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  • ADAPTING THE ENERGY SECTOR TO CLIMATE CHANGE

  • AFGHANISTAN ALBANIA ALGERIA ANGOLA ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA ARGENTINA ARMENIA AUSTRALIA AUSTRIA AZERBAIJAN BAHAMAS BAHRAIN BANGLADESH BARBADOS BELARUS BELGIUM BELIZE BENIN BOLIVIA, PLURINATIONAL

    STATE OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA BOTSWANA BRAZIL BRUNEI DARUSSALAM BULGARIA BURKINA FASO BURUNDI CAMBODIA CAMEROON CANADA CENTRAL AFRICAN

    REPUBLIC CHAD CHILE CHINA COLOMBIA CONGO COSTA RICA CÔTE D’IVOIRE CROATIA CUBA CYPRUS CZECH REPUBLIC DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC

    OF THE CONGO DENMARK DJIBOUTI DOMINICA DOMINICAN REPUBLIC ECUADOR EGYPT EL SALVADOR ERITREA ESTONIA ESWATINI ETHIOPIA FIJI FINLAND FRANCE GABON GEORGIA

    GERMANY GHANA GREECE GRENADA GUATEMALA GUYANA HAITI HOLY SEE HONDURAS HUNGARY ICELAND INDIA INDONESIA IRAN, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAQ IRELAND ISRAEL ITALY JAMAICA JAPAN JORDAN KAZAKHSTAN KENYA KOREA, REPUBLIC OF KUWAIT KYRGYZSTAN LAO PEOPLE’S DEMOCRATIC

    REPUBLIC LATVIA LEBANON LESOTHO LIBERIA LIBYA LIECHTENSTEIN LITHUANIA LUXEMBOURG MADAGASCAR MALAWI MALAYSIA MALI MALTA MARSHALL ISLANDS MAURITANIA MAURITIUS MEXICO MONACO MONGOLIA MONTENEGRO MOROCCO MOZAMBIQUE MYANMAR NAMIBIA NEPAL NETHERLANDS NEW ZEALAND NICARAGUA NIGER NIGERIA NORTH MACEDONIA NORWAY OMAN

    PAKISTAN PALAU PANAMA PAPUA NEW GUINEA PARAGUAY PERU PHILIPPINES POLAND PORTUGAL QATAR REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA ROMANIA RUSSIAN FEDERATION RWANDA SAINT LUCIA SAINT VINCENT AND

    THE GRENADINES SAN MARINO SAUDI ARABIA SENEGAL SERBIA SEYCHELLES SIERRA LEONE SINGAPORE SLOVAKIA SLOVENIA SOUTH AFRICA SPAIN SRI LANKA SUDAN SWEDEN SWITZERLAND SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC TAJIKISTAN THAILAND TOGO TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO TUNISIA TURKEY TURKMENISTAN UGANDA UKRAINE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES UNITED KINGDOM OF

    GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND

    UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA

    UNITED STATES OF AMERICA URUGUAY UZBEKISTAN VANUATU VENEZUELA, BOLIVARIAN

    REPUBLIC OF VIET NAM YEMEN ZAMBIA ZIMBABWE

    The following States are Members of the International Atomic Energy Agency:

    The Agency’s Statute was approved on 23 October 1956 by the Conference on the Statute of the IAEA held at United Nations Headquarters, New York; it entered into force on 29 July 1957. The Headquarters of the Agency are situated in Vienna. Its principal objective is “to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world’’.

  • ADAPTING THE ENERGY SECTOR TO CLIMATE CHANGE

    INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY VIENNA, 2019

    AFGHANISTAN ALBANIA ALGERIA ANGOLA ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA ARGENTINA ARMENIA AUSTRALIA AUSTRIA AZERBAIJAN BAHAMAS BAHRAIN BANGLADESH BARBADOS BELARUS BELGIUM BELIZE BENIN BOLIVIA, PLURINATIONAL

    STATE OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA BOTSWANA BRAZIL BRUNEI DARUSSALAM BULGARIA BURKINA FASO BURUNDI CAMBODIA CAMEROON CANADA CENTRAL AFRICAN

    REPUBLIC CHAD CHILE CHINA COLOMBIA CONGO COSTA RICA CÔTE D’IVOIRE CROATIA CUBA CYPRUS CZECH REPUBLIC DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC

    OF THE CONGO DENMARK DJIBOUTI DOMINICA DOMINICAN REPUBLIC ECUADOR EGYPT EL SALVADOR ERITREA ESTONIA ESWATINI ETHIOPIA FIJI FINLAND FRANCE GABON GEORGIA

    GERMANY GHANA GREECE GRENADA GUATEMALA GUYANA HAITI HOLY SEE HONDURAS HUNGARY ICELAND INDIA INDONESIA IRAN, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAQ IRELAND ISRAEL ITALY JAMAICA JAPAN JORDAN KAZAKHSTAN KENYA KOREA, REPUBLIC OF KUWAIT KYRGYZSTAN LAO PEOPLE’S DEMOCRATIC

    REPUBLIC LATVIA LEBANON LESOTHO LIBERIA LIBYA LIECHTENSTEIN LITHUANIA LUXEMBOURG MADAGASCAR MALAWI MALAYSIA MALI MALTA MARSHALL ISLANDS MAURITANIA MAURITIUS MEXICO MONACO MONGOLIA MONTENEGRO MOROCCO MOZAMBIQUE MYANMAR NAMIBIA NEPAL NETHERLANDS NEW ZEALAND NICARAGUA NIGER NIGERIA NORTH MACEDONIA NORWAY OMAN

    PAKISTAN PALAU PANAMA PAPUA NEW GUINEA PARAGUAY PERU PHILIPPINES POLAND PORTUGAL QATAR REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA ROMANIA RUSSIAN FEDERATION RWANDA SAINT LUCIA SAINT VINCENT AND

    THE GRENADINES SAN MARINO SAUDI ARABIA SENEGAL SERBIA SEYCHELLES SIERRA LEONE SINGAPORE SLOVAKIA SLOVENIA SOUTH AFRICA SPAIN SRI LANKA SUDAN SWEDEN SWITZERLAND SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC TAJIKISTAN THAILAND TOGO TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO TUNISIA TURKEY TURKMENISTAN UGANDA UKRAINE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES UNITED KINGDOM OF

    GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND

    UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA

    UNITED STATES OF AMERICA URUGUAY UZBEKISTAN VANUATU VENEZUELA, BOLIVARIAN

    REPUBLIC OF VIET NAM YEMEN ZAMBIA ZIMBABWE

    The following States are Members of the International Atomic Energy Agency:

    The Agency’s Statute was approved on 23 October 1956 by the Conference on the Statute of the IAEA held at United Nations Headquarters, New York; it entered into force on 29 July 1957. The Headquarters of the Agency are situated in Vienna. Its principal objective is “to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world’’.

  • © IAEA, 2019

    Printed by the IAEA in Austria September 2019 STI/PUB/1847

    COPYRIGHT NOTICE

    All IAEA scientific and technical publications are protected by the terms of the Universal Copyright Convention as adopted in 1952 (Berne) and as revised in 1972 (Paris). The copyright has since been extended by the World Intellectual Property Organization (Geneva) to include electronic and virtual intellectual property. Permission to use whole or parts of texts contained in IAEA publications in printed or electronic form must be obtained and is usually subject to royalty agreements. Proposals for non-commercial reproductions and translations are welcomed and considered on a case-by-case basis. Enquiries should be addressed to the IAEA Publishing Section at:

    Marketing and Sales Unit, Publishing Section International Atomic Energy Agency Vienna International Centre PO Box 100 1400 Vienna, Austria fax: +43 1 26007 22529 tel.: +43 1 2600 22417 email: sales.publications@iaea.org www.iaea.org/publications

    IAEA Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

    Names: International Atomic Energy Agency. Title: Adapting the energy sector to climate change / International Atomic Energy

    Agency. Description: Vienna : International Atomic Energy Agency, 2019. | Series: - ; ISSN ;

    no. | Includes bibliographical references. Identifiers: IAEAL 19–01258 | ISBN 978–92–0–100919–7 (paperback : alk. paper) Subjects: Energy industries — Environmental aspects. | Energy policy. | Climate

    change mitigation. Classification: UDC 620.91:551.588.7 | STI/PUB/1847

  • FOREWORD

    Anthropogenic climate change is one of the greatest environmental challenges facing the world, accelerating the rise in the global mean temperature and affecting most other attributes of the Earth’s climate. Although a considerable degree of uncertainty persists both in the magnitude of projected global changes and regional patterns, changes in global and regional temperatures, precipitation amounts and seasonal distribution, a sea level rise, and various extreme events are forecast by most global and regional climate models. These changes have already had an impact on nuclear energy installations and the energy sector in general, and the effects are expected to be amplified as the continued rise in greenhouse gas emissions results in further global warming and associated changes to the climate.

    Since 2010, there has been a growing interest in impact studies that explore options and their associated costs to reduce the vulnerability of the energy sector to climate change, and the longer term impacts and adaptation options. Indeed, the global energy sector faces a double challenge in the next 20–30 years. Not only does the sector need to be fundamentally transformed into a low carbon energy supply system in response to climate change mitigation and related policies (e.g. the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change), it also needs to adapt to climate change and its effects to ensure that energy supplies remain secure and reliable.

    This publication explores the diverse range of impacts on the energy sector resulting from gradual climate change and extreme weather events, and the potential ways to counter them. All elements of the supply chain are explored: resource base, extraction and transport of depletable energy sources, power generation, transmission and distribution. This publication includes three case studies which assess the energy sector vulnerability of Argentina, Pakistan and Slovenia. The studies were prepared as part of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on Technoeconomic Evaluation of Options for Adapting Nuclear and Other Energy Infrastructure to Long Term Climate Change and Extreme Weather. This publication presents the topics explored, methods adopted and insights gained from the Coordinated Research Project and will be useful to States interested in evaluating climate related risks to the energy sector. The IAEA officer responsible for this publication was L. Stankeviciute of the Division of Planning, Information and Knowledge Management.

  • EDITORIAL NOTE

    This publication has been edited by the editorial staff of the IAEA to the extent considered necessary for the reader’s assistance. It does not address questions of responsibility, legal or otherwise, for acts or omissions on the part of any person.

    Although great care has been taken to maintain the accuracy of information contained in this publication, neither the IAEA nor its Member States assume any responsibility for consequences which may arise from its use.

    Guidance provided here, describing good practices, represents expert opinion but does not constitute recommendations made o

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