Accessibility 2.0: Blended Learning For Blended Accessibility
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DESCRIPTIONBrian Kelly gave a plenary talk on Accessibility 2.0: Blended Learning For Blended Accessibility at the 'Blended Learning to Splendid Learning' Technology Innovation in Higher Education Conference at the Manchester Metropolitan Business School on 9th June 2006.
- 1. Accessibility 2.0:Blended Accessibility For Blended Learning Brian Kelly UKOLN University of Bath Bath UK Email [email_address] UKOLN is supported by: http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/web-focus/events/conferences/blended-learning-mmu-2006-06/ About This Talk Brian Kelly reviews the traditional approaches taken to addressing the accessibility of Web resources. Although a political success, Brian argues that the WAI model is flawed. An alternative approach, developed by UKOLN and TechDis, is described. Brian concludes by arguing for a user-focused approach Accessibility 2.0 This work is licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 licence (but note caveat)
- WAI The Answer To Universal Web Accessibility?
- WAI Limitations
- An Alternative Way: A Holistic Approach To E-Learning Accessibility
- Building On This Work: The Tangram Metaphor
- Accessibility 2.0
3. About Me
- Brian Kelly:
- UK Web Focus
- Adviser on best practices and innovative uses of Web
- Funded by JISC and MLA (Museums, Libraries and Archives Council)
- Supports Higher and Further Education and cultural heritage communities
- Based at UKOLN, University of Bath
- Related work:
- Providing advice on maximising access to networked resources
- Working with JISCs TechDis advisory service
- Co-author of several papers on e-learning accessibility: CJLR paper in 2004, ALT-C and W4A paper in 2005, W4A paper in 2006,
4. About You
- Are you:
- Familiar with WAI (Web Accessibility Initiative)?
- Using WAI WCAG guidelines in your:
- Web site development?
- e-learning development work?
- Using the guidelines successfully?
- Using any other approaches to e-learning accessibility?
- WAI (Web Accessibility Initiative):
- Part ofWorld Wide Web Consortium (W3C) since 1997
- Aims to develop strategies, guidelines, and resources to help make the Web accessible to people with disabilities
- Developed guidelines for:
- Web content: Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG)
- Authoring Tools: Authoring Tools Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG)
- User Agents (e.g. browsers): User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG)
- WAIs work:
- Has had high impact
- Is being embedded in legislation e.g. US Section 508, UK SENDA,
WAI 6. Problem Solved?
- Is the accessibility of e-learning solved?
- We just need to ensure WAI guidelines are implemented
- Your views:
- We should be ensuring our e-learning resources are universally accessible
- Following WAI guidelines can help ensure we achieve this
- We have to, or we could be sued
Rreview of WAI Approach
- Is the WAI model simple or simplistic? (flawed as we cant do much about browsers and authoring tools)
- What about other developments in IT?
- Is the WAI approach designed for Web sites relevant for learning services?
- Is universal accessibility possible or is it more of a rallying call / an aspiration?
7. Reviewing WAI
- WAI's ambitions are clearly laudable
- But does its approach work?
- Let's briefly look at:
- Experiences of use of WAI
- The WAI model
- The WCAG guidelines
- The context of use
- What is accessibility?
Rreview of WAI Approach 8. WCAG Conformance
- Page authors can only follow WCAG guidelines. Several surveys carried out using automated tools (which gives upper limit on accessibility)
- DRC report: 19% A, 0.6% AA conformance based on 1,000 Web sites
- UK Museums report: 42% A, 3% AA conformance based on 124 Web sites
- UK Universities surveys (2002, 04):43%/58% A, 2%/6% AA based on 160+ Web sites
DRC Disability Rights Commission, independent body legislated to stop discrimination and promote equality of opportunity of disabled people.
- These low conformance levels can indicate:
- Public sector organisations don't care
- Guidelines are difficult to implement
- Guidelines are inappropriate, misleading, wrong,
Rreview of WAI Approach 9. The WAI Model
- The WAI model:
- Requires all three components tobe implemented in order forthe WAI vision to be achieved
- Is of limited use to end userswho have no control over browseror authoring tools developments
- Is confusing many think WCAG is WAI
- A simple model developed in late 1990s, but:
- Does the evidence suggest it work?
- Does it reflect the diversity of Web usage?
- Does it reflect real-world technical environment and developments?
- Does it reflect real-world political and cultural environments?
Review of WAI Approach 10. WCAG Difficulties
- Certain Priority 2 and 3 guidelines cause concerns:
- 11.1 Use W3C technologies when they are available and appropriate for a task ...
- Promotes own technologies
- Appears to ignore major improvements in accessibility of non-W3C formats
- 11.1 and use the latest versions when supported
- Goes against project management guidelines
- Logical absurdity: when XHTML 1 came out WAI AA HTML 4 compliant sites downgraded to A!
- 3.2Create documents that validate to published formal grammars
- Dodgy HTML (
) can be rendered by browsers this is an interoperability issue
- Dodgy HTML (
Rreview of WAI Approach 11. Universal Accessibility?
- Is universal accessibility:
- A legitimate aim, which can be achieved with an appropriate set of guidelines?
- Possibly a useful political slogan, but not achievable in reality?
- Our thinking:
- How can scholarly work in HE be accessible to people with learning disabilities?
- Underlying approach should be widening participation
- Universal approaches:
- For machine-to-machine communications (XML), and is not suited for the diversity of individuals (e.g. their abilities, environment, cultural environment, requirements, )
Rreview of WAI Approach 12. Framework For Diversity: Accessibility
- Accessibility the Challenges
- WAI WCAG important area and high visibility
- But the model is flawed, fails to take into account developments e.g. can you use Podcasts?
- Holistic ( Blended) Approach
- Holistic approach to e-learning accessibility developed
- Accessibility of learningoutcomes(not necessarily digital resources) is paramount
- WAI WCAG areguidelines
- See " Implementing A Holistic Approach To E-Learning Accessibility " prize-winning ALT-C 2005 paper
- Follow up paper at W4A 2005 (May 2005) further developed model
Holistic Model WAI 13. Accessibility in Context
- A framework has been developed which places accessibility & usability within a wider context:
- The context
- A range of policies
- A compliance regime
Purpose Sector Funding Resources Context Accessibility/Usability Privacy Policies Finance External Self-assessment Penalties Learning Compliance Digital Library Programme Broken Standards Research External factors:Institutional issues (funds, expert