Abstracts of presentations: Abstracts 35-51

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    35. GROOMING-CONTACT CAGES PROMOTE AFFILIATIVESOCIAL INTERACTION IN INDIVIDUALLY HOUSED ADULTBABOONS.Carolyn M. Crockett and Kelly S. HeffernanRegional Primate Research Center, Box 357330, University of Washington,Seattle, WA 98195-7330.

    A design for grooming-contact (G-C) bar panels allowing physical social contact forindividually housed longtailed macaques (Crockett et al., Contemp. Topics LAS 36(6):5360, 1997) was modified to fit larger cages for adult baboons (Papio cynocephalus). Thewidely spaced vertical bars allow contact, including grooming, but prevent mating andpursuit into the others cage. Therefore, individuals have some control over contact. Acompatibility evaluation protocol was followed: (a) visual familiarization with potentialG-C partner, (b) preintroduction: one of two screened side-gates open, (c) initial introduc-tion: both side-gates open, providing access to G-C panels, (d) at least two more introduc-tion days with side-gates open only when an observer was present, (e) unsupervised daytimecontact, (f) 24-h access to G-C partner. Scan samples quantified time spent in groomingand other activities. Preliminary analysis of data from a subset of compatible pairs reach-ing stage (e) found that they spent an average of 8% of the time in social grooming. Pairsvaried greatly in latency to first social grooming, from minutes to weeks. Persistentlyaggressive pairs were judged incompatible. Ten of 14 G-C pairs evaluated beginning 11/96were compatible (7/11 female-female; 3/3 male-female); one M-F and two F-F pairs havebeen housed compatibly for 9+ months. NIH Grants RR00166 & RR04515.

    36. DO MONKEYS WITH SELF-INJURIOUS BEHAVIOR (SIB)ACT IMPULSIVELY IN COGNITIVE TASKS?S.T. de Blois and M.A. NovakNew England Regional Primate Research Center, Southborough, MA 01772.

    We attempted to characterize the cognitive skills of rhesus monkeys with self-injuri-ous behavior (SIB). Several studies point to increased impulsivity in monkeys with SIB.Therefore, one would expect monkeys with SIB to perform less well than controls oncognitive tasks that required vigilance. To test this hypothesis, we gave object perma-nence problems to rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with and without SIB. The experi-mental group consisted of 11 monkeys with a veterinary record of self-inflicted wounding.The control group consisted of 8 monkeys that did not exhibit SIB and matched insofar aspossible for age and room location. Testing consisted of three types of problems. On Invis-ible transfers, a treat was placed into one of the three boxes, the box was moved next toanother box, and the treat was transferred. Visible transfers were similar except thatspace was left between the two boxes so that the transfer could be observed. On No transferproblems, the object remained in the first box. Invisible transfers were most difficult becausethe monkeys had to infer that an object displacement occurred. SIB monkeys performed bet-ter than control monkeys on all problems and all but two SIB monkeys reached a successcriterion on Invisible transfers whereas only half of the control monkeys did. Thus, SIB mon-keys were superior to control monkeys on cognitive tasks requiring vigilance. These resultsquestion the idea that SIB monkeys are impulsive during cognitive testing.


  • Abstracts / 1771Department of Anthropology, 380 MFAC Ellicott Complex, Box 610005,SUNY/Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14261-0005.2Laboratory of Comparative Ethology, NIH, Poolesville, MD 20837.

    Parentoffspring conflict theory predicts conflict over suckling levels between moth-ers and infants, and specifically an increase in infant demand whenever levels of parentalinvestment are reduced below levels optimal for the infant. Bateson (1994) suggests that,rather than making static demands, mothers and offspring should be responsive to sig-naling regarding mutual need. This points to the importance of describing the character-istics of demanding infants and responsive mothers during the course of weaning. Thisstudy examines the conclusion of suckling among free-ranging yearling rhesus monkeys(Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago. Thirty-one subjects were observed during the 3 monthspreceding a younger siblings birth, using focal animal sampling methods. In general,time on the nipple, nipple contacts and nipple attempts declined significantly across thisperiod (p

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    Our study was devised to put into evidence the occurrence of deceptive behaviors inTonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana). Four immature males were tested. They belongedto a semi free-ranging group raised at the Centre de Primatologie of Strasbourg. Subjectswere submitted to 120 tests during a three-month study period. Subjects had to find thelocation of a food item and were either tested singly or in pairs. Before releasing subjectsin the search task the experimenter prompted one of the subjects to observe where thebait was hidden. When in pairs, one of the subjects remained non informed about foodlocation. Using statistical comparison (Wilcoxon matched-pairs test), we found that wheninformed, higher-ranking subjects did not significantly alter their search patterns whethertested alone or in pairs. To the contrary, informed subordinate subjects modified the num-ber of pauses during their search for the baited spot when accompanied by a partner(p

  • Abstracts / 179

    during reproduction. However, how these concepts are related has yet to be explored.Therefore, our aim was to examine female dominance and some aspects of feeding prior-ity in Propithecus diadema edwardsi and Eulemur fulvus rufus. We observed social inter-actions and first access to resources within two groups of P. d. edwardsi from JuneJuly1996 and one group of E. f. rufus from MayJuly 1997 in southeastern Madagascar. Femalesin all groups initiated group movements significantly more often than males (p < .0001). Onespecific adult female in each group of each species was primarily responsible for initiatinggroup movements and were the first to arrive at the food source. Aggressive interactionsoccurred primarily in feeding contexts for E. f. rufus but were restricted to non-feeding con-texts in P. d. edwardsi. In neither species were females clearly and consistently dominant tomales. By influencing group movements, females can potentially improve their foraging effi-ciency and maintain feeding priority in the absence of dominance by insuring that they arrivefirst to the food source. This in turn, may ultimately influence reproductive success.

    42. DEVELOPMENT OF COMPARATIVE NEUROBIOLOGY OFAGING RESOURCE: PROGRESS DURING YEAR ONE OF THEGREAT APE AGING PROJECT.J. Erwin,1 M. Bloomsmith, S. Boysen, P. Hof, R. Holloway, L. Lowenstine,R. McManamon,E. Nimchinsky, D. Perl, M. Reite, W. Young, andAdrienne Zihlman1Division of Neurobiology and Behavior, Bioqual, Inc., Rockville, MD 20850-3336.

    A comparative neurobiology of aging resource is being developed to amplify under-standing of normal aging processes and promote prevention and treatment of neurode-generative disorders such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons diseases. The project involvesidentification of the oldest great apes in the U.S., conducting systematic observation toobtain behavioral profiles, cognitive evaluations when possible, establishment of an archiveof video recordings of locomotor behavior, and detailed neuropathology and neurobiologystudies of brains following natural death in zoological gardens, research centers, and re-tirement sanctuaries. Brain banking procedures are modelled on those use for humanbrain banks established to study neurodegenerative diseases. During 1997 45 great apesthat were 40 years of age or older were identified. All institutions in which they werehoused agreed to participate in the Great Ape Aging Project. The brain bank has beenestablished with specimens from >20 chimpanzees, three gorillas, and an orangutan. CNStissue received so far is from great apes ranging from 1 day to 45 years of age at the timeof death. This project is entirely noninvasive and makes brain tissue that might other-wise be wasted available for qualified research projects. A distinguished Advisory ReviewBoard has been established to evaluate proposals to use the resource. The first year of theproject included a feasibility study and planning for years two and three (Phase II). Withfeasibility clearly established, the project will be extended to include great apes with birthyears of 1960 and earlier. This project has been supported by a grant from the USPHS/NIAAG14308-01 from the National Institute Aging to Bioqual, Inc., J. Erwin, PI. We gratefullyacknowledge the more than 25 institutions that have agreed to participate in this project.

    43. CSF 5-HIAA ASSOCIATED WITH INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCESIN MATERNAL PROTECTIVENESS IN VERVET MONKEYS.L.A. Fairbanks, W.P. Melega, and M.T. McGuireDepartment of Psychiatry & Biobehavioral Sciences, NeuropsychiatricInstitute, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90024.

    Primate females show stable individual differences in maternal protectiveness, withthe most protective mothers exhibiting the most anxiety. In humans, serotonergic activity

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    has been implicated in anxiety disorders, and an inverse relationship has been foundbetween anxiety level and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), a serotonin metabolite, incerebrospinal fluid (CSF). To determine whether serotonergic activity is related to indi-vidual differences in maternal protectiveness in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiopssabaeus), CSF samples were collected from 27 mothers living in social groups at theSVAMC/UCLA Nonhuman Primate Research Facility. Mother-infant interactions for eachdyad were observed during six 5-min observation periods per week from birth to 6 monthsof age. Cisternal CSF samples were drawn on a single occasion when infants were be-tween 4 and 8 months old. An index of maternal protectiveness was calculated from thefrequency that mothers restrained, approached, made contact and inspected their infants.CSF samples were assayed for 5-HIAA and homovanillic acid (HVA), a dopamine metabo-lite. The results showed a significant inverse relationship between 5-HIAA and maternalprotectiveness (r=.40, p

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    We report the development of a novel, non-operant apparatus that can automaticallydispense solutions to socially-housed monkeys and record to an accuracy of one-tenth of amililiter the total volume of solution consumed by individual group members. The appa-ratus is computerized to identify individual monkeys using a microchip that is worn in aplastic collar that is fastened around the monkeys neck. The computer recognizes indi-vidual monkeys as they approach one of five drinking stations in their home cage byscanners that are positioned above each station. During the past year, we have used thisapparatus to dispense an 8.4% v/v alcohol solution to a group of 13 socially housed rhesusmacaques. We found that, not only do the monkeys easily interact with the apparatus,but that within an hour, most subjects consume quantities of the alcohol solution suffi-cient to experience its intoxicating effects, producing at times blood alcohol levels thatexceed the legal limits that define intoxication for most states. This apparatus has al-lowed us to investigate a non-human primate model of socially-mediated unfettered alco-hol consumption which we believe will be an important tool in elucidating the variousbio-behavioral mechanisms that underlie human alcohol consumption and abuse.


    Studies of positional behavior provide critical insight into patterns of habitat utiliza-tion, diet, ecology, and travel in arboreal primates. In this paper we examine postural andlocomotor behavior in white-faced capuchins inhabiting the La Suerte Biological ResearchStation, Costa Rica (1026N, 8347W). Specifically, we focus on integrating two methodsof analysis: instantaneous focal animal sampling (IFA) which facilitates the collection ofdetailed information on the ecological context of posture and locomotion, and continuousfocal animal sampling (CFA) which offers the opportunity to collect information on se-quences of locomotor and postural behavior. During travel, quadrupedal walking (50%)and leaping (22.2%) dominated the capuchin positional repertoire. Walking occurred prin-cipally on medium diameter oblique supports in the central regions of the tree crown.Leaping was associated with bouts of hindlimb-dominated propulsion as well as tail-as-sisted descent. Data from continuous travel sequences indicate that capuchins commonlyused a series of leaps when crossing gaps in the forest canopy. Over 43% of all leaps werefollowed by a second leap. In 19% of the remaining cases, leaps were preceded by a boutof quadrupedal walking. Additional information on sequences of capuchin positional be-havior and the weight-bearing role of their prehensile tail are presented. These data indi-cate the value of using both IFA and CFA methods of data collection to fully define thepositional repertoire of a primate species.

    47. FAILURE TO THRIVE SYNDROME IN SQUIRREL MONKEYINFANTS (SAIMIRI SPP.).S. Gibson, L. Williams, A. Brady, and C. AbeeDepartment of Comparative Medicine, College of Medicine, University ofSouth Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688.

    Failure to thrive in human infants is characterized by a growth rate in weight andheight below the 3rd percentile. Psychosocial and parental factors, including child abuse,are the most common causes; however, different diseases including endocrine and meta-bolic abnormalities and malabsorption may contribute. Premature thymic involution due

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    to stress and subsequent immunodeficiency occurs in failure to thrive infants with a his-tory of abuse. Approximately 3.2% of live born squirrel monkey infants (35/1096) wereaffected by a failure to thrive syndrome. Affected monkeys failed to gain weight and weresubject to opportunistic infections including cryptosporidiosis, candidiasis, and herpesvi-rus saimiri 1. Most died prior to six months of age. A small or absent thymus consistentwith premature thymic involution occurred in infants that died. Histologically, severethymic cortical atrophy, clustering of Hassells corpuscles and decreased medullary lym-phocytes were observed. Previous reproductive history of the dam, infant birth weight,infant condition at birth, and sex of the infant did not affect development of failure tothrive syndrome. Ninety-one percent of failure to thrive squirrel monkey infants had ahistory of maternal rejection, nursery care, and/ or multiple episodes of trauma. There...