Advances in Food and Nutrition Research Volume 42

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  • ADVANCES IN

    FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARCH

    VOLUME 42

  • ADVISORY BOARD

    DOUGLAS ARCHER Gainesville, Florida

    JESSE F. GREGORY I11 Gainesville, Florida

    SUSAN K. HARLANDER Minneapolis, Minnesota

    DARYL B. LUND New Brunswick, New Jersey

    BARBARA 0. SCHNEEMAN Davis, California

    SERIES EDITORS

    GEORGE F. STEWART (1948-1982)

    EMIL M. MRAK ( 1948- 1987)

    C. 0. CHICHESTER (1 959-1988)

    BERNARD S. SCHWEIGERT (1984-1988)

    JOHN E. KINSELLA (1989-1993)

    STEVE L. TAYLOR (1995- )

  • ADVANCES IN

    FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARCH

    VOLUME 42

    Edited by

    STEVE L. TAYLOR Department of Food Science and Technology

    University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska

    ACADEMIC PRESS San Diego London Boston New York Sydney Tokyo Toronto

  • This book is printed on acid-free paper. @

    Copyright 0 1998 by ACADEMIC PRESS

    All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any

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    PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 98 9 9 0 0 01 02 0 3 Q W 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 I

  • CONTENTS

    CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix

    The Role of Flavoring Substances in Food Allergy and Intolerance

    Steve L. Taylor and Erin Stafford Dormedy

    I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    111. Types and Uses of Flavoring Substances in Foods . . . . . 13 IV. Review of Reported Allergic Reactions to Food

    Flavoring Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 V. Appropriate Diagnostic Tests for Investigation of

    Sensitivity to Food Flavoring Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 VI. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

    References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

    11. Food Allergies and Intolerance ...................... 2

    The Use of Amino Acid Sequence Alignments to Assess Potential Allergenicity of Proteins Used in Genetically Modified Foods

    Steven M. Gendel

    I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 11. Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

    111. Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 IV. Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

    References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 V

  • vi CONTENTS

    Sequence Databases For Assessing the Potential Allergenicity of Proteins Used in Transgenic Foods

    Steven M . Gendel

    I . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 I1 . Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

    111 . Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 IV . Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

    References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

    Design of Emulsification Peptides

    David Sheehan. Kathleen Carey. and Siobhan OSullivan

    I . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 I1 . Secondary Structure of Peptides ..................... 95

    I11 . Modeling of Peptide Structures ...................... 99 IV . Synthesis of Designed Peptides ...................... 112 V . Testing of Peptide Emulsification Properties . . . . . . . . . . 115

    VI . Future Directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

    X-Ray Diffraction of Food Polysaccharides

    Rengaswami Chandrasekaran

    I . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

    I11 . Molecular Shapes and Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 IV . Mixed Polysaccharides ............................. 200 V . Morphology to Macroscopic Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

    V1 . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

    I1 . Basic Principles of Solving Three-Dimensional Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

    References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

    Cellular Signal Transduction of Sweetener-Induced Taste

    Michael Naim. Benjamin J . Striem. and Michael Tal

    I . Introduction ...................................... 211 I1 . Recognition Stage At the Taste-Receptor Cell . . . . . . . . 214

  • CONTENTS vii

    I11 . IV .

    V . VI .

    VII .

    I . I1 .

    I11 . IV . V .

    VI . VII .

    VIII . IX .

    Components of the Downstream Transduction Pathway 219 Involvement of Gustducin/Transducin in Sweet-Taste Transduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Amiloride-Sensitive Sweet-Taste Transduction . . . . . . . . 229 The Hypothesis of Receptor-Independent Activation of Sweet Taste By Amphipathic Nonsugar Sweeteners . . . . 230 Summary and Research Needs ...................... 233 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

    Antioxidant Activity of the Labiatae

    Susan L . Cuppett and Clifford A . Hall. I11

    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Evolution of Labiatae as Antioxidant Sources . . . . . . . . . 247 Plant Tissue Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Labiatae Essential Oils as Antioxidants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249

    Isolation and Identification of Rosemary Compounds . . 254 Rosemary Extracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251

    Compound Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Rosemary Synergism(s) and Heat Stabilities . . . . . . . . . . 258 Health Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

    INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

  • This Page Intentionally Left Blank

  • CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME 42

    Numbers in parentheses indicate the pages on which the authors contributions begin.

    Kathleen Care , Department of Biochemistry, University College, Cork, Ireland (933

    Rengaswami Chandrasekaran, Whistler Center for Carbohydrate Research, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (131)

    Susan L. Cuppett, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583 (245)

    Erin Stafford Dormedy, Department of Food Science and Technol- ogy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583 ( 1 )

    Steven M. Gendel, Biotechnology Studies Branch, Food and Drug Adminis- tration, National Center for Food Safety and Technology, Summit-Argo, Illinois 60501 (45; 63)

    Clifford A. Hall 111, Department of Food and Nutrition, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58105 (245)

    Michael Naim, Institute of Biochemistry, Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76-100, Israel (211)

    Siobhan OSullivan, TEAGASC Dairy Products Research Centre, Moore- park, Fermoy, Co., Cork, Ireland (93)

    David Sheehan, Department of Biochemistry, University College, Cork, Ireland (93)

    Benjamin J. Striem, Institute of Biochemistry, Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76-100, Israel (21 1)

    Michael Tal, Sigma Israel Chemicals Ltd., Park Rabin, Rehovat 76-100, Israel (21 1)

    Steve L. Taylor, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nebr

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