Advances in Food Research Volume 30

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<ul><li><p>ADVANCES IN FOOD RESEARCH </p><p>VOLUME 30 </p></li><li><p>This Page Intentionally Left Blank</p></li><li><p>ADVANCES IN FOOD RESEARCH </p><p>VOLUME 30 </p><p>Edited by </p><p>C. 0. CHICHESTER Univerdy of Rhode Island </p><p>Kingston, Rhode island </p><p>E. M. MRAK Universiv of California </p><p>Davis, California </p><p>Editorial Board </p><p>F. CLYDESDALE E. M. FOSTER S. GOLDBLITH J. HAWTHORNE J. F. KEFFORD S. LEPKOVSKY </p><p>B. S. SCHWEIGERT Universiv of California </p><p>Davis, California </p><p>H. MITSUDA D. REYMOND E. SELTZER V. G. SGARBIERI W. M. URBAIN </p><p>1986 </p><p>ACADEMIC PRESS, INC. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers </p><p>Orlando San Diego New York Austin London Montreal Sydney Tokyo Toronto </p></li><li><p>COPYRIGHT 0 1986 BY ACADEMIC PRESS. INC ALL RIGHTS RESERVED NO PART OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE REPRODUCED OR TRANSMITTED IN ANY FORM OR BY ANY MEANS. ELECTRONIC OR MECHANICAL, INCLUDING PHOTOCOPY. RECORDING. OR ANY INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM. WITHOUT PERMISSION I N WRITING FROM THE PUBLISHER. </p><p>ACADEMIC PRESS, INC Orlando. Florida 32887 </p><p>United Kingdom Edition published by ACADEMIC PRESS INC. ( L O N D O N ) LTD. 24-28 Oval Road. London NWI 7DX </p><p>LIBRARY OF C o N c R t s s CATALOG C A R D NUMBER 48-7808 </p><p>ISBN 0-12-016430-2 </p><p>PRlNTCD IN 111F LINITtO S l A l k b 0 1 AMFRICA </p><p>86 87 88 89 Y X 7 6 5 4 1 ? I </p></li><li><p>CONTENTS </p><p>WILLIAM VERE CRUESS vii </p><p>Sulfites In Foods: Uses, Analytical Methods, Residues, Fate, Exposure Assessment, Metabolism, Toxicity, and </p><p>Hypersensitivity </p><p>Steve L. Taylor, Nancy A. Higley, and Robert K. Bush </p><p>I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 </p><p>111. Safety of Sulfites in Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . , . 32 IV. Possible Substitutes and Their Limitations . . . . . 61 V. Future Research Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 </p><p>References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 </p><p>11. Uses of and Exposure to Sulfites in Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>Maillard Reactions: Nonenzymatic Browning in Food Systems with Special Reference to the Development of Flavor </p><p>James P. Danehy </p><p>I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. Chemistry of Browning in Model Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>111. Role of Browning in Specific Food Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV. Browning, Nutrition, and Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V. Trends in Continuing Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>Postharvest Changes in Fruit Cell Wall </p><p>Melford A. John and Prakash M. Dey </p><p>I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. Components of Primary Cell Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>111. Structure of Primary Cell Wall IV. Fruit Development . . . . . . . . . . V. Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>References . . . . . . . . </p><p>71 84 91 </p><p>120 123 124 </p><p>139 140 149 168 178 180 </p><p>V </p></li><li><p>vi C 0 N T E N T S </p><p>Soy Sauce Biochemistry </p><p>Tarnotsu Yokotsuka </p><p>I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. Manufacture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>111. Recent Resear logical Advances in Shoyu Manufacture . . . . . . . . . . . IV. Color of Shoyu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V. Flavor Evaluation of Koikuchi Shoyu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>VI. Volatile Flavor Ingredients of Koikuchi Shoyu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>VIII. Research Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>V11. Safety Problem of Shoyu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>New Protein Foods: A Study of a Treatise </p><p>Harold L. Wilcke, C. E. Bodwell, Daniel T. Hopkins, and Aaron M . Altschul </p><p>I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. The Energy-Protein Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>111. Food Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV. Conventional Sources of Protein Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V. Reflections on Foods from Animal S </p><p>VI. New Protein Foods Based on Plant Sources ................................ VII. Properties of Plant Protein Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>I96 204 209 24 I 257 261 287 30 I 313 </p><p>332 332 334 335 352 354 360 378 38 I </p><p>INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 </p></li><li><p>WILLIAM VERE CRUESS 1886-1 968 </p><p>INTRODUCTION </p><p>The field of Food Science and Technology is a relatively new one and it is well that its few pioneers not be forgotten. To this end, Dr. Sam Goldblith described in Volume 27 of Advances in Food Research the life and accomplishments of Dr. Samuel C. Prescott, one of the fathers of modem food science and tech- nology, whose life spanned an era from the first use of the term microbe to beyond the discovery of DNA in 1953. The life span of another great pioneer in the field, Dr. William V. Cruess, covered the same period, from 1886 to 1968. </p><p>While Prescott was working in the East, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, on problems related to sanitation and food preservation, Cruess entire career was spent on the West Coast, most of it at the University of California. </p><p>Early in his career as a chemist, Cruess worked primarily on improving Cal- </p><p>vii </p></li><li><p>... V l l l WILLIAM VERE CRUESS </p><p>ifornia wines. During the time that prohibition made teaching and research in winemaking illegal, he turned his talents to another area, embarking on a pro- gram of intensive research and development in the field of food preservation that yielded revolutionary theoretical and practical results. </p><p>Thanks to Cruess and his co-workers, the sun drying of fruits, for example, was replaced in California by mechanical dehydration, providing better product of uniform quality. He was also a pioneer in developing new products such as canned fruit cocktail and nectars from surplus fruits. Then, too, he is remem- bered as one of the early great teachers of food science and technology. </p><p>EARLY LIFE </p><p>Cruess was born on August 9, 1886, in a farming area called Indian Valley, near the town of San Miguel in the Central Coastal area of California. The soil yielded reluctantly and it was not easy to make a living in Indian Valley. In his memoirs Cruess mentions that the family subsisted mostly on red beans, salt pork, homemade bread, and once in a great while a little quail or dove. Fruit and vegetables were scarce. </p><p>Very dry years on the farm were common. In 1888 the rainfall for the crop year was only 2 inches. Cattle died, wells went dry, and the principal food that year was boiled whole wheat brought in from elsewhere. </p><p>Cruess attended a one-room grammar school with 20 students, about three miles from his home. One teacher taught all classes from kindergarten through the eighth grade. Normally, Cruess walked to school and back, but on rainy days he was allowed to ride horseback or use the family buggy. </p><p>Although Cruess was eager to join his five fellow grammar school graduates in the Paso Robles High School, he remained out of school for 15 months, working as a farmhand and cutting firewood to earn enough money to pay for his room, board, books, and clothing. </p><p>Boys in Indian Valley put in long days in those times, often sleeping in the haystacks so they could get to work early the next day. There was no danger of rain because it was dry country, and they were so tired after haying, harvesting, and hauling sacks of wheat or barley to town they had no trouble getting to sleep. They were up at 6 A.M. and worked until about five in the afternoon. During the harvesting season, they often started on the combine harvester about 5 </p><p>Cruess entered Paso Robles High School in the fall of 1902. During the first year he lived with a family in town, working part-time for the landlord to help pay for part of his $15-a-month bill for room and board. In high school he took courses in algebra, geometry, Latin, Spanish, history, chemistry, physics, and English. </p><p>A.M. </p></li><li><p>WILLIAM VERE CRUESS ix </p><p>In his memoirs Cruess makes some interesting comments about automobiles in those days. A brand new phenomenon, automobile operation was forbidden in his area during daylight because they frightened horses drawing wagons or buggies into running away. Horses had the right-of-way. </p><p>TO THE UNIVERSITY </p><p>All during high school Cruess dreamed of going on to the University of California. A serious difficulty, however, was that he had no money. His father offered to sell one of their best horses and borrow necessary additional funds, but it seemed more sensible to Cruess to keep the horse and work on the farm rather then go into debt for his college expenses. He delayed going to college for a year in order to earn enough money to pursue a higher education. </p><p>During this period, he worked as a harvest hand in summer, and in the fall he moved to the city of Oakland, where he worked in a car barn. He earned enough in 15 months to cover school expenses and room and board for the first year in college. </p><p>Late in the summer of 1907, he went to the University of California at Berkeley and enrolled in chemistry. He had intended to enroll in mining en- gineering, but the dean of the College of Chemistry, Professor Edmund ONeill, who had been a classmate and close friend of his father in grammar school, persuaded him to major in chemistry because of the demand for chemists. Cruess followed ONeills advice and never regretted it. </p><p>At the beginning of the second semester Dean ONeill offered Cruess a part- time job in the chemistry department as assistant to a lecturer. Cruess accepted with pleasure, for the offer included rent-free use of two rooms on the top floor of the chemistry building. As Cruess put it, he was well fixed for living quarters. At night the campus watchman often dropped in to chat with him and other students andeven to play a game of cards with them. The watchman was a Civil War veteran and Cruess learned a great deal from him about that war. As Cruess put it, This was an interesting association in the Chemistry Department. </p><p>Thanks to his job at the University during the school term and to field work in the summers, Cruess was able to finance his education and even to graduate with a few dollars in his pocket. </p><p>While in college he joined the La Junta Club, a social house club that later became a chapter of the national Sigma Phi fraternity. A fellow member was Earl Warren, who became Governor of California and subsequently Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. </p><p>During his senior year, 1910- 191 1, Cruess held a part-time job with Professor M. E. Jaffa, who gave several courses in nutrition and was head of the Food and Drug Laboratory of the State Board of Health, then located on the Berkeley </p></li><li><p>X WILLIAM VERE CRUESS </p><p>campus of the University of California. Assisting Jaffa in analyzing feed stuffs such as alfalfa hay and cottonseed meal taught the young chemist a great deal about proteins, fat, sugar, crude fiber, and so on in animal feeds. </p><p>Twenty years later in 1931, while working full time for the University at Berkeley, he earned his Ph.D. in biochemistry from Stanford University. His thesis was concerned with the chemistry of the bitter principle in olives. </p><p>UNIVERSITY APPOINTMENTS </p><p>Cruess first appointment after graduation was in the Division of Viticulture and Enology in the College of Agriculture at Berkeley. He had taken courses under Professors Frederick Bioletti and Hans Holm in zymology, or winemak- ing. The supposedly temporary appointment as a substitute for Professor Holm who was on a 1-year leave of absence became permanent when Holm resigned before the end of the year to take a position with a university in New England. </p><p>Cruess job included two lectures and two laboratory periods a week in zymology. Instruction covered making culture media, sterilizing Petri dishes, isolating pure cultures of yeast and wine bacteria, yeast spore formation, the fermentation of grape must for wine, and acetic acid fermentation. Cruess wrote that with Professor Biolettis advice and assistance he managed to get by. Zymology was a long way from chemistry, although his knowledge of chemistry was extremely valuable. </p><p>Cruess was Assistant in Zymology from 1911 to 1914, Assistant Professor from 1914 to 1918, Associate Professor from 1918 to 1929, and Professor of Food Technology from 1934 to 1955, when he assumed the Emeritus title. </p><p>Shortly after his appointment in 191 1 Cruess was asked by Professor Bioletti to do some work on controlling fermentation in a small California winery about 30 miles from Berkeley. Spending several days a week that year at the winery, he learned the rudiments and operations in commercial wine making, and es- pecially, the use of pure yeast and control of fermentation with SO,. It was an excellent experience for him. </p><p>The next year he conducted further research at the Swett winery near Mar- tinez, California. The owner was a son of John Swett, founder of Californias school systemand a friend of John Muir, the great naturalist. This afforded Cruess an opportunity to meet Muir, who- told him of the marvels of the high Sierra mountains of California. Muirs descriptions of them made such an im- pression on Cruess that in later years he spent a great deal of time walking the trails, fishing the streams and lakes, skiing on the slopes, and climbing the peaks of the Sierras. He loved to rough it in the mountains and his lovely wife was always with him; but although she loved the beauty of the Sierras, roughing it in the wilderness did at times reach the limit of endurance. </p></li><li><p>WILLIAM VERE CRUESS xi </p><p>The experiments at the Swett winery were concerned with the clarification of fresh grape juice, the use of pure yeast cultures in winemaking, and the recovery of residual wine from pressed red grape pomace by use of a diffusion battery sy...</p></li></ul>