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  • 1. Admission in India 2015 By:
  • 2. Assessing the Internal Environment of the Firm Chapter Three McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 3. Learning Objectives After reading this chapter, you should have a good understanding of: LO3.1 The benefits and limitations of SWOT analysis in conducting an internal analysis of the firm. LO3.2 The primary and support activities of a firms value chain. LO3.3 How value-chain analysis can help managers create value by investigating relationships among activities within the firm and between the firm and its customers and suppliers. LO3.4 The resource-based view of the firm and the different types of tangible and intangible resources, as well as organizational capabilities. 3-3
  • 4. Learning Objectives (cont.) LO 3.5 The four criteria that a firms resources must possess to maintain a sustainable advantage and how value created can be appropriated by employees. LO 3.6 The usefulness of financial ratio analysis, its inherent limitations, and how to make meaningful comparisons of performance across firms. LO 3.7 The value of the balanced scorecard in recognizing how the interests of a variety of stakeholders can be interrelated. LO 3.8 How firms are using Internet technologies to add value and achieve unique advantages. (Appendix) 3-4
  • 5. The Limitations of SWOT Analysis Strengths may not lead to an advantage SWOTs focus on the external environment is too narrow SWOT gives a one-shot view of a moving target SWOT overemphasizes a single dimension of strategy 3-5
  • 6. Value-Chain Analysis Value-chain analysis a strategic analysis of an organization that uses value creating activities. Value is the amount that buyers are willing to pay for what a firm provides them and is measured by total revenue 3-6
  • 7. Value-Chain Analysis Primary activities contribute to the physical creation of the product or service, its sale and transfer to the buyer, and its service after the sale. inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and service 3-7
  • 8. QUESTION In assessing its primary activities, an airline would examine: A. Employee training programs B. Baggage handling C. Criteria for lease versus purchase decisions D. The effectiveness of its lobbying activities 3-8
  • 9. Value-Chain Analysis Support activities activities of the value chain that either add value by themselves or add value through important relationships with both primary activities and other support activities procurement, technology development, human resource management, and general administration. 3-9
  • 10. The Value Chain 3-10 Exhibit 3.1
  • 11. Primary Activity: Inbound Logistics Associated with receiving, storing and distributing inputs to the product Location of distribution facilities Warehouse layout and designs 3-11
  • 12. Primary Activity: Operations Associated with transforming inputs into the final product form Efficient plant operations Incorporation of appropriate process technology Efficient plant layout and workflow design 3-12
  • 13. Primary Activity: Outbound Logistics Associated with collecting, storing, and distributing the product or service to buyers Effective shipping processes to provide quick delivery and minimize damages Shipping of goods in large lot sizes to minimize transportation costs. 3-13
  • 14. Primary Activity: Marketing and Sales Associated with purchases of products and services by end users and the inducements used to get them to make purchases Innovative approaches to promotion and advertising Proper identification of customer segments and needs 3-14
  • 15. Primary Activity: Service Associated with providing service to enhance or maintain the value of the product Quick response to customer needs and emergencies Quality of service personnel and ongoing training 3-15
  • 16. Support Activity: Procurement Function of purchasing inputs used in the firms value chain Procurement of raw material inputs Development of collaborative win-win relationships with suppliers Analysis and selection of alternate sources of inputs to minimize dependence on one supplier 3-16
  • 17. Support Activity: Human Resource Management Activities involved in the recruiting, hiring, training, development, and compensation of all types of personnel Effective recruiting, development, and retention mechanisms for employees Quality relations with trade unions Reward and incentive programs to motivate all employees 3-17
  • 18. Support Activity: Technology Development Related to a wide range of activities and those embodied in processes and equipment and the product itself Effective R&D activities for process and product initiatives Positive collaborative relationships between R&D and other departments Excellent professional qualifications of personnel 3-18
  • 19. Support Activity: General Administration Typically supports the entire value chain and not individual activities Effective planning systems Excellent relationships with diverse stakeholder groups Effective information technology to integrate value-creating activities 3-19
  • 20. Interrelationships among Value-Chain Activities within and across Organizations Interrelationships among activities within the firm Relationships among activities within the firm and with other organization (e.g., customers and suppliers) 3-20 Two levels
  • 21. Value Chains in Service Industries 3-21 Exhibit 3.4
  • 22. Resource-Based View of the Firm Resource-based view of the firm perspective that firms competitive advantages are due to their endowment of strategic resources that are valuable, rare, costly to imitate, and costly to substitute. 3-22
  • 23. Resource-Based View of the Firm Two perspectives The internal analysis of phenomena within a company An external analysis of the industry and its competitive environment 3-23
  • 24.