achieving sustainable development goals some cross-cutting issues and drivers 8. sustained,...

Download Achieving Sustainable Development Goals Some cross-cutting issues and drivers 8. Sustained, inclusive

If you can't read please download the document

Post on 14-Jul-2020

0 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Achieving SDGs: Key Priorities and Implementation

    Challenges for South Asia and Sri Lanka

    Nagesh Kumar

    delivered at the Institute of Policy Studies

    Colombo, 2 June 2016

  • Criticality of SDGs for South Asia

    • The Agenda 2030 on Sustainable Development, adopted at the United Nations Summit in September 2015, is a global compact comprising 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets, seeking to eliminate poverty and hunger and provide a life of dignity to all

    • The SDGs are especially relevant for eight countries of South Asia which, despite their economic dynamism and remarkable MDG achievements, account for 40% of the world’s poor

    • Suffer from a number of development and infrastructure gaps, and low levels of human development

    • Given South Asia’s weight in the world population and poverty, the world cannot achieve SDGs with South Asia

  • Despite remarkable progress MDGs remain an unfinished agenda for South Asia

  • Sustainable Development Goals the unfinished MDG agenda

    The first 7 goals represent the unfinished agenda of MDGs

    1. End poverty

    2. End hunger

    3. Health for all

    4. Quality education for all

    5. Gender equality and women’s empowerment

    6. Drinking water and sanitation for all

    7. Affordable and sustainable modern energy for all

    4

  • Sustainable Development Goals Some cross-cutting issues and drivers

    8. Sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, decent jobs for all

    9. Resilient infrastructure and inclusive and sustainable industrialization and innovation

    10.Reduce inequality within and among countries

    16. Peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development

    5

  • Sustainable Development Goals Some aspects of environmental sustainability

    6

    11. Sustainable and resilient cities and habitats

    12. Sustainable consumption and production

    13. Address climate change and its impacts

    14. Sustainable use of oceans, seas and marine

    resources

    15. Sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems and

    management of forests and biodiversity

  • Sustainable Development Goals A renewed global partnership for development

    17. Means of Implementation and revitalize global partnership for sustainable development

    • Finance • Technology

    • Capacity-building

    • Trade

    • Systemic Issues

    • Data, monitoring and accountability

  • Towards a policy agenda for SDG achievement in South Asia

    • Interrelationships between many goals and targets

    • Positive spillovers of integrating economic, social and environmental pillars

    • Identify key policy priorities for South Asia that will help maximize the interrelationships and positive spillovers

  • a. Sustained, broad-based and job-creating rapid economic

    growth

    • Fastest growing subregion

    • Growth not creating adequate jobs

    • Employment elasticity of growth has been falling

    • 80% of the workforce trapped in informal jobs without any social protection

    -7

    -5

    -3

    -1

    1

    3

    5

    7

    9

    11

    A n

    n u

    a l

    G D

    P g

    ro w

    th r

    a te

    ( %

    )

    East and North-East Asia North and Central Asia South Asia South-East Asia World

    0.0

    0.1

    0.2

    0.3

    0.4

    0.5

    0.6

    0.7

    0.8

    0.9

    1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    P ro

    p o

    rt io

    n a

    l g

    ro w

    th i

    n e

    m p

    lo y m

    e n

    t fo

    r e

    a c h

    1 p

    e r

    c e

    n t

    a n

    n u

    a l g

    ro w

    th i

    n G

    D P

    South Asia employment-GDP growth trends, (Employment growth elasticity, 5-year moving average, 1994-2010)

    India SAARC-IND SAARC

    5

    8

    11

    12

    13

    14

    29

    44

    95

    92

    89

    88

    87

    86

    71

    56

    0 20 40 60 80 100

    Nepal

    Afghanistan

    Pakistan

    Bhutan

    Bangladesh

    India

    Sri Lanka

    Maldives

    Informal employment (% of employment)

    Formal employment Informal employment

  • through industry-oriented structural transformation

    -24.7

    -18.0

    -3.3 -2.7 -0.6 -0.1

    19.2

    12.8

    3.0 2.7 0.4 0.3

    -30.0

    -25.0

    -20.0

    -15.0

    -10.0

    -5.0

    0.0

    5.0

    10.0

    15.0

    20.0

    25.0

    South Asia India Pakistan Bangladesh Nepal Sri Lanka

    C h

    an ge

    d u

    e to

    in d

    u st

    ry c

    o n

    ce n

    tr at

    io n

    (p

    o p

    u la

    ti o

    n , m

    ill io

    n s)

    Poverty Employment

    • Structural transformation in South Asia moved from agriculture to industry bypassing the industry

    • Agriculture still sustains nearly half of the workforce

    • Share of manufacturing in GDP in South Asia much lower in South Asia compared to East Asian countries

    • ESCAP-SANEM model simulations suggest that an industry-oriented growth will lift 25 million more people out of poverty

  • b. Closing gaps in infrastructure by providing essential

    services to all

    • Wide infrastructure gaps in South Asia

    • Infrastructure availability affects achievement of other SDGs

    • Access to infrastructure also source of inequality between rural and urban

    • Important multiplier effects of infrastructure investment

    • Huge requirement of resources to close the infrastructure gaps

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    120

    140

    S c o

    re

    R a n

    k

    Global Competitiveness Index 2015/16 : Infrastructure - Scores and rankings of selected ESCAP countries

    Rank Score

    AFG

    BGD

    BTN

    IND

    MDV

    NPL PAK

    LKA

    y = -1.2436x + 152.18 R² = 0.2308

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    350

    400

    450

    0 20 40 60 80 100

    M at

    e rn

    al m

    o rt

    al it

    y ra

    ti o

    , 2 0

    1 3

    Paved roads (% of roads), 2012

    Relationship between access to roads and maternal health

    AFG

    BGD BTN

    IND

    NPL PAK

    LKA

    y = 0.4746x + 47.185 R² = 0.5595

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    120

    0 50 100

    A d

    u lt

    li te

    ra cy

    r at

    e

    Access to electricity (% of population), 2012

    Relationship between electricity access and educational attainment

  • c. Harnessing demographic dividend through universal access to education and health

    LKA MDV

    IND

    BGD NPL

    PAK

    y = -45.78ln(x) + 120.38 R² = 0.66

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    120

    140

    160

    180

    200

    0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0

    U n

    d e

    r 5

    m o

    rt al

    it y

    ra te

    s, 2

    0 1

    2

    Mean years of schooling, females, 2002-2012

    Relationship between female education and child health

    • Health and education SDGs are critical for South Asia to harness the demographic dividend from its youth bulge

    • Although MDG targets for primary enrolment and completion met, quality remains an issue

    • Wide gender gap in education at higher levels

    • Nexus between education and health

    • Low public expenditure (2-4% of GDP) against the recommended 6% on education

    • South Asia needs to move towards universal health coverage

  • d. Social protection and financial inclusion for reducing

    inequalities, poverty and other deprivations

    BGD

    BTN

    IND

    NPL

    PAK LKA

    y = -0.52x + 40.01 R² = 0.34

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    0 20 40 60 80 100P o

    ve rt

    y h

    e ad

    co u

    n t

    ra ti

    o a

    t $

    1 .9

    0 a

    d ay

    ( 2

    0 1

    1

    P P

    P )

    Account at a financial institution (% age 15+)

    Relationship between financial inclusion and poverty

    2.5

    3.4

    3.7

    3.9

    10.3

    14

    24.1

    33.5

    41.3

    58.6

    95.4

    97.5

    96.6

    96.3

    96.1

    89.7

    86

    75.9

    66.5

Recommended

View more >