Advances In Marine Biology, Volume 56

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<ul><li><p>V O L U M E F I F T Y S I X</p><p>ADVANCES INMARINE BIOLOGY</p></li><li><p>Advances in MARINE BIOLOGY</p><p>Series Editor</p><p>DAVID W. SIMSMarine Biological Association of the United Kingdom,The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth, United KingdomandMarine Biology and Ecology Research CentreSchool of Biological SciencesUniversity of Plymouth, Drake CircusPlymouth, United Kingdom</p><p>Editors Emeritus</p><p>LEE A. FUIMANUniversity of Texas at Austin</p><p>CRAIG M. YOUNGOregon Institute of Marine Biology</p><p>Advisory Editorial Board</p><p>ANDREW J. GOODAYSouthampton Oceanography Centre</p><p>GRAEME C. HAYSUniversity of Wales Swansea</p><p>SANDRA E. SHUMWAYUniversity of Connecticut</p><p>ROBERT B. WHITLATCHUniversity of Connecticut</p></li><li><p>V O L U M E F I F T Y S I X</p><p>ADVANCES IN</p><p>MARINE BIOLOGY</p><p>Edited by</p><p>DAVID W. SIMSMarine Biological Association of the United KingdomThe Laboratory, Citadel HillPlymouth, United KingdomandMarine Biology and Ecology Research CentreSchool of Biological SciencesUniversity of Plymouth, Drake CircusPlymouth, United Kingdom</p><p>AMSTERDAM BOSTON HEIDELBERG LONDONNEW YORK OXFORD PARIS SAN DIEGO</p><p>SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYOAcademic Press is an imprint of Elsevier</p></li><li><p>Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier</p><p>32 JamestownRoad, LondonNW1 7BY,UK</p><p>Radarweg 29, POBox 211, 1000 AEAmsterdam, TheNetherlands</p><p>Linacre House, JordanHill, OxfordOX2 8DP, UK</p><p>30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington,MA 01803, USA</p><p>525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495, USA</p><p>First edition 2009</p><p>Copyright# 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p><p>Nopart of this publicationmay be reproduced, stored in a retrieval systemor transmitted in any form</p><p>or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior</p><p>written permission of the publisher.</p><p>Permissionsmaybe soughtdirectly fromElseviersScience&amp;TechnologyRightsDepartment inOxford,</p><p>UK: phone (+44) (0) 1865 843830; fax (+44) (0) 1865 853333; email: permissions@elsevier.com.</p><p>Alternatively you can submit your request online by visiting the Elsevierweb site at</p><p>http://www.elsevier.com/locate/permissions, and selecting</p><p>Obtaining permission to use Elsevier material</p><p>Notice</p><p>No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as</p><p>a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of anymethods,</p><p>products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. Because of rapid advances in</p><p>the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should</p><p>be made.</p><p>ISBN: 978-0-12-374960-4</p><p>ISSN: 0065-2881</p><p>For information on all Academic Press publications</p><p>visit our website at elsevierdirect.com</p><p>Printed and bound inUK</p><p>09 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1</p></li><li><p>CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME 56</p><p>Andreas J. AnderssonBermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, St. Georges GE 01, Bermuda</p><p>Avan AntiaChristian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, 24119 Kiel, Germany</p><p>Nicholas R. BatesChristian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, 24119 Kiel, Germany</p><p>Ulrich BathmannAlfred Wegener Institute, D-27570 Bremerhaven, Germany</p><p>Gregory BeaugrandSir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill,</p><p>Plymouth PL1 2PB, United Kingdom and Centre National de la Recherche</p><p>Scientifique, Laboratoire dOceanologie et de Geosciences, Station Marine,</p><p>Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 62930 Wimereux, France</p><p>Juan BellasDepartamento de Ecoloxa e Bioloxa Animal, Facultade de Ciencias do Mar,</p><p>Universidade de Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain</p><p>Corey J. A. BradshawThe Environment Institute and School of Earth and Environmental Sciences,</p><p>University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia and South</p><p>Australian Research and Development Institute, Henley Beach, South Australia</p><p>5022, Australia</p><p>Holger BrixDepartment of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California -</p><p>Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095-1567, USA</p><p>Rik C. BuckworthFisheries, Northern Territory Department of Primary Industries, Fisheries and</p><p>Mines, Darwin, Northern Territory 0801, Australia</p><p>Stephen DyeCentre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Lowestoft,</p><p>Suffolk NR33 OHT, United Kingdom</p><p>v</p></li><li><p>Martin EdwardsSir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill,</p><p>Plymouth PL1 2PB, United Kingdom</p><p>Iain C. FieldSchool for Environmental Research, Institute of Advanced Studies, Charles Darwin</p><p>University, Darwin, Northern Territory 0909, Australia and Australian Institute of</p><p>Marine Science, Casuarina MC, Northern Territory 0811, Australia</p><p>Astrid C. FischerSir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill,</p><p>Plymouth PL1 2PB, United Kingdom</p><p>Tore FurevikGeophysical Institute, N-5007 Bergen, Norway</p><p>Reidun GangstUniversity of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland</p><p>Martin J. GennerMarine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, The Laboratory, Citadel</p><p>Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, United Kingdom and School of Biological Sciences,</p><p>University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UG, United Kingdom</p><p>Hjalmar HatunFaroese Fisheries Laboratory, FO-110 Torshavn, Faroe Islands</p><p>Stephen J. HawkinsMarine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, The Laboratory, Citadel</p><p>Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, United Kingdom and College of Natural Sciences,</p><p>Memorial Building, Bangor University, Gwynedd LL57 2UW, United Kingdom</p><p>Graeme C. HaysInstitute of Environmental Sustainability, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP,</p><p>United Kingdom</p><p>Russell R. HopcroftInstitute of Marine Science, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska</p><p>99775-7220, USA</p><p>Sabine KastenAlfred Wegener Institute, D-27570 Bremerhaven, Germany</p><p>Ralph KeelingScripps CO2 Program, La Jolla, California 92093-0244, USA</p><p>Mike KendallPlymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, Plymouth PL1 3DH, United</p><p>Kingdom</p><p>vi Contributors</p></li><li><p>Emily Lewis-BrownWWF-UK, Panda House, Weyside Park, Godalming, Surrey GU7 1XR, United</p><p>Kingdom</p><p>Colin J. LimpusEnvironmental Sciences, Environmental Protection Agency, Brisbane, Queensland</p><p>4002, Australia</p><p>Fred T. MackenzieDepartment of Oceanography, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology,</p><p>University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA</p><p>Gill MalinSchool of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ,</p><p>United Kingdom</p><p>Cecilie MauritzenNorwegian Meteorological Institute, Blindern, 0313 Oslo, Norway</p><p>Mark G. MeekanAustralian Institute of Marine Science, Casuarina MC, Northern Territory 0811,</p><p>Australia</p><p>Michael P. MeredithBritish Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Cambridge CB3 0ET, United Kingdom</p><p>Nova MieszkowskaMarine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, The Laboratory, Citadel</p><p>Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, United Kingdom</p><p>Jon OlafssonUniversity of Iceland and Marine Research Institute, IS-121 Reykjavik, Iceland</p><p>Charlie PaullMonterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California 95039, USA</p><p>Milagros Penela-ArenazDepartamento de Ecoloxa e Bioloxa Animal, Facultade de Ciencias do Mar,</p><p>Universidade de Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain</p><p>Elvira S. PoloczanskaClimate Adaptation Flagship, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research,</p><p>Cleveland, Queensland 4163, Australia</p><p>Corinne Le QuereBritish Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Cambridge CB3 0ET, United Kingdom and</p><p>School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ,</p><p>United Kingdom</p><p>Contributors vii</p></li><li><p>Philip C. ReidSir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, andMarine Biological Association</p><p>of the UK, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, United Kingdom;</p><p>Marine Institute, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA, United Kingdom</p><p>Eric RignotUniversity of California - Irvine, Croul Hall, Irvine, California 92697, USA; and</p><p>Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California 91214, USA</p><p>Koji ShimadaFaculty of Marine Science, Department of Ocean Sciences, Tokyo University of</p><p>Marine Science and Technology, 4-5-7, Konan, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8477,</p><p>Japan</p><p>David W. SimsMarine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, The Laboratory, Citadel</p><p>Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, United Kingdom and Marine Biology and Ecology</p><p>Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake</p><p>Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, United Kingdom</p><p>Mike SparrowSCAR Secretariat, Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge CB2 1ER, United</p><p>Kingdom</p><p>Elsa VazquezDepartamento de Ecoloxa e Bioloxa Animal, Facultade de Ciencias do Mar,</p><p>Universidade de Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain</p><p>Meike VogtSchool of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ,</p><p>United Kingdom</p><p>Craig WallaceSCAR Secretariat, Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge CB2 1ER, United</p><p>Kingdom</p><p>Zhaomin WangBritish Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Cambridge CB3 0ET, United Kingdom</p><p>Richard WashingtonSchool of Geography and the Environment, Oxford University Centre for the</p><p>Environment (Dyson Perrins Building), University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QY,</p><p>United Kingdom</p><p>viii Contributors</p></li><li><p>CONTENTS</p><p>Contributors to Volume 56 v</p><p>Series Contents for Last Fifteen Years xi</p><p>1. Impacts of the Oceans on Climate Change 1</p><p>Philip C. Reid, Astrid C. Fischer, Emily Lewis-Brown, Michael P. Meredith,</p><p>Mike Sparrow, Andreas J. Andersson, Avan Antia, Nicholas R. Bates,</p><p>Ulrich Bathmann, Gregory Beaugrand, Holger Brix, Stephen Dye,</p><p>Martin Edwards, Tore Furevik, Reidun Gangst, Hjalmar Hatun, Russell R.</p><p>Hopcroft, Mike Kendall, Sabine Kasten, Ralph Keeling, Corinne Le Quere,</p><p>Fred T. Mackenzie, Gill Malin, Cecilie Mauritzen, Jon Olafsson, Charlie Paull,</p><p>Eric Rignot, Koji Shimada, Meike Vogt, Craig Wallace, Zhaomin Wang,</p><p>and Richard Washington</p><p>1. Introduction 5</p><p>2. Ocean Physics, Temperature, Circulation, Sea-Level Rise</p><p>and the Hydrological Cycle 12</p><p>3. Primary Production: Plankton, Light and Nutrients 27</p><p>4. The Solubility, Biological and Continental Shelf Carbon Pumps 51</p><p>5. Ocean Acidification and the Carbonate Pump 62</p><p>6. A Special Case: The Arctic and Seas Adjacent to Greenland 80</p><p>7. The Southern Ocean and Climate 93</p><p>8. Climate Models 106</p><p>9. Conclusions and Recommendations 115</p><p>Appendix: Workshop Participants 126</p><p>Acknowledgements 127</p><p>References 127</p><p>2. Vulnerability of Marine Turtles to Climate Change 151</p><p>Elvira S. Poloczanska, Colin J. Limpus, and Graeme C. Hays</p><p>1. Introduction 152</p><p>2. Marine Turtle Biology and Life History 154</p><p>3. Observed and Projected Changes in Oceans and Atmosphere 159</p><p>4. Climate Change Impacts on Marine Turtles 163</p><p>5. Responses to Past Climate Change 185</p><p>6. Adaptation and Resilience 187</p><p>7. Global Trends 189</p><p>ix</p></li><li><p>8. Recommendations 189</p><p>Acknowledgements 191</p><p>References 191</p><p>3. Effects of Climate Change and Commercial Fishing on AtlanticCod Gadus morhua 213</p><p>Nova Mieszkowska, Martin J. Genner, Stephen J. Hawkins,</p><p>and David W. Sims</p><p>1. Introduction 214</p><p>2. Impacts of Climate Change 222</p><p>3. Impacts of Fishing 238</p><p>4. Population-Level Impacts of Fishing and Climate Change 245</p><p>5. Monitoring Status and Recovery of North Sea Cod: A Case Study 249</p><p>6. Concluding Remarks 250</p><p>Acknowledgements 252</p><p>References 252</p><p>4. Susceptibility of Sharks, Rays and Chimaeras toGlobal Extinction 275</p><p>Iain C. Field, Mark G. Meekan, Rik C. Buckworth,</p><p>and Corey J. A. Bradshaw</p><p>1. Introduction 277</p><p>2. Chondrichthyan Life History 281</p><p>3. Past and Present Threats 284</p><p>4. Chondrichthyan Extinction Risk 308</p><p>5. Implications of Chondrichthyan Species Loss on Ecosystem</p><p>Structure, Function and Stability 328</p><p>6. Synthesis and Knowledge Gaps 335</p><p>7. Concluding Remarks 341</p><p>Acknowledgements 343</p><p>References 343</p><p>5. Effects of the Prestige Oil Spill on the Biota of NW Spain:5 Years of Learning 365</p><p>Milagros Penela-Arenaz, Juan Bellas, and Elsa Vazquez</p><p>1. Introduction 366</p><p>2. Effects of the Prestige Oil Spill on the Marine Biota 373</p><p>3. Conclusion 386</p><p>References 390</p><p>Taxonomic Index 397</p><p>Subject Index 401</p><p>x Contents</p></li><li><p>SERIES CONTENTS FOR LAST FIFTEEN YEARS*</p><p>Volume 30, 1994.Vincx, M., Bett, B. J., Dinet, A., Ferrero, T., Gooday, A. J., Lambs-head, P. J. D., Pfannkuche, O., Soltweddel, T. and Vanreusel, A.Meiobenthos of the deep Northeast Atlantic. pp. 188.</p><p>Brown, A. C. and Odendaal, F. J. The biology of oniscid isopoda ofthe genus Tylos. pp. 89153.</p><p>Ritz, D. A. Social aggregation in pelagic invertebrates. pp. 155216.Ferron, A. and Legget, W. C. An appraisal of condition measures formarine fish larvae. pp. 217303.</p><p>Rogers, A. D. The biology of seamounts. pp. 305350.</p><p>Volume 31, 1997.Gardner, J. P. A. Hybridization in the sea. pp. 178.Egloff, D. A., Fofonoff, P. W. and Onbe, T. Reproductive behaviourof marine cladocerans. pp. 79167.</p><p>Dower, J. F., Miller, T. J. and Leggett, W. C. The role of microscaleturbulence in the feeding ecology of larval fish. pp. 169220.</p><p>Brown, B. E. Adaptations of reef corals to physical environmentalstress. pp. 221299.</p><p>Richardson, K. Harmful or exceptional phytoplankton blooms in themarine ecosystem. pp. 301385.</p><p>Volume 32, 1997.Vinogradov, M. E. Some problems of vertical distribution of meso-and macroplankton in the ocean. pp. 192.</p><p>Gebruk, A. K., Galkin, S. V., Vereshchaka, A. J., Moskalev, L. I. andSouthward, A. J. Ecology and biogeography of the hydrothermalvent fauna of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. pp. 93144.</p><p>Parin, N. V., Mironov, A. N. and Nesis, K. N. Biology of the Nazcaand Sala y Gomez submarine ridges, an outpost of the Indo-WestPacific fauna in the eastern Pacific Ocean: composition and distri-bution of the fauna, its communities and history. pp. 145242.</p><p>Nesis, K. N. Goniatid squids in the subarctic North Pacific: ecology,biogeography, niche diversity, and role in the ecosystem. pp. 243324.</p><p>Vinogradova, N. G. Zoogeography of the abyssal and hadal zones.pp. 325387.</p><p>Zezina, O. N. Biogeography of the bathyal zone. pp. 389426.</p><p>*The full list of contents for volumes 137 can be found in volume 38.</p><p>xi</p></li><li><p>Sokolova, M. N. Trophic structure of abyssal macrobenthos.pp. 427525.</p><p>Semina, H. J. An outline of the geographical distribution of oceanicphytoplankton. pp. 527563.</p><p>Volume 33, 1998.Mauchline, J. The biology of calanoid copepods. pp. 1660.</p><p>Volume 34, 1998.Davies, M. S. and Hawkins, S. J. Mucus from marine molluscs.pp. 171.</p><p>Joyeux, J. C. andWard, A. B. Constraints on coastal lagoon fisheries.pp. 73199.</p><p>Jennings, S. and Kaiser, M. J. The effects of fishing on marineecosystems. pp. 201352.</p><p>Tunnicliffe, V., McArthur, A. G. andMcHugh, D. A biogeographicalperspective of the deep-sea hydrothermal vent fauna. pp. 353442.</p><p>Volume 35, 1999.Creasey, S. S. and Rogers, A. D. Population genetics of bathyal andabyssal organisms. pp. 1151.</p><p>Brey, T. Growth performance and mortality in aquatic macrobenthicinvertebrates. pp. 153223.</p><p>Volume 36, 1999.Shulman, G. E. and Love, R. M. The biochemical ecology of marinefishes. pp. 1325.</p><p>Volume 37, 1999.His, E., Beiras, R. and Seaman, M. N. L. The assessment of marinepollutionbioassays with bivalve embryos and larvae. pp. 1178.</p><p>Bailey, K. M., Quinn, T. J., Bentzen, P. and Grant, W. S. Populationstructure and dynamics of walleye pollock, Theragra chalcogramma.pp. 179255.</p><p>Volume 38, 2000.Blaxter, J. H. S. The enhancement of marine fish stocks. pp. 154.Bergstrom, B. I. The biology of Pandalus. pp. 55245.</p><p>Volume 39, 2001.Peterson, C. H. The Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska: acute indirectand chronic effects on the ecosystem....</p></li></ul>

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