[Advances in Food Research] Advances in Food Research Volume 4 Volume 4 || The Use of Ascorbic Acid in Processing Foods

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<ul><li><p>The Use of Ascorbic Acid in Processing Foods </p><p>BY J. C. BAUERNFEIND </p><p>Eoflmann-La Roohe Inc., Nutley 10, New Jersey </p><p>CONTENTS Page </p><p>I. His tory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 II.# Nutritional Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 </p><p>111. Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364 IV. Exhaustion of Oxygen in Sealed Aqueous Solutions . . . . . . . . 366 V. Oxidative Browning in Heat-Processed Foods . . . . . . . . . . 367 </p><p>VI. Flavor and Nutritional Value in Juices . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 VII. Enzyme-Catalyzed Oxidation in Frozen Fruits . . . . . . . . . . 381 </p><p>VIII . Synergistic Action in Edible Fats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 IX. Rusting and Rancidity in Frozen Fish . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 X. Discolorations and Rancidity in Meat Products . . . . . . . . . 392 </p><p>395 </p><p>XII. Oxidized Flavor in Beverage Products . . . . . . . . . . . . 403 </p><p>XIV. Nutritional Value in Miscellaneous Products . . . . . . . . . . 407 XV. Needed Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408 </p><p>References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 </p><p>XI. Oxidized Flavor in Dairy Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </p><p>XII I . Flour and Dough Improver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 </p><p>I. HISTORY </p><p>Twenty-five years ago, the chemistry, nutritional values, and food processing qualities of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) were essentially na- ture's secrets. Today pure crystalline ascorbic acid is economically produced by several companies in large volumes for medicinal and food enrichment purposes. Crystalline 1-ascorbic acid has been demonstrated to be the specific preventive of scurvy and to be of value in many of the disorders of man, some of which require relatively large doses for therapeutic effects (Abt, 1939 ; Farmer, 1944 ; Kyhos et al., 1945 ; Biclr- nell and Prescott, 1946 ; Markwell, 1947 ; Osol and Farrar , 1947 ; Ruskin, 1947 ; Fletscher and Fletscher, 1951 ; Klassen, 1951 ; Silbert, 1951). Ascorbic acid administered in massive, repeated doses intravenously or intramuscularly has a potent chemotherapeutic action in acute infectious processes and has been declared to be free from toxic or allergic reactions by McCormick (1952). Large intakes of ascorbic acid have been re- </p><p>359 </p></li><li><p>360 J. C. BAUERNFEIND </p><p>ported to halt the development of acute poliomyelitis (Baur, 1952). The gradual decline in the incidence and case mortality rates of some infectious diseases during the past century have been attributed, in part, to an improved vitamin C intake (McCormick, 1951). </p><p>The early history of diets lacking this vitamin are crowded with ac- counts of multimasted sailing vessels carrying scurvy-ridden sailors long without proper foods. One early authentic record of scurvy on ship- board is found in the account of Vasco da Gamas voyage around the Cape of Good Hope in 1498 (Bicknell and Prescott, 1946). Early thera- peutic agents for the disease were the juice of sassafras leaves, pine- needle tea, sour lemons, and lime juice. </p><p>Citrus fruits, berries, melons, tomatoes, and green vegetables are good natural sources of ascorbic acid (Anonymous, 1945a ; Watt and Aterrill, 1950). The ascorbic acid content of fruits and vegetables varies, how- ever, with variety, climate, sunlight, maturity, and handling practices (Harding e t al., 1940; Murphy, 1942; Carroll, 1943; Holmes e t al., 1943a ; Holmes et al., 1943b ; Anonymous, 1944 ; Jones e t al., 1944 ; Pep- kowitz e t al., 1944; Anonymous, 1 9 4 5 ~ ; Harding and Fischer, 1945; Somers and Beeson, 1948 ; Paul e t al., 1949 ; Maynard, 1950 ; Zscheile, 1950 ; Miller and Schaal, 1951 ; Peterson et al., 1951 ; Strachan e t al., 1951 ; Mustard, 1952). </p><p>This vitamin is also more subject to destruction during processing and storage than most other nutritive essentials. Oser (1952) briefly summarizes the effects of processing and handling on ascorbic acid con- tent as well as on other nutritional components in a recent review for food manufacturers. The factors influencing the vitamin content of canned foods have been reviewed (Clifcorn, 1948) and are currently be- ing studied (Brenner e t al., 1948; Guerrant e t al., 1948; Anonymous, 1949d; Freed e t al., 1949 ; Monroe e t al., 1949 ; Sheft e t al., 1949 ; Feaster e t al., 1950; Lamb e t al., 1951). The behavior of ascorbic acid in proc- essing and storing frozen fruits and vegetables has also been investigated (Fenton, 1946, 1950; Cotton e t al., 1947; Ferguson and Scoular, 1949; Tressler and Pederson, 1951). Extensive information has been gathered on cooking and serving losses when foods containing ascorbic acid are prepared by various methods (Fellers, 1936 ; King and Tressler, 1940 ; Nagel and Harris, 1942 ; Heller et al., 1943 ; Jenkins, 1943 ; Oser et al., 1943; Gleim e t al., 1946; Streightoff e t al., 1946, 1949; Branion e t al., 1947, 1948 ; Sutherland e t al., 1947 ; Thomas e t al., 1947 ; Clifcorn, 1948 ; Hewston e t al., 1948; MunselI e t al., 1949; Krehl and Winters, 1950; Storvick et al., 1950; Nobel, 1951; Van Duyne e t al., 1951; Fisher and Dodds, 1952). The effect of electromagnetic radiation, a new heatless method of processing, on ascorbic acid stability and the role of added as- </p></li><li><p>USE O F ASCORBIC ACID IN PROCESSING FOODS 361 </p><p>corbic acid has been observed (Proctor and Goldblith, 1948,1950 ; Brasch c t al., 1949 ; Huber, 1951 ; Proctor and OMeara, 1951 ; Proctor e t al., 1952). </p><p>Ascorbic acid was first isolated from lemons by Waugh and King (1932a,b) and from the adrenal gland by Svirbely and Szent-Gyiirgyi (1932). Synthesis of ascorbic acid followed the next year by Reichstein e t al. (1933). Large-scale synthesis was developed shortly thereafter to manufacture the first crystalline vitamin in commercial quantities (Klein, 1936; Major, 1942). Current production in the United States now approximates 10 tons of ascorbic acid per week (Cardinal, 1950). </p><p>11. NUTRITIONAL VALUE </p><p>The Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council (Anonymous, 1948a) recommends for optimum nutrition a daily intake of 75 mg. of ascorbic acid for adults, 100 to 150 mg. during pregnancy and lactation, and 30 to 75 mg. for children up to 12 years of age. The Food and Drug Administration (Anonymous7 1941) has set the minimum daily requirement to be 30 mg. of ascorbic acid for adults. The mini- mum requirement according to standards of the Army (Anonymous, 1949e) is 50 mg. daily. Label claims for nutritional value of foods en- riched with ascorbic acid are based on Food and Drug Administration minimum requirements. Food products containing added ascorbic acid must display simple label copy showing its addition to conform to the Food and Drug Administrations rulings, whether ascorbic acid is used in the food for retardation of deteriorative changes, for nutritive value, or for both purposes (Anonymous, 1941, 1950b). </p><p>Although scurvy is no longer a major disease, there is good evidence that moderate deficiencies of ascorbic acid impair health (Youmans, 1951). Scurvy is more prevalent in infants not receiving breast milk than has been suspected on the basis of clinically recognized cases (Follis et al., 1950; Anonymous, 1951e). Many recent nutrition sur- veys in the United States and Canada demonstrate an appreciable inci- dence of chronic ascorbic acid deficiency. Studies on the diets of children in New York State (Trulson e t al., 1949a; Young e t al., 1951), in Oregon (Storvick e t al., 1951), in Vermont (Pierce e t al., 1947 ; Brown and Pierce, 1950), in Maine (Clayton, 1951), in Florida (Anonymous, 1951 j ; Phipard, 1951), in Alabama and South Dakota (Phipard, 1951), in Louisiana (Dallyn and Moschette, 1952), in West Virginia (Chalmers and Law- less, 1952), in Iowa (Hathaway e t al., 1952), as well as in the West Pacific Coast asea (Anonymous, 1951i) have demonstrated that vitamin C intakes are frequently below the daily allowance recommended by the </p></li><li><p>362 J. C . BAUERNFEIND </p><p>National Research Council or that insufficient f rui t juices and green vegetables are consumed. A reliable intake of ascorbic acid in foodstuffs consumed by people i n the United States as well as all over the world continues to be a subject of interest and practical concern (Jolliffe e t al., 1942 ; Anonymous, 1943a ; Lockhart e t al., 1944 ; Sevringhaus, 1944 ; Koch, 1945 ; Anonymous, 1946b ; Branion and Cameron, 1948 ; Fincke e t al., 1948 ; Trulson e t al., 1949b ; Anonymous, 1950c ; King, 1950, 1951 ; Phipard, 1951). </p><p>The biochemical function of ascorbic acid is not yet clear (King, 1951 ; Bacharach, 1952), although its reversible oxidation-reduction capacity is its most striking property. P a r t of its function may be said to be that of transporting hydrogen in cellular respiration. It possesses a detoxifying function and is a factor in amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism. The ascorbic acid tissue level is an important factor in the oxidation of aromatic drugs by the body (Axelrod e t al., 1952). I n vitro studies in- dicate that the oxidation of aromatic drugs by ascorbic acid and oxygen seems to involve a n organic peroxide intermediate (Udenfriend e t al., 1952). Ascorbic acid plays a role in tyrosine metabolism by acting as a coenzyme in the oxidation of the deaminated amino acids (Sealock and Goodland, 1951). </p><p>Recent research has revealed that glucose (Horowitz e t al., 1952) or a condensation product of glucose (Nath e t al., 1952) is the origin of as- corbic acid synthesis in the body. Analogues of ascorbic acid have been studied, with little success, in an attempt to find a compound which would alter the ability of animals to synthesize their own vitamin C and hence hope to gain further knowledge on the site and mechanism for in vivo synthesis (Anonymous, 1951g). </p><p>Ascorbic acid is absorbed by the tissue of the intestinal tract, particu- larly the small intestines, and passes into the blood stream (Lowry e t al., 1946 ; Roe e t al., 1947 ; Putnam e t al., 1949). It is not stored in the body to any appreciable extent (Crandon e t nl., 1940 ; Rosenberg, 1942 ; Farmer, 1944), and excess ingested quantities are excreted primarily in the urine and to a very small extent in sweat (Shields e t al., 1945). I n fact, a physiological test on man has been devised to determine the avail- ability of ascorbic acid in various products based on rapid excretion of excess ascorbic acid in the urine over a 24-hour period (Melniclr e t al., 1945). </p><p>Ascorbic acid enhances the conversion of folic acid to citrovorum factor (folinic acid) both in vivo and in v i t r o . This interrelationship explains the favorable effect of the administration of ascorbic acid to folk acid deficient rats (Anonymous, 1949c, 1950f) and to folic acid </p></li><li><p>USE O F ASCORBIC ACID IN PROCESSING FOODS 363 </p><p>deficient infants (Govan and Gordon, 1949 ; Anonymous, 1951c, Anony- mous, 1952a ; Nichol and Heinle, 1952). </p><p>Suggestions of an interrelationship between ascorbic acid and vitamin A appears to be evident but not clearly demonstrated from published reports. Decreases in blood levels as well as lowered urinary excretion of ascorbic acid have been reported as accompanying vitamin A deple- tion (Boyer e t al., 1942; Moore, 1946; Anonymous, 1949f). I n a recent blood study (Getz e t al., 1951) of tubercular patients, markedly sub- standard values for vitamins A and C were reported prior to the development of the disease. Investigations with the ra t have indicated an ascorbic acid blood and tissue decrease in severe vitamin A deficiency (Mayer and Krehl, 1948). Supplements of ascorbic acid seem to de- crease the vitamin A requirements of fox pups and mink kits on a low vitamin A diet (Eassett e t al., 1948). The question of the effect of the general plane of nutrition has been injected into this interrelation since Eaton e t al. (1952) found no blood ascorbic acid decrease in calves until the very terminal stages of vitamin A depletion. Ascorbic acid supple- mentation did not alleviate vitamin A cleficiencies, decrease spinal fluid pressure or decrease loss of appetite. Furthermore, ascorbic acid syn- thesis has been reported in rats deprived of vitamin A (Mapson and Walker, 1947 ; 1948). </p><p>The ingestion of large amounts of ascorbic acid can counteract the lack of certain vitamins of the R group. Two per cent ascorbic acid in either a pantothenic acid or riboflavin dcficient dipt prevented o r delayed the deficiency signs in the majority of rats u p to a year in a one year study. In preliminary studies 5% ascorbic acid in thiamin-free diets prevented o r delayed the onset of the deficiency signs (Daf t nncl Schwarz, 1952). On the other hand, increasing the water-soluble G vitamin intake did not greatly affect the development of scurvy in guinea pigs (De Felice, 1950). Dietary ascorbic acid a t a 2% diet level prevented or delayed granulocytopenia on diets containing high levels of ferric citrate. Thera- peutic effects were also observed by IlkDaniel and Daft (1952). Other workers have also demonstrated ascorbic acid to improve the metabolism of iron (Albers, 1951). </p><p>It is generally accepted that ascorbic acid is non-toxic when admin- istered in moderate doses to humans (nosenberg, 1942; Osol and Farrar , 1947), Daily divided doses of hundreds of milligrams are recommended in certain disorders (Biclrnell and Prescott, 1946 j Jolliffe e t al., 1950). No toxic signs were observed in human beings who were given doses of from 1 to 6 g. daily, 30 to 200 times the minimum daily requirement (Abt and Farmer, 1938; Abt, 1939; Anonymous, 1945b; Kyhos e t al., 1945 ; Massell e t al., 1950 ; Bauer, 1952 ; Lowry e t al., 1952 ; BlcCormick, </p></li><li><p>364 J. C. BAUERNFEIND </p><p>1952). The possibility of overdosage of ascorbic acid through eating excessive quantities of ascorbic acid enriched foods seems very remote. </p><p>Experimental evidence has been accumulated since 1934 on the identi- cal biological activity of crystalline ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid as it exists in natural foods for humans and animals (Harris, 1934; Crandon e t al., 1940; Ralli and Sherry, 1941; Dunker e t al., 1942; Hangartner and Gordonoff, 1942 ; Todhunter e t al., 1942 ; Clayton and Borden, 1943 ; Anonymous, 1948b ; Elliott and Schuck, 1949). Recent physiological availability trials on man (Melnick e t al., 1947) as well as a new bio- logical technique on guinea pigs (Crampton and Lloyd, 1950) ha.ve fur- ther confirmed the finding that crystalline ascorbic acid is absorbed and utilized by the body as well as ascorbic acid from natural sources. </p><p>111. CHEMISTRY </p><p>Pure ascorbic acid (vitamin C) occurs as white, odorless crystals or powder, melting at about 190" C. (374" F.). It is freely soluble in water (1 g. in approximately 3 ml.), but i t is almost insoluble in oil (Rosen- berg, 1942). I n structure it strongly resembles a simple sugar but is modified to contain an enediol and acid lactose group. It has a...</p></li></ul>

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