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  • 5/28/2018 Active Reading Literacy Strategies



    Literacy Strategies

    Making Content-Rich Noniction Accessi!"e

    Daniel Rock and Mary Lynn Huie

    Georgia Department of EducationDr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent

    March 29, 2014ll !ight" !e"er#ed

  • 5/28/2018 Active Reading Literacy Strategies


    Georgia Department of Education

    Active Reading Strategies

    Reciprocal TeachingWhat is it?

    According to Alverman and Phelps (1998) in their book, Content Reading and Literacy:

    Succeeding in Todays Diverse Classroom, reciprocal teaching has two major features (1)instruction and practice of the four comprehension strategies!predicting, "uestion

    generating, clarif#ing, and summari$ing and (%) a special kind of cognitive apprenticeshipwhere students graduall# learn to assume the role of teacher in helping their peers

    construct meaning from te&t'

    According to osenshine *eister (199+), there are four important instructional practices

    embedded in reciprocal teaching

    irect teaching of strategies, rather than reliance solel# on teacher "uestioning

    -tudent practice of reading strategies with real reading, not with worksheets or

    contrived e&ercises

    -caffolding of instruction. students as cognitive apprentices

    Peer support for learning

    eciprocal teaching involves a high degree of social interaction and collaboration, asstudents graduall# learn to assume the role of teacher in helping their peers construct

    meaning from te&t' /n essence, reciprocal teaching is an authentic activit# because learning,both inside and outside of school, advances through collaborative social interaction and the

    social construction of knowledge (Alverman and Phelps, 1998)'

    What does it look like?

    0eachers begin b# teaching and modeling the four comprehension strategies. students thenpractice them through dialogue among themselves' At first the teacher leads the dialogue,

    but as students become more proficient with the four strategies, the teacher graduall# fadesout of the dialogue and allows students to assume leadership'

    0he process of reciprocal teaching must be carefull# scaffolded to ensure success for #ourstudents

    0eachers need to e&plicitl# teach and model the four basic strategies above

    predicting, "uestioning, clarif#ing, and summari$ing' /t is important that students

    understand that skilled readers emplo# these strategies ever# time the# readsomething, and that this is a great habit to develop as a wa# to improve their

    comprehension skills' 0his can be accomplished with short pieces of fiction ornonfiction. the entire class can brainstorm e&amples of the various t#pes of

    comprehension strategies' -mall groups can then choose 2+ "uestions from eachcategor# to answer and share with the entire class'

    Georgia Department of EducationDr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent

    March 29, 2014 $ %age 2ll !ight" !e"er#ed

  • 5/28/2018 Active Reading Literacy Strategies


    Georgia Department of Education

    3nce students understand and are able to appl# all four strategies, it is time for the

    students to work independentl# at first, b# annotating e&amples of all four strategieson a short te&t for homework' -tudents can annotate in the margins, or the teacher

    ma# want to create a graphic organi$er or note sheet where students can recordtheir "uestions and commentar#'

    0hen, the ne&t da# in class, small groups form to share their annotations and

    construct their own meaning of the te&t' 3ne student in the group is

    chosen4appointed4elected to be 5the teacher5 of the group' 6is4her responsibilitiesare essentiall# to facilitate the group7s task, progress, and time management'

    uring the discussion, it is crucial that each student cite reference points in the

    te&ts that are the focal point of his4her "uestions and4or evidence to clarif# orsupport their "uestions and4or commentar#'

    uring the discussion, students add commentar# to their sheets4annotations to

    construct a richer and deeper understanding of the te&t'

    0he teacher spends his4her time circulating the room to visit each group7s

    discussion' 6e4she might ask a follow2up "uestion to enrich the conversation'

    0he teacher should structure some sort of closure activit#, such as a whole class

    discussion that is built around "uestions that groups still have or interesting

    commentar# that each group discovered as a result of their discussion'

    lick here for a graphic organi$er that presents

    all four reciprocal teaching skills'

    /n the chart below are some sample "uestions that students might pose for each of the fourcomprehension strategies based on the te&t, Night, b# lie :eisel'

    Georgia Department of EducationDr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent

    March 29, 2014 $ %age &ll !ight" !e"er#ed
  • 5/28/2018 Active Reading Literacy Strategies


    Georgia Department of Education

    Reciprocal TeachingFour Roles

    PredictingQuestioning Clarifying Summarizing

    Why do you supposeWeisel chose the

    single word title

    Night! What is hisintent!

    "#ter reading this

    #irst chapter whatspeci#ics do you

    e$pect to learn #romthis perspective!

    What is li%ely tohappen ne$t!

    &ow will thischaracter respond

    'ased on what you%now a'out him


    Weisel descri'es ingreat detail the

    possessions le#t on

    the empty streeta#ter the #irstevacuation why!

    &ow does thewriters diction reveal

    his tone!

    &ow does this

    chapter relate orconnect to our

    essential (uestion!

    What connections

    can we ma%e tohuman rights a'uses


    "re there any wordsor phrases that

    con#used you!

    "re there any

    cultural or religiousre#erences that you

    dont understand oryou would li%e


    &ow might you have

    responded in thatparticular situation in

    which the main

    character #oundhimsel#!

    What is importantand)or not

    important in this

    section o# the te$t!

    What do yousuppose was the

    writers intent inthis chapter!

    &ow would you

    characteri*e the

    overall tone o# thisopening section!

    Si$ty years laterhow has the world

    changed as a resulto# the &olocaust!

    Reading strategies: Scaffolding students' interactions with text. 'n.d.(. !etrie#ed from


    Georgia Department of EducationDr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent

    March 29, 2014 $ %age 4ll !ight" !e"er#ed

  • 5/28/2018 Active Reading Literacy Strategies


    Georgia Department of Education

    Close ReadingAs Social Studies students begin reading primary texts, they will need reading skills they may not

    be accustomed to using when reading their social studies textbooks. To read historical speeches, diaries,

    and letters requires reading like a literary critic. Close Reading exercises are a staple of the study of

    literature, teaching students to pay attention to the literary elements of text that coney a writer!s attitude

    toward a topic.

    A close reading can be performed on indiidual texts, but to help students see the importance of

    paying attention to the literary elements of primary source documents, select two passages that offer

    distinct perspecties on the same topic. "hen students are first learning close reading, short passages are

    best. #ou might use this actiity before students read longer texts, particularly if the texts present arious

    perspecties on the same topic.

    Step 1:$athering data

    $ie each student a copy of the text, and instruct them to read with a pencil, pen, or marker

    moing% underlining, highlighting, and writing questions as they moe through the text. They should note

    any words or phrases that seem important, that surprise them, or that they do not understand. They can

    use a simple set of symbols &question marks, exclamation marks, plus and minus marks' or write

    comments as they read.

    Step 2:(aking obserations about the data

    )nstruct students to examine the words and phrases they hae annotated in the passages. "hat

    unusual language do they see the authors using in each text* +ow do these words shape the reader!s

    response to the topic* "hy did each writer make the writing choices heshe made*

    Step 3: )nterpreting the data

    After thinking about the data and considering the choices made by each writer, students are ready

    to make a statement about each author!s perspectie or about the deices each writer employs to influence

    the audience. To support these statements, students will hae eidence in their annotated copies of thetexts.

    Close Reading is an actiity that can take students from reading to writing. As they find the most

    important features of the text, they also theori-e about the meaning of the text. Reading text closely,

    finding the most important element in texts, and interpreting the text are processes that prepare students to

    formulate thesis statement and support their positions with eidencethe essential features of good