64.8 00 00 00 00 00 1.1 22.9 87.7 - Etr 36.2 36.6 48.4 81.2 101.730.7 30.0 50.5 72.2 99.7 73.7 51.4 712.3 Water shortage 00 00 00 00 -12.8 -121.8-135.4-110.7-61.6 00 00 00 -442.3 Water surplus 60.4 32.1 19.7 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 112.2 Runoff 30.2 31.2 25.4 12.7 6.4 3.2 1.6 0.8 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.05 112.2 Humidity rate % 1.7 0.9 0.4 -0.4 -0.7 -0.8 -0.8 -0.7 -0.5 0.01 0.3 1.3 - Table 2. Water balance (period of 1966-2010) calculated using the Thornthwaite (1948) method. Features Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total Precipitation P 96.6 68.7 68.1 46.0 36.9 30.7 30.0 50.5 72.2 100.895.5 116.2812.1 Temperature t 5.7 5.6 7.3 11.7 16.5 21 23.3 23.4 19.7 15.6 11.5 8.0 169.3 M. temp. index i1.22 1.19 1.77 3.62 6.10 8.78 10.28 10.35 7.97 5.60 3.53 2.04 62.45 Lat. correction p0.83 0.83 1.03 1.11 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.19 1.04 0.96 0.82 0.80 - Etp 11.6111.3120.7544.8183.75 120.45141.51 133.4390.48 59.2232.2718.44768.03 P-Etp 84.9957.3947.351.19 -46.85-89.75 -111.51-82.93 -18.2841.5863.2397.7644.17 Reserve water 100 100 100 100 53.15 00 00 00 00 41.58100 100 - Etr 11.6111.3120.7544.8183.75 83.45 30.0 50.5 72.2 59.2232.2718.44518.31 Water shortage 00 00 00 00 00 -37.0 -111.51-82.93 -18.2800 00 00 -249.72 Water surplus 84.9957.3947.351.19 00 00 00 00 00 00 63.2397.76351.91 Runoff 42.5 50 48.6 24.9 12.5 6.2 3.1 1.6 0.8 0.4 31.8 64.8 287.2 Humidity rate %7.3 5.1 2.3 0.0 -0.6 -0.8 -0.8 -0.6 -0.2 0.7 2.0 5.3 -
- Hydrological properties of Yesilcay (Agva) Stream Basin (NW Turkey) 65 In addition, total annual real evapotranspiration (Etp) occurring in the area has a value of 712.3 mm. As to potential evapotranspiration (Etp), it is the highest in July (165.4 mm) and the lowest in January (36.2 mm). The area has 1154.6 mm of total annual potential evapotranspiration (Etp). Starting October until April, the amount of precipitation occurring in the study area is greater than that of potential evapotranspiration. The reserves of soil moisture are depleted from late April to mid-May. The shortage of water that is experienced from mid-May until late Sep- tember amounts to 442.3 mm. During this period cultivated land requires irriga- tion. A portion of 712.3 mm that is about 87.7%, of the total annual precipitation of 812.1 mm falling in the area is released back into the atmosphere through eva- potranspiration. Water surplus accounts for about 13.8% of total precipitation. The values of evaporation amounts and water balance calculated by means of the Thornthwaite (1948) method are illustrated in Table 2 and the graph depicting monthly variations in rainfall-potential evaporation in Figure 3b. Fig. 3. Graphs illustrating variations in precipitation and evapotranspiration in months according to a. the Schendel method b. the Thornthwaite method (period of 1966-2010). It is clear from the calculations performed that the highest real evapotranspira- tion (Etr) (83.75 mm) occurs in May and the lowest (11.31 mm) is experienced in February. Also, the area has 518.31 mm of total annual evapotranspiration (Etr). The highest potential evapotranspiration (Etp) (141.51 mm) was observed in July and the lowest (11.31 mm) in February. Total annual potential evapotranspiration (Etp) the area experiences is 768.03 mm. Potential evaporation taking place in the period from October to May is higher than transpiration. The soil moisture re- serves are used up by mid-May. The water shortage occurring from mid-May to late September 249.72 mm, making it necessary for the cultivated land in the area to be irrigated during this period. 518.31 mm, that is to say 63.8%, of a total an- nual precipitation of 812.1 mm falling in the area is sent back into the atmosphere by means of evapotranspiration. The water surplus is 43.3% of total precipitation.
- 66 H. Keskin Citiroglu et al. A comparison of the results from the two methods employed reveals that the Schendel method yields maximum values and the Thornthwaite method minimum ones except water surplus (Table 3). Considering the humidity rates and the amounts of water shortage, the months when water is in short supply cover the pe- riod from April to October on the basis of the Schendel method and the period from May to September on the basis of the Thornthwaite method. Table 3. Evaporation parameters obtained by means of different methods (period of 1966-2010). Evaporation Members (mm) Precipitation P Etp Etr Water shortage Water surplus Schendel (1968) method 812.1 1154.6 712.3 -442.3 112.2 Thornthwaite (1948) method 812.1 768.03 518.31 -249.72 351.91 3.3 Runoff Water surplus calculated using the Schendel (1968) method was determined to be 112.2 mm and 13.8% of precipitation. In view of total annual runoff calculated to be 112.2 mm, the portion of precipitation comprising 13.8% runs over the land surface (Table 1). Water surplus calculated by means of the Thornthwaite method was found to be 351.91 mm. Water surplus which makes up 43.3% of precipita- tion. Considering total annual runoff established to be 287.2 mm, 35.4% of pre- cipitation joins surface runoff. After that part of water surplus that joins surface runoff is subtracted from the total, the remaining 64.71 mm comprising 8% of to- tal annual precipitation is infiltrated into the soil (Table 2). The period when water surplus and surface runoff occur covers the months from January to March on the basis of the Schendel (1968) method and the months from November to April on the basis of the Thornthwaite (1948) method. 3.4 Water balance The water source that feeds the 395 km study area is precipitation. The area has 812.1 mm of total average precipitation. For the study area of 395 km, the amount of precipitation that falls in the water catchment area equals 320.78x106 m/year. The amount of annual real evaporation in the area calcu- lated is to be 712.3 mm on the basis of the Schendel method is 281.36x106 m/year of water for a catchment area of 395 km. In this case, the difference between gain and loss is 39.42x106 m/year. The amount of annual real evapo- ration is calculated to be 518.31 mm using the Thornthwaite method, which equals to 204.7x106 m/year for the same precipitation area. The difference be- tween gain and loss is 116.1x106 m/year (Table 4).
- Hydrological properties of Yesilcay (Agva) Stream Basin (NW Turkey) 67 Table 4. Water balance for the study area (period of 1966-2010). Methods Gain (m3 /year) Loss (m3 /year) Difference between gain and loss Schendel (1968) Precipitation 320.78x106 Evaporation 281.36 106 39.42x106 Thornthwaite (1948) Precipitation 320.78x106 Evaporation 204.7x106 116.1x106 3.5 Yesilcay (Agva) stream Agva (Yesilcay) Stream, which has a very curving course from Agva to the west, runs from Dudubayir Hill (84 m) to the north east extending to the slope made up of Upper Cretaceous limestones. Agva Stream called Yesilcay in this region fol- lows a course along the west side of Karapinar Hill which is composed of lime- stone and flows into the Black Sea (Fig. 4a). The stream is 19.2 km in length. 3.6 An approach to properties of the lithological units The geological units present in the study area are classified as permeable and semipermeable depending on their hydrogeological properties. The permeable units, that are the uncemented medium, are made up of alluvium, beach sand and backfill. The permeable units consist of sediments carried away from Yesilcay (Agva) Stream, material in the size range of uncemented sand, gravel and blocks, and alluvium. The uncemented sand extends along the shoreline as a strip. The semipermeable units are composed of Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks and Eocene limestones (Fig. 4b). Fig. 4. a. Satellite image (Google Earth 2011) and b. hydrogeological map of the study area.
- 68 H. Keskin Citiroglu et al. These units characterized by flysh properties, which are made up of conglom- erate and an intercalation of sandstone, siltstone, marl, claystone and limestone, are overlain by limestone and marls. Limestones that have melting spaces and fractures may contain a considerable amount of ground water. Eocene limestones that have karstification feature constitute the permeable medium. However, clay- stone, siltstone, firmly cemented sandstone occurring in the lower layers reduce the property of permeability. Eocene limestones may display the properties of kar- stic aquifers, but, as they are intercalated with impermeable units, they make up the semipermeable units. 4 Discussion Potential evapotranspiration (Etp) and real evapotranspiration (Etr) experienced in the study area were calculated using the Thornthwaite (1948) and Schendel (1968) methods and it was established that the Schendel method yielded maximum values and the Thornthwaite method minimum ones. When the real evaporation values obtained through the Thornthwaite and Schendel methods were compared with those of pan evaporation for the area, the Schendel method was determined to de- liver results that are very close to values of pan evaporation occurring in the area (TSMS 2010). Therefore, it is obvious that real evaporation values calculated on the basis of the Schendel method are more suitable to use. 5 Conclusions The stratigraphic formation existing in the study area contains marl, clayey lime- stone, sandy limestone, sandstone and limestone of Upper Cretaceous-Eocene ages, and Quaternary alluvium and beach sand. Yesilcay (Agva) Stream sedi- ments, uncemented sand, gravel, block-sized materials and alluvium constitute the hydrogeologically permeable units. The intercalations composed of Upper Creta- ceous sedimentary rocks and Eocene limestones make up the semipermeable rock medium. Based on water balance and evaporation calculated by means of the two different methods for the period 1966-2010, it can be stated that values obtained using the Schendel (1968) method is more suitable to use for the study area. The period when the area is short of water encompasses the months from April to Sep- tember. Water shortage experienced from mid-May to late September is 442.3 mm, which necessitates irrigation of cultivated land during this period. During the period from January to March, when water surplus and runoff occur, 13.8% of precipitation joins surface runoff. The amount of precipitation falling in the water catchment area is 320.78x106 m/year. The 712.3 mm annual real evaporation (Etr) occurring in the study area adds up to 281.36x106 m/year for the water
- Hydrological properties of Yesilcay (Agva) Stream Basin (NW Turkey) 69 catchment area of 395 km. In this case, the difference between gain and loss amounts to 39.42x106 m/year. This means that, considering this amount, precipi- tation experienced by the study area will not be sufficient enough for the amount of water that can be used safely. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to utilize karst limestones that occur in the study area and Yesilcay and Goksu Streams flowing into the Black Sea as a water source. References Ertek A (1995) Geomorphology of north-eastern part of Kocaeli Peninsula. antay Bookstore. Istanbul (in Turkish) GDMR (2002) Geological Maps of Turkey, scale 1: 500 000, No:1 Istanbul Section. General Di- rectorate of Mineral Research, Ankara Google Earth (2011) http://www.google.com.tr/earth/index.html Schendel U (1968) Messungen mit grundwasser lysimeter ber den wasserverbrauch aus oberfla- chennahem grunwasser. Z. Grundwasser. Kulturtechnik Flurbereich. Berlin/Hamburg. 9, 314- 326 Thornthwaite CW (1948) An approach a rational classification of climate, The Geographical Review. New York 38, 55-94 TSMS (2010) Meteorological data of Yesilcay Meteorological Station No:1071 and Kocaeli Meteorological Station No:17066. Turkish State Meteorological Service, Ankara Yeniyol M, Ercan T (1989/1990) Geology of North, petrochemical properties of Upper Cretaceous volcanism and regional dispersion in pontides. IU stanbul Earth Sciences Review 7 (1-2), 125-147 (in Turkish)
- 71 Application of the SWAT model for the investigation of reservoirs creation K. Kalogeropoulos1 , C. Chalkias1 , E. Pissias2 , S. Karalis2 1 Department of Geography, Harokopio University, El. Venizelou Str., Kalithea, 17671 Athens, Greece b Department of Surveying Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Ag. Spyridonos Str., 12210 Aigaleo, Athens, Greece Abstract Efficient Water Management is an important factor for regional devel- opment and requires a set of actions in order to manage water resources in a sus- tainable way. This paper describes a methodology of water resources exploitation, with the potential of creating small mountainous and upland reservoirs. This can be done with the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), while us- ing the SWAT hydrological modeling and Reservoir Simulation software. Andros Island was chosen as the study area. This project involves the hydrologic analysis and the assessment of runoff (using SWAT model for a 100 years simulation in the Afrouses basin). In two different selected sites, the feasibility of constructing a dam with the simultaneous creation of a reservoir based on annual failure rates of deliverability of certain volume of water is investigated. 1 Introduction The sustainable management of the environment, even if it has global characteris- tics, it is a tool for decision making in any area. Water resources management is a crucial action in this direction and could not be treated apart from this overall framework. Andros is a gifted island in terms of water potential in relation to other Cycladian islands. However, as many islands in Cyclades, Andros is peri- odically deficient in water balance. This lack is either high or low depending on many reasons. Small reservoirs, instead big reservoirs (over 150.000m3 ), is based on a logic that takes into account economic criteria, social necessities and envi- ronmental commitments (Forzieri et al. 2008) such as economic and sustainable growth of small regions, ecological flow, conservation of landscape regime etc. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of creating small res- ervoir with the construction of a small dam. This investigation is possible by ap- plying the hydrological model SWAT and exploitive the given results in terms of surface runoff (Schuol et al. 2008). The rainfall-runoff modeling approach is used in order to investigate if the total runoff is adequate to justify the creation of a res- N. Lambrakis et al. (Eds.), Advances in the Research of Aquatic Environment, Vol. 2 DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-24076-8, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011
- 72 K. Kalogeropoulos et al. ervoir in the selected sites, based on total annual discharge, rock formation perme- ability, appropriate topography, protection of lowland settlements etc. This study is actually an attempt in order to find the annual discharge in a place (Andros) with great uncertainty in terms of hydrological data due to lack of meteorological stations on it. 2 Study area Andros is the northernmost island of Cyclades with an area of 374km2 and a pe- rimeter of 176km. The entire island has a mountainous topography with a central mountainous area (highest peak is 997m). In order to develop the proposed meth- odology Afrouses basin was chosen. This basin has an area of 12.9km2 , a perime- ter of 28.70km and an average altitude of about 510m. Fig. 1. The study area, a. Greece, b. Andros Island, c. Afrouses basin. 3 Development of the methodological process 3.1 General The methodology followed in this study involves the application of the hydrologi- cal model SWAT (Neitsch et al. 2004) in Afrouses basin (in Andros), for the cal- culation of monthly runoff at two selected sites of the basin. Those sites are suit- able due to their topography (steep small gorges), position (almost in the center of Andros) and rock formations permeability (low or very low permeability). The simulated runoff is used as an entry data in the Reservoir Simulation software and
- Application of the SWAT model for the investigation of reservoirs creation 73 the monthly failure is examined in order to qualify the optimal positioning of the dam, the height of the dam and the annual volume of water release based on fail- ure rate of extraction of the required water volume. 3.2 The hydrological model SWAT The introduction of GIS technology led researchers to develop data processing au- tomations and to produce reliable simulation models. The hydrological model used in this work is SWAT (SWAT2009 version), acronym for Soil and Water Assessment Tool. The simulation of the hydrologic cycle in SWAT involves a large number of meteorological and spatial data (Zheng et al. 2010). SWAT uses the standard equations of hydrology to simulate the parameters of the hydrological cycle. The general equation which describes the hydrologic cycle is: )( 1 iiii t i it QRPETQRSWSW Where SWt is the content of the soil water (soil moisture), t is time in days, R is the daily precipitation, Q is the surface runoff, ET is the evapotranspiration, P is the infiltration and QR is the underground flow (Neitsch et al. 2004). The model also uses the curve number method to calculate runoff. The curve number method of SCS (Soil Conservation Service) is an empirical method widely used in the U.S. Curve number provides a method of manufacturing unit hydrograph through which water concentration times can be assessed/measured. Furthermore, one of the main characteristics of SWAT is the possibility of sub-division of a watershed or sub-watershed into smaller areas known as Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs). An HRU is a smaller entity within the catchment basin, which has the same characteristics of hydrologic soil type (same permeability), land use and slope. Input data are divided into two main categories: i) the spatial data and ii) the meteorological data. Spatial data a) Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The DEM of the study area was created within ArcGIS environment from digitized topographical data (Andros, Gavrion and Piso Meria map sheets, source: Hellenic Military Geographical Service -HMGS- scale of 1:50000). This type of DEM is suitable for hydrological analysis (Chaplot 2005).
- 74 K. Kalogeropoulos et al. b) Land cover map. In this study a map of the ILOTING Project by the Ministry of Agriculture is used. The correlation between ILOTING land cover and SWAT land cover database was implemented in order to import the land cover data of Andros to SWAT model. c) Soil map. An attempt was established in order to link the hydrological charac- teristics of the different geological formations of the standard 1:50000 geological maps of IGME (Institute of Geological and Mineral Exploration) to the SWAT da- tabase. The correlation was made by using the permeability of geological forma- tions (maps of IGME in relation to Master Management Plan by the Ministry of Development) with the corresponding permeability of model database soils. A ta- ble with the hydrologic / hydraulic characteristics of the geological formations of Andros Island is given below. Table 1. Hydrologic/Hydraulic characteristics of Andros rocks (source: Master Management Plan, Ministry Of Development and IGME, modified). Hydrogeololgy type Permeabity Description Alluvial 3 C Low-moderate Marble, limestone, dolomite 4 D Moderate-high Coarse torrential deposits, marine terraces 4 D Moderate-high Slates, amphibolites, quartzites 1 A Low-very low The selected map has a 25m x 25m raster analysis. This analysis is critical for the simulation within SWAT, since the model provides better results according to the accuracy of the map (Geza and McCray 2008). Fig. 2. Spatial data, a. Andros DEM, b. Land Cover Map (source: Ministry of Agriculture, modi- fied), c. Rocks formations permeability (source: Master Management Plan, Ministry of Devel- opment and IGME, modified).
- Application of the SWAT model for the investigation of reservoirs creation 75 Meteorological data SWAT provides the opportunity either to enter historical data of rainfall, tempera- ture, wind speed and solar radiation or to create a statistical weather station, in the absence of previous data. Andros Island has an unjustifiable lack of reliable pri- mary meteorological data (raw data). Therefore, the creation of a synthetic statisti- cal weather station was the only option. The rainfall data of this weather station was derived from the Study of Small reservoirs in Northern Cyclades Islands by the Ministry of Agriculture. Rainfall data (of Karystos: PK and Naxos: PN) are cor- related across Karystos-Naxos axis and Andros is treated as a part of this axis so that the necessary hydrological information can be attached. Based on the correla- tions of the rainfall data given by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS), the average monthly rainfall for Andros (PA) is determined as PA = 0.7* PK + 0.3* PN. Based on correlations of temperature data given by HNMS (for is- lands with available data) the average monthly temperature for Andros (TA) is de- termined as a combination of mean monthly temperature of Syros (TS) and Kary- stos (TK) TA = 0.5* TS + 0.5* TK. For the solar radiation a weather station from the SWAT database was used with the same latitude of Andros. The wind speed data was provided from the nearest weather station and specifically from Syros Island (source: HNMS). Simulation The next step was dedicated to the implementation of the simulation scenario. Si- mulation was carried out for two selected dam sites (the choice of two candidate sites for dam construction was based on the low permeability of the specific sites, the strength of the ground in a barrier 15m, and the total water demand around the area) and for Afrouses basin, in total. The simulation period was 100 years. The simulation was carried out for Afrouses basin in total and showed an aver- age annual rainfall of 565.2mm (the average annual rainfall imported into the model is 569.4mm- almost identical to that calculated by SWAT for a hundred years simulation) and surface runoff of about 291.1mm. This means that the mean annual percentage of drainage for Afrouses basin is 0.52. The basin water capacity is 23mm/km2 . This figure is almost in line with the numbers referring to the Mas- ter Management Plan (due to Framework Directive 2000/60) by the Ministry of Development, where the average annual rainfall is 661mm and the surface runoff is 293mm. In this plan the mean annual percentage of drainage for Afrouses basin is slightly reduced (0.44) by using a Thornwaite rainfall-runoff model, but the ba- sin water capacity is 23mm/km2 , same as the result of this study.
- 76 K. Kalogeropoulos et al. 3.3 Reservoir Simulation Reservoir Simulation software (version 7.0) simulates the reservoir operation of single or multiple feasibility and also can treat, practically, unlimited points that describe the change of reservoir volume in terms of pairs of level-area points. The input data required for the execution of Reservoir Simulation software are: a) Level- area Curve, b) Hydrologic Data (precipitation, temperature, input per day- carried out by SWAT), c) Latitude of the area under investigation, d) Annual ex- traction volume, e) Monthly outflow rates, f) Volumes function (m3 ) based on lower and upper levels operation (overflow and lack of energy) and g) Deviation. For each of the two selected sites the level-area curve is calculated at a topog- raphic chart (scale 1:5,000) of HMGS. Fig. 3. Level-Area-Volume curve, a. First dam site, b. Second dam site. The level-area curves for the two selected dam sites are presented in the previ- ous chart. As already mentioned, this study examines the possibility of creation of a reservoir based on the failure rates of deliverability of a certain water volume annually at the selected sites. The number of failures in months (where the offer does not meet the demand) is taken into account in order to calculate this. For ex- ample: Number of failures (in months) = 223 within Total months = 1200 The failure that arises is: 223/1200 = 0.18583 18.6%. For this study four scenarios of annual volume of water extraction (50, 100, 150 and 200.000m3 per year) were considered for each of the two dam sites and for eight different dam heights (8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15m). A certain sce- nario is adopted in terms of monthly outflow rates. These coefficients are smaller during months with low consumption (period without large demands for water for domestic use and irrigation), such as the period from October to March (coeffi- cients varies from 4 to 6% of the total usable volume) and increase during summer period (when in August a peak seasonal population, due to the tourists, is observed and the monthly outflow rate is up to 18%). The above mentioned coefficients are shown in the next Figure 4.
- Application of the SWAT model for the investigation of reservoirs creation 77 Fig. 4. Monthly outflow rates. Table 2 shows the failure rate, as discussed previously. It is obvious that the rate of failure increases as the requested water volume increases for every dam height and decreases as the dam height increases for each volume of extraction, as it is expected. The corresponding table of the failure rate for the second selected dam position is presented below. Similarly, for the second selected dam position the rate of failure increases as the requested water volume increases for every dam height and decreases as the dam height increases for each volume of (water) ex- traction. Table 2. Failure rates (%) for a variety of annual volume of water extraction and dam heights (first dam site). Annual volume of extraction (m3 ) Dam height (m) 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 50,000 14.3 9.9 4.9 2.8 0.7 0.3 0.2 0.0 100,000 24.9 23.1 19.2 17.4 9.0 8.9 5.8 3.2 150,000 29.4 28.3 26.9 24.8 21.7 20.1 17.3 12.2 200,000 32.4 31.4 29.8 28.3 27.8 25.3 22.8 20.8 Table 3. Failure rates (%) for a variety of annual volume of water extraction and dam heights (second dam site). Annual volume of extraction (m3 ) Dam height (m) 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 50,000 6.9 3.1 0.8 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100,000 20.4 16.7 12.9 6.7 3.7 0.9 0.3 0.1 150,000 25.8 24.1 19.8 17.5 12.3 7.8 4.1 1.5 200,000 29.3 27.3 26.0 22.3 20.2 16.8 11.0 6.9
- 78 K. Kalogeropoulos et al. 4 Results - Discussion The methodology described above is only a part (although significant) of the total decision making policy and the simulation results are satisfactory, based on the as- sumptions made and the data which is used (Bouraoui et al. 2005). Taking this in- to account, the conclusions from the reservoir simulation are: 1. For small volumes up to 50.000m3 , the creation of a reservoir in the first se- lected site is possible. For dam height of 8m the failure is 14.3% and for dam height 9m the failure falls below 10% (9.9%), which is the limit of acceptable failure. 2. It is obvious that the first site is inappropriate for the creation of a reservoir, in order to meet the demand for large volumes of water extraction (from the res- ervoir). For this site the failure is about 20%, even for a dam height of 15m and a volume of 200,000m3 , which is quite high percentage and not acceptable to meet the demand (based on the results, failure mainly occurs during the sum- mer season). Thus the first site is insufficient to meet water needs. 3. The second dam site is selected as the most reliable solution for large usable volume of about 200.000m3 . A dam height up to 15m is satisfactory in order to meet water needs for this amount of water extraction from the reservoir (ac- ceptable failure rate of 7%). These findings are not panacea in order to take a decision towards the construc- tion of a dam and the simultaneous creation of a reservoir. It is necessary to take into account and prioritize some additional functions, such as the control curves (Adeloye et al. 2003). Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge Assistant Professor Andreas Tsatsaris (Director of the GeoInformatics Laboratory, Department of Surveying Engineering of the Tech- nological Educational Institute of Athens) for his assistance and provision of data. This paper is an application of the methodology developed within the research project Exploitation of the sur- face runoff on the Island of Andros in the creation of mountain water reservoirs (2009-2011) undertaking by Water Resources Management Laboratory of the Department of Surveying Engi- neering of the Technological Educational Institute of Athens. Thus, the authors acknowledge everyone who helped during this project. This project continues with the installation of a mete- orological station and with continuous water metering in the stream of Afrouses in order to im- prove the results of SWAT. References Adeloye A, Psarogiannis A, Montaseri M (2003) Improved heuristic reservoir operation using control curves incorporating the vulnerability norm, Water Resources Systems-Hydrological Risk, Management and Development (Proceedings of symposium HS02b held during IUGG2003 at Sapporo, July 2003), IAHS Publ. 281, 192-199 Bouraoui F, Benabdallah S, Jrad A, Bidoglio G (2005) Application of the SWAT model on the MedJerda river basin (Tunisia), Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 30, 497-507
- Application of the SWAT model for the investigation of reservoirs creation 79 Chaplot V (2005) Impact of DEM size and soil map on SWAT runoff, sediment, and NO3-N loads predictions, Journal of Hydrology 312, 207-222 Forzieri G, Gardenti M, Caparrini F, Castelli F, (2008) A methodology for the pre-selection of suitable sites for surface and underground small dams in arid areas: A case study in the region of Kidal, Mali, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 33, 74-85 Geza M, McCray J (2008) Effects of soil data resolution on SWAT model stream flow and water quality predictions, Journal of Environmental Management, 88, 393-406 Ministry of Development (2003) Master Management Plan, Andros Neitsch SL, Arnold JG, Kiniry JR, Srinivasan R, Williams JR (2004) Soil and Water Assessment Tool Input/Output File Documentation Version 2005, Grassland, Soil and Water Research Laboratory, USDA-ARS Schuol J, Abbaspour K, Shrinivasan R, Hong Y (2008) Estimation of freshwater availability in the West African sub-continent using the SWAT hydrologic model, Journal of Hydrology, 352, 30-49 Vlastou A, Kloni A (2010) Study of Positioning of Mountain Reservoir in Andros, undergradu- ate dissertation, Department of Surveying Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greek language) Zheng J, Li G, Han Z, Meng G (2010) Hydrological cycle simulation of an irrigation district based on a SWAT model, Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 51, 1312-1318
- 81 Evaluation of geological parameters for describing fissured rocks; a case study of Mantoudi - Central Euboea Island (Hellas) G. Yoxas, G. Stournaras Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, Department of Tectonic Dynamic and Applied Geology, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis Zografou, GR 15784, Athens, Greece, firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract The present paper is dealing with the analysis and characteristics of the discontinuous media, represented by the ophiolite nappe in central Euboea (Man- toudi). It is aiming at the conception, the development and the subsequent valida- tion of an integrated methodology for the description of fissured rocks, in the frame of intrinsic vulnerability assessment and mapping. The vulnerability is not being considered as a characteristic of a particular element at risk, but as a peculi- arity of a complex territorial system, in which the different elements are recipro- cally linked in a functional way. In order to estimate and to define both the quality and quantity, a group of parameters are being considered. The estimation and definition of those parameters are based on the geoenvironmental conditions of an area that may be vulnerable to contamination, in order to distinguish the geologi- cal, geomorphologic and hydrogeological criteria that affect the environmental impact of hard rock aquifers. These criteria are being calibrated in GIS so as to be able to support a correct territorial planning and a suitable management of the wa- ter resources protecting its quality which is essential to increase efficient use of existing water supplies. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis has been performed to evaluate the influence of single parameters on aquifer vulnerability assessment. 1 Introduction The increasing need of groundwater for water supply during the last decades, led to a continuous interest for groundwater in hard rocks. This interest was focused on a better knowledge about the hydrogeological environment of hard rocks and the recharge, flow and composition of groundwater as well (Krasny 1996). The hydraulic conditions of fissured rocks depend on climate conditions and on several factors, such as geomorphology, hydrolithology but mainly they are controlled by soil cover and the tectonic regime (Stournaras 2008). N. Lambrakis et al. (Eds.), Advances in the Research of Aquatic Environment, Vol. 2 DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-24076-8, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011
- 82 G. Yoxas, G. Stournaras The study area is located in Central Euboea Island (Mantoudi), 60 km far from the city of Chalkida. It covers an area of 71.4 km2 . The area of Mantoudi belongs to the Pelagonian Zone (Katsikatsos et al. 1986), the Pre-Upper Cretaceous tec- tonic nappe. Each geotectonic unit in Hellas, based on its lithological and tectonic structure develops certain type of aquifers and displays its own hydrogeological characteristics, so that the directions of the groundwater flow are related to the fracture pattern. 2 Geomorphological setting According to drainage network analysis, the Rh factor is 5.25, the hydrographic density RD is 3.05 km/km2 and the hydrographic frequency RF is 6.53 per km2 . Hortons Laws (Horton 1945) were also applied, in order to study the develop- ment stage of the drainage basin. The 1st order class are long with wide catchment areas. On the contrary 2nd order class and 3rd order class have a short length with narrow catchment areas. The hydrographic texture shows the interaction between the activities of deepening and surface resistance, while it influences the ability of surface flow in a region at the duration of intense floods (Knighton 1998). Two main factors are affecting the hydrographic texture; the factors that check the quantity and quality of water that remains in the surface and the factors that check its later distribution and its corrosion respectively. The first team relates itself with the climate, whilst the second one relates itself with the lithological structure, the vegetation, the ground characters and the topography. According to slope analysis, 86% of the total area represents a flat to semi-flat region. Taking into consideration the low values of hydrographic texture and low values of morphological slope, it is obvious that surface water is limited. Thus the intrinsic vulnerability is being affected as there is low possibility for infiltration of water, due to low permeability. 3 Geological setting The encountered geologic formations belong to Sub-Pelagonian Zone (Fig.1). It is characterized by the intense lithological transformations within its whole extent. The stratigraphy of the zone is the following (atsikatsos et al. 1986): Neo-Paleozoic formations which are composed of sandstones, phyllites and schists, Formations of Lower Middle Triassic which are composed of i) sandstones, ii) basic volcanic rocks and iii) intercalations of limestones. Neritic limestones of Middle Triassic - Upper Jurassic. Locally, the neritic se- dimentation passes to pelagic with radiolarites, pellites, clay, schists, etc.
- Evaluation of geological parameters for describing fissured rocks 83 Clastic formations of Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous which are composed of radiolites, conglomerates, sandstones and shales with olistostromes of ophio- lites. A tectonic nappe of pre upper Cretaceous age, which is divided in two tec- tonic units. A lower unit which is composed of volcano sedimentary forma- tions, and an upper one, which is composed by ophiolites. Formations of Upper Cretaceous composed of limestones, which are laying trangressively over the previous formation. Finally flysch of Paleocene occurs. Fig. 1. Geological map of the study area with rose diagrams of specific sites (by atsikatsos et al. 1986; Yoxas 2009; with modifications). The Euboea artificial Island, especially the central part, corresponds to the typi- cal Sub - Pelagonian zone and is consisted by Paleozoic basement, covered by non metamorphic Mesozoic formations, which present tectonic intercalations of ophio- lites (Migiros 1983b). Among the different lithostratigraphic phases, the potential and existing fractured rocks aquifers on the Central part of Euboea mainly belong to the following sequences. The crystalline basement presents a thickness over 800 m of gneiss and gneis- sic schist. The upper part is composed by mica and amphibolitic schist, while the carbonate rocks are entirely absent. The Neopaleozoic sequence is consisted by sandstones, sandstones-schists, arkoses, graywackes and clay schists. The Lower- Middle Triassic sequence presents clayey-sandstone phases, basic volcanic rocks and tuffs. The ophiolitic tectonic nappe, is composed by volcano-sedimentary formations, ultra basic bodies (serpentinized peridotites), gabbros, amphibolites,
- 84 G. Yoxas, G. Stournaras and basalts. Figure 2 depicts the lineaments in the ophiolitic cover as they were derived by a Landsat 7 ETM+ image, whereas three main categories of orienta- tion were being recognized, showing a NE-SW preferential orientation. Fig. 2. Lineament map of ophiolitic cover with rose diagrams. a. frequency of fault direction (left), b. frequency of fractures/linears direction (right). Most of the discontinuities were easily identified in the field either as frac- tures/lineaments (57%), or meso-scale faults (41%) and large scale fractures (2%). 4 Hydrogeological conditions The main fracture aquifer seems to be the ophiolitic cover, presenting an in- tense differentiation related to the lithology, the geological structure and the tec- tonic regime. The hydrogeological conditions of the study area show that the dis- tribution of the springs is related to the tectonical setting. Specifically there are three main teams with a NE SW, NW SE and E W orientation (Fig. 3c). This fact leads to the conclusion that the orientation of the springs is identical with the orientation of the fractures. In this frame, a correlation between the ruptures and the faults and plies has been attended. In the frame of the hydrogeological behav- iour, the hydraulic characters of the simple porosity, double porosity, and multiple porosity fractured media are examined and evaluated. In the field of the remote sensing, used in the tectonic approach, atmospheric and geometric correction, mo- saic synthesis, and data integration led from the faults density map (Fig. 3a) and lineament/fracture density map of several groups (Fig. 3b), to the statistical analy- sis of the discontinuities (Fig. 3d). Since fracture density is an important parameter for the delineation of the groundwater flow in hard rocks, density maps which were also constructed in a GIS environment represent the total length of linea-
- Evaluation of geological parameters for describing fissured rocks 85 ments/fractures per square kilometre of the area. The comparison of these two maps leads to the conclusion that the density pattern of lineaments/fractures and faults in the study area is almost identical. The comparison of lineaments/fracture and fault density distribution led to the spatial density map of discontinuities, where these sub areas show a fine correlation with the three main fold axes, strik- ing from NW to SE and from NNE to SSW respectively (Fig. 3d). Fig. 3. a. Fault density map. b. Lineaments/ photolines density map. c. Springsdensity map. d. Spatial density map. 5 Procedure of estimating geological parameters In order to estimate and to define, qualitatively and quantitatively, a group of pa- rameters are being considered. The estimation and definition of those parameters is based on the geoenvironmental conditions of an area that is vulnerable to con- tamination, in order to distinguish the geological, geomorphologic and hydro- geological criteria that affect the environmental impact of hard rocks. These crite- ria are being calibrated in GIS with respect to AHP analysis (Saaty 1977) so as to be able to support a correct territorial planning and a suitable management of wa- ter resources protecting its quality which is essential to increase efficient use of existing water supplies, which is the main problem in the study area.
- 86 G. Yoxas, G. Stournaras In order to depict the degree of fractures interconnection, intersection of points between two or more discontinuities were digitized. Consequently the density map of intersection points was produced, in which the frequency of intersection points per square kilometre is illustrated. The higher the density the higher is the degree of interconnection. The interconnection density map (Fig. 4) shows a medium (central part of study area) to a very high density (south-western part) in which the urbanised part of the study area is mainly represented. This could be explained by the fact that firstly the most of the fractures, which are mostly open, controlling the groundwater flow, are in that area, and secondly the horizon of soil cover is shallow. On the contrary in the southern part fractures seem to be close due to ex- istence of serpentinite (product of olivine alteration), which fills the fractures (Yoxas 2009). Fig. 4. Distribution of Density Interconnection of discontinuities in study area. 6 Nitrate concentrations correlated with density interconnection Nitrate contamination has been suggested as an indicator of overall groundwater quality (2006/118/EC). Because drinking water with high nitrate concentrations is a potential health risk, European Union (2006) has set a minimum standard for ni- trate in drinking water of 50 mg/L. Identifying areas in the study area where ground water has been impacted by anthropogenic activities (nitrate concentra- tions at or above 3 mg/L) can help water resource managers protect the water sup- ply by targeting land-use planning and monitoring programs to these vulnerable areas. In order to estimate the correlation of hydrochemical conditions, a water sample collection (springs, boreholes, wells and surface water) was made. According to the Piper diagram (Fig. 5b), the hydrochemical type of the hard rock aquifers is Mg-HCO3. The underground water is classified as cold with Tw values ranging between 15.3C and 17.6C respectively, while Tair values range
- Evaluation of geological parameters for describing fissured rocks 87 between 16.2 and 25.2C respectively. According to electrical conductivity meas- urements, and to Na/Cl ratio, it is obvious that there is no sea water intrusion as EC values range ranging between 307S/cm and 822S/cm. The concentration of NO3 - ions range between 4.84 mg/L and 62.92 mg/L respectively. Fig. 5. a. Statistical hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater. b. Piper diagram. c. Cross - plot diagram of nitrate concentration vs density interconnection. d. Density Interconnection map vs NO3 - concentration. According to statistical analysis of hydrochemical characteristics for the main water points, the beginning of springs depletion is combined with an increase of the TDS concentration. This happens due to the mix of fresh waters with perma- nent waters which are chemical enriched by the long-lasting storage into the aqui- fer. However in the expiry of springs depletion, certain samples present decreased TDS. This phenomenon is due to the fact that these kinds of springs are character- ized by a depletion that lasts till November mostly, where the wet period starts and their chemical affect is not intensive. Additionally, electrical conductivity shows a similar behavior with TDS, where there is a gradually decrease during depletion till the expiry of springs depletion where electrical conductivity is stabilized. In order to estimate the affection of density interconnection of discontinuities (DI) a correlation between nitrate ions and DI factor was made. According to fig. 5d regions with high values of nitrate ions were established mainly due to human activities which are intensive in those areas. By the comparison of territorial dis- tribution results of concentration of nitrate ions with the results of territorial distri- bution of density, an interconnection was observed and the correlation factor of cross-plot of these parameters is ordered 70% (Fig. 5c).
- 88 G. Yoxas, G. Stournaras 7 Conclusions The basic factors which affect and form the hydrological and hydrogeological character of the study area are the discontinuous media character (secondary po- rosity), due to the tectonic and microtectonic activity on the geologic formations and the degree of weathering of the given formations. The fissured rock medium can be accessed with different methodologies of work. Among these methodolo- gies hydrogeological and hydrochemical evaluations are included but the detailed study of structural pattern of the rock proved efficient to contribute in a better way in evaluating the hydrogeological conditions. According to the degree of fracture intersection regions showing similar plastic deformity and lithological characteris- tics present the same density of discontinuities. However, fractures, mostly open, are localized in areas (northern part) characterized by shallow soil cover. On the contrary in the southern part fractures seem to be close due to existence of serpen- tinite (product of olivine alteration). The comparison of nitrate ions with density interconnection of discontinuities shows a clear correlation. Areas with medium to high values of nitrate ions are presented by medium to high density interconnection. That should be expected, as long as the high mark of connection affects extensively waters infiltration, while tectonics structures, such as folds and fractures, take charge of the underground waters selective movement to the points of normal discharge of aquifer. References European Union (2006) Water Framework Directive 2006/118/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, Official Journal of the European Union Horton RE (1945) Erosional development of streams and their drainage basins: hydrophysical approach to quantitative morphology. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, Vol. 56, 275 370 Katsikatsos G, Migiros G, Triantaphyllis M, Mettos A (1986) Geological structure of internal Hellenides. Geol. Geoph. Res., Special Issue, 191 212 Knighton D (1998) Fluvial forms and processes, Arnold, London, 383 Krasny J (1996) ydrogeological Environment in Hard Rocks: An attempt at its schematizing and terminological consideration. Acta Universitatis Carolinae Geologica 40, 115 122 Migiros G (1983b) The Geology and Geochemistry f ophiolithic rocks in the Area of East Thessaly (Greece). Ophioliti 8, 46 Saaty TL (1977) A scaling method for priorities in hierarchical structures, Journal of Mathemati- cal Psychology 15, 231 281 Stournaras G (2008) Hydrogeology and vulnerability conditions of limited extension fissured rocks islands. The case of Tinos Island (Aegean Sea, Hellas), Intern. Conference, Ecohy- drological Processes and Sustainable Floodplain Management, Lotz, Poland Yoxas G (2009) Hydraulic study of fractured rocks and groundwater vulnerability assessment in the region of Mantoudi Central Euboea, Master Thesis, National and Kapodistrian Univer- sity of Athens (in Greek)
- 89 First outcomes from groundwater recharge estimation in evaporate aquifer in Greece with the use of APLIS method E. Zagana, P. Tserolas, G. Floros, K. Katsanou, B. Andreo1 Laboratory of Hydrogeology, Department of Geology, University of Patras, 26500 Rion Pa- tras, Greece 1 Department of Geology and Centre of Hydrogeology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Ma- laga, 29071 Malaga, Spain Abstract Groundwater recharge in karstic aquifers has to be determined taking into consideration the hydrogeological particularities of these aquifers. The APLIS method has been used to estimate the mean annual recharge in carbonate aquifers in southern Spain, expressed as a percentage of precipitation based on the vari- ables altitude, slope, lithology, infiltration landform and soil type. The method de- veloped for Mediterranean conditions, has been applied to a karstified evaporate aquifer in West Greece. In this paper, maps of the above variables have been drawn for the study area using a geographic information system. The autogenic groundwater recharge and the spatial distribution of the mean annual values by means of the APLIS method have been obtained. Because of the absence of previ- ous studies about groundwater recharge estimations in the study area and detailed discharge values, it was impossible to corroborate the validity of the method in this phase of the research. In the frame of a research project taken place in the study area, discharge values are measured at the springs draining the system; thus the validation of the method will be done in the next step of this study. 1 Introduction Knowledge of groundwater recharge is very important because it permits us to identify the water inputs entering the aquifer, which is very essential for appropri- ate water resources management and hydrologic planning. Different methods for groundwater recharge estimation have been developed in the last 20 years. These methods (direct measurement, water balance methods, Darcian approaches, tracer techniques, hydrochemical or isotopic models) and many of the problems encoun- tered with each have been described by Gee and Hillel (1988), Sharma (1989), Lerner et al. (1990), Allison et al. (1994), Simmers (1997), Scanlon et al. (2002) among others. Recent advances on distributed methods of groundwater recharge calculations have been done by Udluft and Kuells (2000), Udluft et al. (2003), N. Lambrakis et al. (Eds.), Advances in the Research of Aquatic Environment, Vol. 2 DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-24076-8, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011
- 90 E. Zagana et al. Heathcote et al. (2004), Hughes et al. (2006), Brito et al. (2006) and Zagana et al (2007). Most of the above mentioned methods have been developed in porous aq- uifers and are then used in carbonate aquifers. However, in karst aquifers, re- charge computing is more complex, due to the specific characteristics of these aq- uifers and the duality of the recharge. In this sense the concentrate and the diffuse type of recharge are defined; these types have been also as allogenic and autogenic differentiated. In Europe, carbonate terrains cover 35% of the land-surface and karst ground- water makes an important contribution to the total drinking water supply (Euro- pean Commision, 1995). In Greece carbonate rocks cover more than 35% of the surface (European Commision, 1995). However, studies about groundwater re- charge estimations in carbonate aquifers are not known. Generally studies about groundwater recharge estimations in any type of aquifer and/or in catchment area scale are very limited in Greece (Lambrakis and Kallergis 2001, Zagana et al. 2007). In this paper the mean rate of the annual autogenic groundwater recharge as a percentage of precipitation has been estimated in the study area with the use of the APLIS method (Andreo et al. 2008), which has been developed from the studies carried out in carbonate aquifers in Andalusia (S Spain). Recently the APLIS me- thod has been modified in order to improve the results (Marin 2009) and has been used for recharge estimations in tropical climatic conditions (Farfan et al. 2010). However, it is necessary to note that in the frame of this paper the recharge rate values obtained by this method have not been compared with recharge calcula- tions by other methods or their corresponding discharge rates. The validation of the method is the next step and will be done in the immediate future. 2 Characteristics of the study area The study area is located in the West Greece (Aitoloakarnania Province) with a surface of 146.3 km2 . It is a karstified system, which presents general lack of permanent streams, existent of shallow holes, small caves and occurrence of large springs at the southern part of the area. This front of springs (Lambra -Agios Dimitrios) drains the karstic system and presents discharge rates approximately 8m3 /s (Nikolaou 1993). The springs cover the drinking water needs of many vil- lages in the broad area. The relief of the area is gentle, with the maximum alti- tude 520 m and the lowest altitude around 10 m above sea level (Fig. 1a). In the eastern part the karstic system comes in contact with Acheloos River and Ozeros Lake (Fig. 1a). According to previous studies (Marinos and Fragopoulos 1972, Marinos 1993) river water seeps through the karstified rocks and feeds the springs. The area is characterized by mean annual precipitation of 914 mm, estimating using the data of four rain stations located in the broad area for a time period of
- First outcomes from groundwater recharge estimation in evaporate aquifer in Greece 91 twenty years (1981-2001). From the geological standpoint the study area be- longs to the Ionian geotectonic Zone of the External Hellenides. It is part of the karstified mountainous chain system of Akarnanika Mountains which is devel- oped at the Western part of Greece. Triassic breccias dominate in the study area (Fig. 1b). Fig. 1. a: Location and topographic map of the study area, b: Geological map of the study area. They are typically un-bedded rocks including masses of dark-grey, brown or black fragments of limestones and dolomites, as well as gypsum. Similar dark colored Triassic limestones occur as individual masses in the northeastern part of the area, west of Ozeros Lake, while the Triassic dolomites outcrop in the southwestern part of the area, with a thickness approx. 200m. Several bodies of gypsum occur also west of Ozeros Lake. Bornovas (1960) mentioned that gyp- sum is relatively old and had been brought to the surface by diapisism phenom- ena, assisted by faulting. The Triassic breccias were derived from the fragmenta- tion of the Triassic limestones and dolomites through the diapirism of the evaporate series. These structures play a significant role in the karstification of the breccias presented in the study area. Jurassic - Eocene limestones and Qua- ternary deposits, which consist of red clays and sandy material, with dispersed carbonate and siliceous pebbles occur also in the study area. In the western mar- gins of the area Oligocene flysch appears in small parts. Fault tectonics has also contributed in the formation of the karstic structure of the area. A big thrust known as Makhalas thrust combined with strong normal faulting extend along the belt of the Triassic breccias. The intensively karstified breccias host signifi- cant aquifers, which are delimited by evaporite masses functioning as hydro-
- 92 E. Zagana et al. geological barriers. The soils above the Triassic breccias outcrops in the area are poorly developed and belong to leptosol type. The soils above carbonate rocks (Triassic - Eocene limestones) are less permeable and belong to calcareous litho- sols, while above alluvial deposits the soils are fluvisols. The soil map of the area is presented in Figure 2a. Fig. 2. a: Soil map of the study area, b: The map of slopes of the study area, c: Areas of prefer- ential infiltration. a b c
- First outcomes from groundwater recharge estimation in evaporate aquifer in Greece 93 3 Methodology APLIS is a parametric methodology, which enables us to estimate the mean rate of annual autogenic recharge in carbonate aquifers, expressed as a percentage of precipitation and based on the variables that influenced the recharge (Andreo et al. 2008). The method uses 5 variables, the initials of which (in Spanish) com- prise its acronym and a correction factor. These variables are: Altitude (A), Slope (P), Lithology (L), Preferential Infiltration layers (I), Soils (S) and a correction factor (Fh), the last one depends on the hydrogeologic characteristics of the mate- rial outcropping on the surface. Maps for the above mentioned variables have been drawn for the study area using ArcGIS 9.3. The altitude map (Fig. 1a) and the map of slopes (Fig. 2b) have been derived from the digital elevation model (DEM) produced by digitizing the 1:50.000 contour lines map of the area. Soil maps are available only for some areas in Greece. The soil map of the study area was derived from field word (soil mapping) using also as basis a land resource map 1:50.000 of the Ministry of Agriculture. Finally the areas of preferential in- filtration (Fig. 2c) were mapped over aerial photographs. For each variable, cate- gories or intervals were established, and for each of these a rating value between 1 and 10 were assigned. A value of 1 indicates a minimal incidence of the values of this variable on aquifer recharge, while a value of 10 means maximum influ- ence on recharge (Andreo et al. 2008). As the method has been developed for karstified limestones and dolostones, a slight modification related to the lithology has been necessary. For the karstified riassic breccias has given the score 9 con- sidering them as karstified limestones. In the Table 1 the values of all variables are presented. Table 1. Rating values in APLIS for altitude, slope soil, lithology and preferential infiltration areas. Altitude (m) Rating (A) Soil Rating (S) Infiltration areas Rating (I) Fluvisols 6 Rest of the aquifer 1 0-300 1 Calcareous Lithosols 6 Non karstified limestones 1 300-600 2 Leptosols 10 Slope (%) Rating (S) Lithology Rating (L) Karstified limestones, breccias 5 500 m < 500 m Distance from Hydrographic Net- work > 300 m < 300 m Morphological Slope (degrees) < 5 5 - 10 10 - 20 > 20 Soils Imperviousness Low Low to Middle Middle to High High Density Interconnection Low High Protected Areas No Yes Distance form road network > 300 m < 300 m The selections criteria for the localization of sanitary landfill construction used in the present application are the following: Criterion 1: Distance from Water Points (springs, wells, boreholes). Landfill site must not be adjacent to any groundwater source, such as springs or groundwa- ter wells. According to European Union Law three zones of perimeter protection for each water supply were determined, where the third one is the most suitable due to the fact that this zone is referred to the time of 50 60 days (time of most pathogenic micro-organisms life). Although there are not sufficient data for the above protection zone, international practice states that a minimum distance of 500 m from any water source is required for a landfill site (Chalkias and Stourna- ras 1997). Figure 2a shows the calibration of this criterion where four buffer zones were created with values ranging from 0 to 3 respectively. Criterion 2: Distance from Hydrographic Network. According to Greek legis- lation the proper sites are considered those been at least at a distance of 300 m from the hydrographic network (Fig. 2b). Criterion 3: Morphological Slope. Land morphology was evaluated by the slope gradation, which was expressed in degrees. The grading was based on the premise that the flatter area is, the greater its suitability for landfill construction. Areas with values of slope over 20 were assigned a grade of 0, areas with values of slope between 10 and 20 were assigned a grade of 1. The most suitable areas were considered to be the inclined planes (5 - 10) with a grading value of 2 and finally the flat areas (< 5) with a grading value of 3. The spatial representation of land morphology is shown in Figure 2c.
- 102 G. Yoxas et al. Criterion 4: Soils Imperviousness: In order to avoid the eventual pollution of the ground water table by the leakages of the waste disposal, the possible areas should be consisted by impermeable soil formations. This is also demanded from the Greek Legislation (FEK 63/14-020-1964, art 5, par. 1.2) (Fig. 2d). Fig. 2: a. Distance from Water Points, b. Distance from Hydrographic Network, c. Morphologi- cal Slope, d. Soils Imperviousness (according to calibration values of Table 2). Criterion 5: Density Interconnection (fracture density, degree of fracture in- tersection). It refers to the deviation of unsaturated zone in which the given prob- lem is dealing with both superficial and ground aquatic systems. Nevertheless, be- tween these categories, some differences occur, concerning the pollution conditions, the mechanisms of the pollutants transport and the mechanisms of the pollutants confrontation. The higher the density interconnection the higher is the possibility of selecting sites that will maximize hazards to the public health as well as to the environment by the leakages of the waste disposal (Fig. 3 a, b). Criterion 6: Protected Areas (Natura areas, archeological sites). Likewise, the sites are considered those not been both into protected areas, such as Natura and into places with special interest such as archeological sites. Additionally, possible sites are considered those not been visible from cities and villages (minimum dis- tance 500m) (Fig. 3c). Criterion 7: Distance from road network. The sites should be at a same distance from hydrographic network, which is 300m (Fig. 3d).
- Multiple criteria analysis for selecting suitable sites for construction of sanitary landfill 103 Fig. 3. a. Fracture intersection map, b. Density Interconnection, c. Protected Areas, d. Distance from road network. 7 Results - Discussion The preparation of the final map was the result of the combination among the thematic maps with respect to Analytical Hierarchy Process (Saaty 1977). The AHP parameters are shown in Table 3, indicating the priority vectors of all criteria. From the combination of the above thematic maps, using the tool Spatial Ana- lyst of ArcGIS, revealed the final map identifying areas of potential Landfill site, on a scale grading from low to high values respectively. The land suitability of Kea Island for landfill sitting, as calculated by the suit- ability index, is shown in Figure 4. In order to calculate the suitability index, the evaluation criteria shown in Figures 2, 3 were used with their respective weight value. According to AHP analysis criterion 5 takes the highest weighted value. The role of groundwater due to its importance in selecting sites for landfill con- struction leads to the conclusion that areas characterized by hard rocks terrains should be taken under serious consideration. The method of simple additive weighting was selected as the proper way to dissolve the multiple criteria problem of the landfill sitting. As shown in Figure 4, land suitability increases as the suit- ability index increases. The evaluation criteria were developed according to Greek and EU legislation. However, the GIS-aided sitting methodology presented is flexible as far as the criteria determination is concerned. Thus, it is quite easy to
- 104 G. Yoxas et al. expand the methodology by taking into account even more parameters, such as wind orientation, sensitive ecosystems and required surface. References Chalkias Ch, Stournaras G (1997) G.I.S. application for the selection of sanitary waste disposal landfills and quarries sites in major Sparti area, Greece Drhfer G, Siebert H (1997) The search for landfill sites - requirements and implementation in Lower Saxony, Germany. Environ. Geol. 35, 55 - 65 Kontos T, Komilis D, Chalvadakis C (2005) Siting MSW landfills with a spatial multiple criteria analysis methodology. Waste Management 25, 818 - 832 Lepsius R (1983) Geologie von Attika. Berlin Saaty TL (1977) A scaling method for priorities in hierarchical structures, Journal of Mathemati- cal Psychology 15, 231 - 281 Samara T, Sargologou L (2010) Research of construction sanitary landfill in Kea Island using GIS applications, Dissertation, University of Athens (in Greek) Stournaras G, Eleftheriou M (2000) Domestic Waste Management in Hellas. Report of Int. Assoc. of Engineering Geology, Committee No 14 Waste Disposal, Hannover Yannatos G (2002) Ground Water flow controlled by the discontinuities in fissured rocks - Two cases histories In: Stournaras G. (eds.) Proc. of the 1st Workshop on Fissured Rocks Hydro- geology pp. 147-156. Tinos Island, Hellas Table 3. Application of AHP analysis including relative importance weights of the evaluation criteria. Criteria1 2 3 4 5 6 7 priority 1 1 3/2 2 5/2 3/4 1 1 0.178 2 2/3 1 3/2 2 2/3 1 1 0.141 3 1/2 2/3 1 1/2 1/3 2 3/2 0.104 4 2/5 1/2 2 1 1/2 3 2 0.147 5 4/3 3/2 3 2 1 2 3 0.236 6 1 1 1/2 1/3 1/2 1 1 0.097 7 1 1 2/3 1/2 1/3 1 1 0.098 Consistency Ratio (CR)=0.0659 20 atm so that the pCO2 could be close to this value. The large quantity of CO2 that dissolves in the Florina aquifers, further high- lighted by the fact that HCO3 - represents sometimes up to 75% of the TDS (Fig. 3b), lowers the pH of groundwater enhancing its aggressiveness with respect to the aquifer rocks. The consequent weathering processes are evidenced by the posi- tive correlation between alkalinity and the major cations. Fig. 3c shows for exam- ple the correlation between Ca and HCO3 - . Samples from AL wells deviate sig- nificantly from the shallow aquifer trend. This is due to the fact that the water, loosing CO2 on the way up to the surface, becomes oversaturated in and precipi- tates carbonate minerals. Due to the fact that HCO3 - is in excess with respect to Ca, the latter is scavenged by the precipitating solid phases. Scaling limits the productive lifetime of the CO2 extraction wells to about one year. To continue CO2 extraction new wells have to be drilled, therefore our samples have been col- lected from different wells. Fig. 3. a. Relationship between calculated pCO2 and Alkalinity, curves represent equilibrium values at temperatures between 25 and 100 C, b. Alkalinity-TDS binary plot, bold line repre- sents the 1/1 ratio, while dashed lines are the 0.75, 0.5 and 0.25 TDS fractions, c. Alkalinity- Calcium binary plot. 4.3 Water quality issues The weathering processes within the Florina aquifers, enhanced by the abundant dissolved CO2, affect also the analysed trace elements some of which reach very high concentrations (e.g. Al up to 1.3 mg/L, B up to 4.5 mg/L, Fe up to 226 mg/L; Mn up to 4 mg/L). For many of these elements the very low pH values reached within the aquifer sharply increase their solubility.
- The impact on water quality of the high carbon dioxide contents of the groundwater 141 The extremely high Fe values probably derive from the dissolution of amor- phous and/or crystalline oxy-hydroxide phases that precipitated in the terrestrial sedimentary environment which make up most of the shallower aquifer rocks. The good positive correlation between Fe and HCO3 - supports the CO2 driven dissolu- tion of the Fe-bearing phases (Fig. 4a). On the contrary oxidation and dissolution of Fe-sulphides, which are sometimes responsible of very high Fe concentrations, could be excluded by the inverse correlation between Fe and SO4 2- (Fig. 4b). Pos- sibly only the AL samples and a few other deriving from much deeper horizons, whose aquifer rocks were deposited in limnic (probably reducing) environment, could derive Fe and SO4 2- from Fe-sulphide dissolution. A clear inverse relation- ship can also be seen in the Fe NO3 - plot (Fig. 4c). This can be related both to their different origin (the former from aquifer rock dissolution and the latter from irrigation backflow waters) and their opposite redox behaviour. Fig. 4. a. Binary Fe HCO3 - diagram showing a positive correlation, b. Binary Fe SO4 2- dia- gram showing an inverse correlation, c. Binary Fe NO3 - diagram showing an inverse correla- tion, bold grey line is the limit of detection for NO3 - (0.2 mg/L) and the black lines are the EU drinking water limits for Fe (200 g/L) and NO3 - (50 mg/L). The same plot highlights the fact that many water samples exceed EU drinking water limits for one or both parameters. Considering all analysed species (Table 2) we could note that water sample exceed drinking water limits also for other pa- rameters (e.g. Na+ , SO4 2- , F- , Al, B, Ba, Mn and Ni) and that only 4 samples com- ply with those limits. If we exclude NO3 - , most of the exceeding values can be at- tributed to the high dissolved CO2 values. But the while most of the elements derive from the dissolution of the aquifers rocks, some of them probably derive from the alteration of the well-case and tubes. Such a process could easily explain the high concentrations of Ni and Zn and to some extent also of Fe. Finally mixing with AL-type groundwater is probably responsible of the sometimes-high contents of Na and B.
- 142 W. DAlessandro et al. Table2.ChemicalcompositionoftheFlorinagroundwatersamples.AL=AirLiquidewells,O=otherwells,DWL=drinkingwaterlimit(EU),n.exc.=num- berofsamplesexceedingDWL. TCpHTDSNaKMgCaClNO3SO4AlkFAlAsBBa mg/Lmg/Lmg/Lmg/Lmg/Lmg/Lmg/Lmg/Lmg/Lmg/Lg/Lg/Lg/Lg/L min22.46.1065701570768710877
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