Activity 23_Phylum Echinoderm at A

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Activity 23: Phylum Echinodermata

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS exclusively

marine mostly mobile, slow-moving bottom dwellers Coelom subdivided into: Perivisceral

cavity Cavity of the ambulacral (hydrovascular) system

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS Most

exhibit pentamerous radial symmetry Oral surface contains the mouth Aboral region indicates the side away or opposite the mouth (+) CaCO3 dermal endoskeleton (+)

thin epidermis or (+) embedded in a thick, tough body wall Project spines and tubercles

TAXONOMY SUBPHYLUM ASTEROZOA Class

Asteroidea Class Ophiroidea SUBPHYLUM ECHINOZOA Class

Echinoidea Class Holothuroidea SUBPHYLUM CRINOZOA Class

Crinoidea

SUBPHYLUM ASTEROZOA Includes

radially symmetrical, flattened echinoderms Mostly star-shaped Never stalked or attached to substratum Body made up of central disk with radiall arranged arms Mouth centrally located at oral side of the body

Class Asteroidea Sea

stars or star fishes Typically pentamerous (+) ambulacral grooves on the oral side With

tube feet that have suckers

Anus

and madreporite on the aboral side Many pedicellariae present in many of the species

Starfish AnatomyORAL SIDE Tube feet are visible

Dissection of Asterias rubens 1 - Ambulacral ossicles and ampullae. 2 - Madreporite. 3 - Stone canal. 4 - Pyloric caecae. 5 - Rectal glands. 6 - Gonads.

Aboral side

oral side

Asterias Subphylum Asterozoa; Class Asteriodea

A. rubens feeding on mussel A. rubens aboral surface

Linckia Subphylum Asterozoa; Class Asteriodea

L. columbiae

L. laevigata L. multiflora

Protoreaster Subphylum Asterozoa; Class Asteriodea

Culcita (cushion star) Subphylum Asterozoa; Class AsteriodeaCulcita novaguineae

Culcita novaguineae

Class Ophiuroidea Basket

stars and brittle stars Typically pentamerous With elongated and movable arms sharpl marked off from the central disk Anbulacral grooves are closed and covered by ossicles Tube feet devoid of suckers (-) anus (+) madreporite on the oral side

Gorgonocephalus (Basket star) Subphylum Asterozoa; Class Ophioroidea

G. chilensis

Ophioplocus Subphylum Asterozoa; Class Ophioroidea

O. esmarki Esmarks brittle star

Ophiocoma Subphylum Asterozoa; Class Ophioroidea

O. paucigranulata

Ophiocoma erinaceus

Ophioderma Subphylum Asterozoa; Class Ophioroidea

Ophioderma longicaudum O. rubicundum

SUBPHYLUM ECHINOZOA Includes

globoid, discoid, more or less cylindrical echinoderms without arms. (+) tube feet with suckers Restricted

to the compact body

Never

stalked or attached to any substratum

Diadema (sea urchin) Subphylum Echinozoa; Class Echinoidea

Echinocardium (heart urchin) Subphylum Echinozoa; Class EchinoideaE. cordatum

E. cordatum

Laganum (sea biscuit) Subphylum Echinozoa; Class EchinoideaL. depressum Lateral view

L. depressum

L. retinens

Arachnioides (true sand dollar) Subphylum Echinozoa; Class Echinoidea

A. placenta A. placenta

The end. Thank you.