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i

Advances in Grouper AcquacultureEdited by M.A. Rimmer, S. McBride and K.C. Williams

ACIAR Monograph 110 (printed version published in 2004)

ADVANCES IN GROUPER AQUACULTURE

Editors:

M.A. Rimmer, S. McBride and K.C. Williams

Australian Centre for International Agricultural ResearchCanberra 2004

Advances in Grouper Aquaculture

ii

Advances in Grouper AcquacultureEdited by M.A. Rimmer, S. McBride and K.C. Williams

ACIAR Monograph 110 (printed version published in 2004)

The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) was established in June 1982 by an Act of the Australian Parliament. Its primary mandate is to help identify agricultural problems in developing countries and to commission collaborative research between Australian and developing country researchers in fields where Australia has a special research competence.

Where trade names are used this does not constitute endorsement of nor discrimination against any product by the Centre.

Australian Centre for International Agricultural ResearchGPO Box 1571, Canberra, Australia 2601.http://www.aciar.gov.auemail: aciar @aciar.gov.au

Rimmer, M.A., McBride, S. and Williams, K.C. 2004Advances in Grouper AquacultureCanberra. ACIAR Monograph 110

ISBN 1 86320 438 5 (printed)1 86320 439 3 (electronic)

Typeset, designed and edited by: Sun Photoset Pty Ltd, Brisbane, AustraliaPrinted by: BPA Print Group, Melbourne

ACIAR Monograph Series

This series contains the results of original research supportedby ACIAR, or material deemed relevant to ACIARs researchand development objectives. The series is distributedinternationally, with an emphasis on developing countries.

Contents

iii

Advances in Grouper AcquacultureEdited by M.A. Rimmer, S. McBride and K.C. Williams

ACIAR Monograph 110 (printed version published in 2004)

Contents

Abbreviations and acronyms vContributors viiForeword ix

SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1

M.A. Rimmer

SECTION 2 LARVAL REARING 7

Environmental Factors Affecting Embryonic Development, Hatching and Survival of Early Stage Larvae of the Grouper (

Epinephelus coioides

)

J.D. Toledo, N.B. Caberoy and G.F. Quinitio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

Environmental Factors Affecting Embryonic Development and Hatching of Humpback Grouper, (

Cromileptes altivelis

) Larvae

K. Sugama, Trijoko, S. Ismi, K. Maha Setiawati . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

SS-strain Rotifer Culture for Finfish Larvae with Small Mouth Gape

Richard M. Knuckey, Inneke Rumengan and Stenly Wullur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

Changes in the Gastrointestinal Tract and Associated Organs During Early Development of the Grouper (

Epinephelus coioides

)

G.F. Quinitio, A.C. Sa-an, J.D. Toledo and J.D. Tan-Fermin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

Localisation of Enzymes in the Digestive System During Early Development of the Grouper (

Epinephelus coioides

)

G.F. Quinitio, A.C. Sa-an, J.D. Toledo and J.D. Tan-Fermin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

Digestive Enzyme Activity in Developing Grouper (

Epinephelus coioides

) Larvae

P.S. Eusebio, J.D. Toledo, R.E.P. Mamauag and M.J.G. Bernas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

The Activity of Digestive Enzymes in Larval Grouper and Live Feed

S. McBride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

Lipid Nutrition Studies on Grouper (

Epinephelus coioides

) Larvae

V.R. Alava, F.M.P. Priolo, J.D. Toledo, J.C. Rodriguez, G.F. Quinitio, A.C. Sa-an, M.R. de la Pea, and R.C. Caturao . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

Amino and Fatty Acid Profiles of Wild-Sourced Grouper (

Epinephelus coioides

) Broodstock and Larvae

V.R. Alava, F.M.P. Priolo, M. Arnaiz, and J.D. Toledo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

Studies on Semi-Intensive Seed Production of Grouper (

Epinephelus coioides

)

J.D. Toledo, D. Chavez and J. Rodriguez Jr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

Effect of Water Temperature on Growth, Survival and Feeding Rate of Humpback Grouper (

Cromileptes altivelis

) Larvae

K. Sugama, Trijoko, S. Ismi, K. Maha Setiawati . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61

Larval Rearing Tank Management to Improve Survival of Early Stage Humpback Grouper (

Cromileptes altivelis

) Larvae

K. Sugama, Trijoko, S. Ismi, K. Maha Setiawati . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

67

Advances in Grouper Aquaculture

iv

Advances in Grouper AcquacultureEdited by M.A. Rimmer, S. McBride and K.C. Williams

ACIAR Monograph 110 (printed version published in 2004)

SECTION 3 GROW-OUT DIET DEVELOPMENT 71

Apparent Digestibility of Selected Feed Ingredients in Diets for Grouper (

Epinephelus coioides

) Juveniles

P.S. Eusebio, R.M. Coloso and R.E.P. Mamauag

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

Evaluation of some Terrestrial Proteins in Complete Diets for Grouper (

Epinephelus coioides

) Juveniles

P.S. Eusebio, R.M. Coloso and R.E.P. Mamauag

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

Apparent Digestibility of Selected Local Feed Ingredients for Humpback Grouper, (

Cromileptes altivelis

)

A. Laining, Rachmansyah, T. Ahmad and K.C. Williams

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

The Optimal Dietary Protein and Lipid Specification for Rearing Humpback Grouper (

Cromileptes altivelis

) Fingerlings

K.C. Williams, D.M. Smith, I.H. Williams, S. Irvin, M. Barclay and M. Jones

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

Optimum Level of Dietary Protein and Lipid for Rearing Juvenile Tiger Grouper (

Epinephelus fuscoguttatus

)

N.A. Giri, K. Suwirya and M. Marzuqi

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

Dietary Optimum Protein for Tiger Grouper (

Ephinephelus fuscoguttatus

) Diet Reared in Floating Net Cages

A. Laining, N. Kabangnga and Usman

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

Effect of Dietary n-3 HUFA on Growth of Humpback Grouper (

Cromileptes altivelis

) and Tiger Grouper (

Epinephelus fuscogutatus

) Juveniles

K. Suwirya, N.A. Giri, and M. Marzuqi

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

Supplementation of Vitamin C, L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate-sodium-calcium for Sea Cage Reared Humpback Grouper (

Cromileptes altivelis

) Diets

A. Laining, N. Palinggi, M. Atmomarsono, and T. Ahmad

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

Utilisation of Different Dietary Carbohydrate Sources by Humpback Grouper(

Cromileptes altivelis

)

Usman, N. Palinggi and N.A. Giri

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

Utilisation of Dietary Dextrin by Juvenile Humpback Grouper (

Cromileptes altivelis

)

K. Suwirya, N.A. Giri, M. Marzuqi and Trijoko

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

Replacement of Fish Meal by Animal By-product Meals in a Practical Diet for Grow-out Culture of Grouper (

Epinephelus coioides

)

O.M. Millamena

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

The Use of Shrimp Head Meal as a Substitute to Fish Meal in Diets for Humpback Grouper (

Cromileptes altivelis

)

Rachmansyah, A. Laining and T. Ahmad

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

Development of Formulated Feeds for Grow-out Culture of Grouper (

Epinephelus coioides

) Tank and Field Studies

O.M. Millamena and J.D. Toledo

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

SECTION 4. THE ASIA PACIFIC GROUPER NETWORK 119

APPENDIX 1. Development of Sustainable Marine Finfish Aquaculture in the Asia-Pacific Region 124

APPENDIX 2. Project and Asia Pacific Marine Finfish Aquaculture Network Publications 134

Contents

v

Advances in Grouper AcquacultureEdited by M.A. Rimmer, S. McBride and K.C. Williams

ACIAR Monograph 110 (printed version published in 2004)

Abbreviations and acronyms

4-NPC 4-nitrophenyl caproateAB-PAS alcian blueperiodic acid Sc