ACT - NOx Emissions from Iron Steel Mills ALTERNATIVE CONTROL TECHNIQUES DOCUMENT --NOx EMISSIONS FROM IRON AND STEEL MILLS Emission Standards Division U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Office of Air and Radiation

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  • EPA-453/R-94-065

    ALTERNATIVE CONTROLTECHNIQUES DOCUMENT --

    NO EMISSIONS FROM IRON AND STEEL MILLSx

    Emission Standards Division

    U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCYOffice of Air and Radiation

    Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards

  • Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711September 1994

  • ALTERNATIVE CONTROL TECHNIQUES DOCUMENTS

    This report is issued by the Emission Standards Division,

    Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U. S. Environmental

    Protection Agency, to provide information to State and local air

    pollution control agencies. Mention of trade names and

    commercial products is not intended to constitute endorsement or

    recommendation for use. Copies of this report are available --

    assupplies last-- from the Library Services Office (MD-35), U. S.

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North

    Carolina 27711 ([919] 541-5514) or, for a nominal fee, from the

    National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road,

    Springfield, VA 22161 ([800] 553-NTIS).

  • i

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Chapter Page

    LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivLIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v

    1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

    2 SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12.1 SOURCES OF NO EMISSIONS . . . . . . . . . . 2-1X2.2 UNCONTROLLED NO EMISSIONS . . . . . . . . . 2-3X2.3 NO EMISSIONS REDUCTION TECHNIQUES . . . . . 2-4X2.4 COSTS AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NO CONTROLX

    TECHNIQUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-82.5 IMPACTS OF NO CONTROLS . . . . . . . . . . 2-8X

    2.5.1 Air Impacts of Combustion Modification Techniques . . . . . 2-12

    2.5.2 Air Impacts of SCR and SNCR . . . . . 2-132.5.3 Solid Waste Impacts . . . . . . . . . 2-132.5.4 Energy Impacts . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14

    3 INDUSTRY DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13.1 BACKGROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1

    3.1.1 A Historical Perspective . . . . . . 3-23.1.2 An Overview of the U.S. Iron

    and Steel Industry . . . . . . . . 3-2 3.1.2.1 Integrated Producers . . . 3-5 3.1.2.2 Mini-Mills . . . . . . . . 3-5 3.1.2.3 Specialty Producers . . . 3-5

    3.2 INDUSTRY CHARACTERIZATION . . . . . . . . . 3-83.2.1 An Overview of Iron and Steel

    Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8 3.2.1.1 Raw Materials and Preparatory

    Processes . . . . . . . 3-8 3.2.1.2 Ironmaking . . . . . . . . 3-10 3.2.1.3 Steelmaking . . . . . . . 3-11 3.2.1.4 Finishing . . . . . . . . 3-14

    3.3 PRODUCTION PROCESSES WITH NO EMISSIONS . 3-X3.3.1 Sintering . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-153.3.2 Cokemaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-173.3.3 Blast Furnaces and Blast Furnace

    Stoves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-183.3.4 Basic Oxygen Furnaces . . . . . . . . 3-193.3.5 Soaking-Pit and Reheat Furnaces . . 3-20

    3.3.6 Annealing Furnaces . . . . . . . . .3-23

    3.4 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24

    4 UNCONTROLLED NO EMISSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1X4.1 MECHANISMS OF NO FORMATION . . . . . . . . 4-1X

  • ii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS (con.)

    4.1.1 Thermal NO Formation . . . . . . . . 4-1 x4.1.2 Fuel NO Formation . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4x4.1.3 Prompt NO Formation . . . . . . . . . . 4-6x4.2 EMISSIONS OF NO FROM IRON AND STEEL MILLS . 4-7X

    4.2.1 Emission Factors . . . . . . . . . . 4-74.2.2 Coke-oven Underfiring . . . . . . . . 4-74.2.3 Sintering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-94.2.4 Blast Furnaces and Blast

    Furnace Stoves . . . . . . . . . . . 4-104.2.5 Basic Oxygen Furnace . . . . . . . . 4-104.2.6 Electric-arc Furnace . . . . . . . . 4-114.2.7 Soaking Pits . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-124.2.8 Reheat Furnaces . . . . . . . . . . . 4-134.2.9 Annealing Furnaces . . . . . . . . . 4-144.2.10 Galvanizing Furnaces . . . . . . . . 4-154.2.11 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15

    4.3 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18

    5 NITROGEN OXIDES CONTROL TECHNIQUES . . . . . . . 5-15.1 BACKGROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15.2 CONTROL TECHNIQUES APPLICABLE TO IRON AND STEEL

    FACILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15.2.1 Control Techniques Applied . . . . . 5-1

    5.2.1.1 Low Excess Air . . . . . . . 5-3 5.2.1.2 Low NO Burners . . . . . . 5-3x 5.2.1.3 Low NO Burner Plus Flue Gasx

    Recirculation . . . . . . . 5-8 5.2.1.4 Selective Catalytic

    Reduction . . . . . . . . . 5-85.2.2 Other Control Techniques . . . . . . 5-11

    5.2.2.1 Off-Stoichiometric or Staged Combustion . . . . . . . . . 5-11

    5.2.2.2 Fuel Switching . . . . . . . 5-16 5.2.2.3 Selective Noncatalytic

    Reduction . . . . . . . . . 5-165.3 NITROGEN OXIDES CONTROLS FOR SPECIFIC

    FACILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-185.3.1 Coke Ovens . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-185.3.2 Sinter Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-195.3.3 Blast Furnaces and Blast

    Furnace Stoves . . . . . . . . . . . 5-215.3.4 Basic Oxygen Furnace . . . . . . . . 5-225.3.5 Electric Arc Furnaces . . . . . . . . 5-23

    5.3.6 Reheat Furnaces . . . . . . . . . . . 5-235.3.7 Soaking Pits . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-255.3.8 Annealing and Galvanizing . . . . . . 5-25

  • iii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS (con.)

    5.3.8.1 Annealing Furnaces . . . . . 5-25 5.3.8.2 Galvanizing Furnaces . . . . 5-27

    5.4 SUMMARY OF CONTROLLED NO EMISSIONS . . . . 5-27X5.5 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-29

    6 COSTS OF NO CONTROLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1X6.1 STEEL REHEAT FURNACES . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2

    6.1.1 Model Furnaces . . . . . . . . . . . 6-26.1.2 Costs and Cost Effectiveness of LEA Control

    for Reheat Furnaces . . . . . 6-36.1.3 Costs and Cost Effectiveness of

    LNB Control for Reheat Furnaces . . . 6-36.1.4 Costs and Cost Effectiveness of

    LNB Plus FGR Control . . . . . . 6-56.2 ANNEALING FURNACES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8

    6.2.1 Model Furnaces . . . . . . . . . . . 6-86.2.2 Costs and Cost Effectiveness of LNB

    Control . . . . . . 6-116.2.3 Costs and Cost Effectiveness of LNB

    plus FGR Control . . . . . . . . . . 6-96.2.4 Costs and Cost Effectiveness of SNCR Control . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-96.2.5 Costs and Cost Effectiveness of SCR Control of Annealing Furnaces . . . . 6-146.2.6 Costs and Cost Effectiveness of LNB plus

    SNCR for Annealing Furnaces . . . 6-146.2.7 Costs and Cost Effectiveness of LNB plus SCR Controls for Annealing

    Furnaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-176.3 GALVANIZING FURNACES . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-17

    6.3.1 Model Furnaces . . . . . . . . . . . 6-176.3.2 Costs and Cost Effectiveness of LNB

    plus FGR Controls for Galvanizing Furnaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-17

    6.3.3 Costs and Cost Effectiveness of LNB for Galvanizing Furnaces . . . . . . 6-19

    6.5 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-22

    7 ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY IMPACTS OF NO CONTROLS . . 7-1X7.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17.2 AIR IMPACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1

    7.2.1 NO Emission Reductions . . . . . . . . 7-1x7.2.2 Air Impacts of Combustion Modifications . 7-37.2.3 Air Impacts of SCR and SNCR . . . . . . 7-4

    7.3 SOLID WASTE IMPACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-67.4 ENERGY IMPACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-67.5 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8

    APPENDIX A TABULATION OF UNCONTROLLED NO EMISSIONS DATA. . . X

  • iv

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Number Page

    2-1 Simplified steelmaking flow chart . . . . . . . 2-2

    3-1 Simplified steelmaking flow chart . . . . . . . 3-9into major steel product forms . . . . . . . . 3-9

    3-2 Schematic representation of progress ofrefining in a top-blown basic-lined BOF . . . . 3-21

    5-1 Staged-air low NO burner . . . . . . . . . . 5-5x 5-2 Staged-fuel low NO burners . . . . . . . . . . 5-6x 5-3 Illustration of flue gas recirculation . . . . 5-9 5-4 Illustration of the SCR Principle . . . . . . 5-10 5-5 Biased burner firing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13 5-6 Burners out of service (BOOS) . . . . . . . . . 5-14 5-7 Overfire air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15

  • v

    LIST OF TABLESNumber Page

    2-1 SUMMARY OF UNCONTROLLED NO EMISSIONS . . . . . 2-5X 2-2 NO CONTROLLED EMISSIONS AND X

    PERCENT REDUCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7 2-3 COSTS AND COST EFFECTIVENESS - EXISTING REHEAT FURNACES (300 MMBtu/hr) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8 2-4 COSTS AND COST EFFECTIVENESS - EXISTING ANNEALING

    FURNACES (200 MMBtu/hr) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9 2-5 COSTS AND COST EFFECTIVENESS - EXISTING GALVANIZING

    FURNACES (100 MMBtu/hr) . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11 3-1 SUMMARY OF CURRENT STEEL INDUSTRY FACTS . . . . 3-4 3-2 SUMMARY INFORMATION RELEVANT TO INTEGRATED

    STEEL PRODUCERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6 4-1 CALCULATED EQUILIBRIUM CONCENTRATIONS (in ppm)

    OF NO AND NO IN AIR AND FLUE GAS . . . . . . . 4-32 4-2 FACTORS CONTROLLING THE FORMATION OF THERMAL NO 4-5X 4-3 NITROGEN OXIDE EMISSION FACTORS FROM AP-42

    AND NAPAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8 4-4 SUMMARY OF UNCONTROLLED NO EMISSIONS . . . . . 4-12X 5-1 OVERVIEW OF NO CONTROL TECHNIQUES . . . . . . 5-2X 5-2 NO CONTROLLED EMISSIONS AND PERCENT REDUCTION . 5-28X

    6-1 COSTS AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF LEA FORREHEAT FURNACES. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 6-4

    6-2 COSTS AND COST EFFE

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