Advances in Food and Nutrition Research Volume 42

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  • ADVANCES IN

    FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARCH

    VOLUME 42

  • ADVISORY BOARD

    DOUGLAS ARCHER Gainesville, Florida

    JESSE F. GREGORY I11 Gainesville, Florida

    SUSAN K. HARLANDER Minneapolis, Minnesota

    DARYL B. LUND New Brunswick, New Jersey

    BARBARA 0. SCHNEEMAN Davis, California

    SERIES EDITORS

    GEORGE F. STEWART (1948-1982)

    EMIL M. MRAK ( 1948- 1987)

    C. 0. CHICHESTER (1 959-1988)

    BERNARD S. SCHWEIGERT (1984-1988)

    JOHN E. KINSELLA (1989-1993)

    STEVE L. TAYLOR (1995- )

  • ADVANCES IN

    FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARCH

    VOLUME 42

    Edited by

    STEVE L. TAYLOR Department of Food Science and Technology

    University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska

    ACADEMIC PRESS San Diego London Boston New York Sydney Tokyo Toronto

  • This book is printed on acid-free paper. @

    Copyright 0 1998 by ACADEMIC PRESS

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  • CONTENTS

    CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix

    The Role of Flavoring Substances in Food Allergy and Intolerance

    Steve L. Taylor and Erin Stafford Dormedy

    I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    111. Types and Uses of Flavoring Substances in Foods . . . . . 13 IV. Review of Reported Allergic Reactions to Food

    Flavoring Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 V. Appropriate Diagnostic Tests for Investigation of

    Sensitivity to Food Flavoring Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 VI. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

    References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

    11. Food Allergies and Intolerance ...................... 2

    The Use of Amino Acid Sequence Alignments to Assess Potential Allergenicity of Proteins Used in Genetically Modified Foods

    Steven M. Gendel

    I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 11. Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

    111. Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 IV. Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

    References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 V

  • vi CONTENTS

    Sequence Databases For Assessing the Potential Allergenicity of Proteins Used in Transgenic Foods

    Steven M . Gendel

    I . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 I1 . Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

    111 . Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 IV . Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

    References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

    Design of Emulsification Peptides

    David Sheehan. Kathleen Carey. and Siobhan OSullivan

    I . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 I1 . Secondary Structure of Peptides ..................... 95

    I11 . Modeling of Peptide Structures ...................... 99 IV . Synthesis of Designed Peptides ...................... 112 V . Testing of Peptide Emulsification Properties . . . . . . . . . . 115

    VI . Future Directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

    X-Ray Diffraction of Food Polysaccharides

    Rengaswami Chandrasekaran

    I . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

    I11 . Molecular Shapes and Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 IV . Mixed Polysaccharides ............................. 200 V . Morphology to Macroscopic Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

    V1 . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

    I1 . Basic Principles of Solving Three-Dimensional Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

    References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

    Cellular Signal Transduction of Sweetener-Induced Taste

    Michael Naim. Benjamin J . Striem. and Michael Tal

    I . Introduction ...................................... 211 I1 . Recognition Stage At the Taste-Receptor Cell . . . . . . . . 214

  • CONTENTS vii

    I11 . IV .

    V . VI .

    VII .

    I . I1 .

    I11 . IV . V .

    VI . VII .

    VIII . IX .

    Components of the Downstream Transduction Pathway 219 Involvement of Gustducin/Transducin in Sweet-Taste Transduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Amiloride-Sensitive Sweet-Taste Transduction . . . . . . . . 229 The Hypothesis of Receptor-Independent Activation of Sweet Taste By Amphipathic Nonsugar Sweeteners . . . . 230 Summary and Research Needs ...................... 233 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

    Antioxidant Activity of the Labiatae

    Susan L . Cuppett and Clifford A . Hall. I11

    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Evolution of Labiatae as Antioxidant Sources . . . . . . . . . 247 Plant Tissue Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Labiatae Essential Oils as Antioxidants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249

    Isolation and Identification of Rosemary Compounds . . 254 Rosemary Extracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251

    Compound Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Rosemary Synergism(s) and Heat Stabilities . . . . . . . . . . 258 Health Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

    INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

  • This Page Intentionally Left Blank

  • CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME 42

    Numbers in parentheses indicate the pages on which the authors contributions begin.

    Kathleen Care , Department of Biochemistry, University College, Cork, Ireland (933

    Rengaswami Chandrasekaran, Whistler Center for Carbohydrate Research, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (131)

    Susan L. Cuppett, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583 (245)

    Erin Stafford Dormedy, Department of Food Science and Technol- ogy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583 ( 1 )

    Steven M. Gendel, Biotechnology Studies Branch, Food and Drug Adminis- tration, National Center for Food Safety and Technology, Summit-Argo, Illinois 60501 (45; 63)

    Clifford A. Hall 111, Department of Food and Nutrition, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58105 (245)

    Michael Naim, Institute of Biochemistry, Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76-100, Israel (211)

    Siobhan OSullivan, TEAGASC Dairy Products Research Centre, Moore- park, Fermoy, Co., Cork, Ireland (93)

    David Sheehan, Department of Biochemistry, University College, Cork, Ireland (93)

    Benjamin J. Striem, Institute of Biochemistry, Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76-100, Israel (21 1)

    Michael Tal, Sigma Israel Chemicals Ltd., Park Rabin, Rehovat 76-100, Israel (21 1)

    Steve L. Taylor, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nebraska- Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583 ( 1 )

    ix

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  • ADVANCES IN FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARCH. VOL. 42

    THE ROLE OF FLAVORING SUBSTANCES IN FOOD ALLERGY AND INTOLERANCE'

    STEVE L. TAYLOR AND ERIN STAFFORD DORMEDY

    Department of Food Science and Technology University of Nebraska-Lincoln

    Lincoln. Nebraska 68583

    I. Introduction 11. Food Allergies and Intolerance

    A. Definitions and Perceptions B. True Allergic Reactions C. Intolerances

    111. Types and Uses of Flavoring Substances in Foods A. Nature and Composition of Flavoring Substances B. Manufacturing of Flavoring Substances C. Protein Content of Flavoring Substances D. Usage Levels of Flavoring Substances E. Labeling of Flavoring Substances

    IV. Review of Reported Allergic Reactions to Food Flavoring Substances A. B. C. Occupational Sensitivities Appropriate Diagnostic Tests for Investigation of Sensitivity to Food Flavoring Substances A. Challenge Tests B. Skin Tests C. Patch Tests

    References

    Published Examples of Allergic Reactions to Flavoring Substances Likelihood of Allergic or Intolerance Reactions of Flavoring Substances

    V.

    VI. Conclusions

    I . INTRODUCTION

    Flavorings are concentrated preparations, with or without flavor adju- vants, used in foods to impact flavor. Flavorings are not intended to be

    ' This article was reviewed and accepted by the Scientific Advisory Board to the Allergy and Immunology Institute of the International Life Sciences Institute.

    1

    1043-4526/98 $25.00 Copyright 0 1998 by Academic Press.

    All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.

  • 2 STEVE L. TAYLOR AND ERIN STAFFORD DORMEDY

    consumed as such, but rather used at low levels in finished consumer foods to enhance or improve quality. Flavoring substances are either chemically defined or natural products, the primary function of which is to impart flavor.

    Food allergies and intolerances are an increasingly important concern to consumers and food manufacturers alike. Flavoring substances are rarely implicated as causative factors in food allergies and intolerances. Since thousands of different flavoring substances are used in foods, usually at very low levels, the likelihood of allergies or intolerances triggered by these substances is quite small.

    However, some cases of adverse reactions to foods remain idiopathic or unexplained. In some such cases, the major ingredients listed on the incriminated products ingredient listing have been clinically tested and eliminated as possible causative agents. The physician is then left to consider the possible role of minor ingredients, such as flavoring substances. This review provides a perspective of the likelihood that flavoring substances could be involved in allergy. The review also provides a diagnostic approach to evaluating the role of flavoring substances in adverse reactions.

    II. FOOD ALLERGIES AND INTOLERANCE

    A. DEFINITIONS AND PERCEPTIONS

    Food allergies and intolerances are adverse reactions that affect some, but not all, individuals in the population. These individualistic adverse reactions to foods can occur through a variety of different mechanisms. Food allergies involve abnormal immunological reactions in which the persons immune system overreacts to ingestion of ordinarily harmless substances, usually naturally occurring proteins in foods (1-4). In con- trast, food intolerances do not involve the immune system. Nonimmu- nological food intolerances include non-IgE-mediated histamine release (anaphylactoid reactions), metabolic food disorders, and a host of food idiosyncrasies (5). Although food allergies and intolerances are mani- fested in only a minor proportion of the population, the public views such illnesses as a major health concern and fails to distinguish between the different types of illnesses that fall within this general category. As many as 10-20% of all consumers believe that they have food allergies (6), although only 1-2% of the population are truly afflicted with these conditions.

  • FLAVORING IN FOOD ALLERGY AND INTOLERANCE 3

    B. TRUE ALLERGIC REACTIONS

    Two types of allergic reactions to foods can be distinguished (Table I), reflecting differences in the immune mechanisms involved in the course of the reaction. Allergic reactions may involve either an antibody-mediated or a cell-mediated response. Antibody-mediated responses are associated with IgE antibodies and are designated immediate allergic reactions because symptoms are experienced within minutes or hours following exposure of the sensitive individual to the allergenic food. The IgE-mediated mechanism is involved in other types of environmental allergies such as reactions to pollens, mold spores, animal danders, insect venoms, and drugs. Cell- mediated reactions are mediated by T lymphocytes and are designated delayed-type allergic reactions denoting the delay in the onset of symptoms

    TABLE I CLASSIFICATION OF ALLERGIC REACTIONS OF FOODS

    Initiation Descriptive name time Mechanism Typical manifestations

    IgE-mediated hypersensitivity

    2-30 min Antigen cross-links IgE Systemic anaphylaxis bound t o mast cells and basophils with release of Localized anaphylaxis vasoactive mediators Respiratory (histamine and many asthma, wheezing, others) rhinitis, bronchospasm

    (anaphylactic shock)

    Cutaneous dermatatis o r eczema (rash), urticaria (hives), angioedema, pruritis

    vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, abdominal cramps

    hypotension. palatal itching, oral swelling, include tongue and

    Gastrointestinal

    Other

    larnyx Cell-mediated 24-72 hr Sensitized T lymphocytes Localized tissue damage

    hypersensitivity release cytokines that (especially in the activate macrophag...

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