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  • 1.Andhra PradeshFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Andhra Pradesh State Lepakshi Nandi (bull) - Historical Landmark ofthe StateSeal

2. Location of Andhra Pradesh in IndiaMap of Andhra PradeshCoordinates (Hyderabad): 17.366N 78.476ECoordinates:17.366N 78.476ECountry India Established1 November 1956 (55 years ago) CapitalHyderabad Largest city HyderabadDistricts 23 totalGovernment BodyGovernment ofIndia,Government of Andhra 3. Pradesh Governor E. S. L. Narasimhan N. Kiran Kumar Reddy (INC) Chief Minister Legislature Bicameral (294 + 90 seats) Deputy Chief Damodar Raja NarasimhaMinister High CourtAndhra Pradesh High CourtArea Total 275,045 km2 (106,195.5 sq mi)Area rank 4thPopulation (2011)[1] Total84,655,533 Rank 5th Density307.8/km2 (797.2/sq mi) Time zoneIST (UTC+05:30) ISO 3166 codeIN-APHDI 0.572 (medium)HDI rank20th (2005)Literacy67.77% (2011) Official Telugu,[2] Urdu[3]language Websiteap.gov.inAndhra Pradesh (Telugu: , Urdu: [ , andr prde] ( listen)), is oneof the 28 states of India, situated on the southeastern coast of India. It is Indias fourth largeststate by area and fifth largest by population. Its capital and largest city by populationisHyderabad.The total GDP of Andhra Pradesh is $100 billion and is ranked third among allstates in India.[4] The State has the second-longest coastline of 972 km (604 mi) among all theStates in India.[5] The primary official language of Andhra Pradesh is Telugu and Urdu is thesecondary official language in some places,[2] while other languages spoken in Andhra Pradeshare Hindi, Marathi, Tamil, Kannada, Oriya. 10281 persons declare English as their first languagein Andhra Pradesh according to the 2001 census.[6]Andhra Pradesh lies between 1241 and 22N latitude and 77 and 8440E longitude, and isbordered by Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and Orissa in the north, the Bay of Bengal in the 4. East, Tamil Nadu to the south and Karnataka to the west. Andhra Pradesh is historically calledthe "Rice Bowl of India". More than 77% of its crop is rice; Andhra Pradesh produced17,796,000 tonnes of rice in 2006.[7] Two major rivers, the Godavari and theKrishna, run acrossthe state. The small enclave (30 square kilometres (12 sq mi)) ofYanam, a district of Puducherry,lies in the Godavari Delta in the northeast of the state.On 1 November 1956, the States Reorganization Act formed Andhra Pradesh by mergingTelugu-speaking areas of Hyderabad State and the already existing Andhra State .[8]Contents [hide]1 Early History2 Early modern history3 Geography and climate4 Demographics o 4.1 Religions5 Economy o 5.1 Information technology and other key sectors6 Administration7 Tourism o 7.1 Religious Tourism 7.1.1 Other temples and piligrimage sites in Andhra Pradesh8 Culture o 8.1 Cuisine o 8.2 Dance o 8.3 Literature o 8.4 Cinema o 8.5 Music9 Sports10 Education and Research11 Transport o 11.1 By road o 11.2 By rail o 11.3 By air 5. o 11.4 By sea12 Newspapers and journals o 12.1 In Telugu o 12.2 In Urdu o 12.3 Newspapers from other states13 See also14 References15 External links[edit]Early HistoryMain article: History of Andhra PradeshKondaveeduKakatiya sculpture atWarangalA pillar at Ahobilamtemple in Kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh 6. Rock-cut Lord --Buddha-- Statue at Bojjanakonda nearAnakapalle,VisakhapatnamAn Andhra tribe was mentioned in the Sanskrit epics such asAitareya Brahmana (800 BCE)and Mahabharata (400 BCE).[9]The Natya Shastra written by Bharatha (1st century BCE) alsomentions the Andhra people.[10] The roots of the Telugu languagehave been seen on inscriptionsfound near the Guntur district[11]and from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in the 5thcentury CE.[12]Megasthenes, a Greek traveller and geographer who visited the Court of ChandraguptaMaurya (322297 BCE), mentioned that the region had three fortified towns and an army of100,000 infantry, 200 cavalry, and 1,000 elephants. Buddhist books reveal that Andhrasestablished their huts or tents near the Godavari River at that time.[13]Inscriptional evidence shows that there was an early kingdom incoastal Andhra (Guntur District)ruled first by Kuberaka and then by his son Varun, with Pratipalapura (Bhattiprolu) as thecapital. Around the same time, Dhanyakatakam/Dharanikota (present dayAmaravati) appears tohave been an important place, which was visited by Gautama Buddha. According to theancient Tibetanscholar Taranatha: "On the full moon of the month Chaitra in the year followinghis enlightenment, at the great stupa of Dhanyakataka, the Buddha emanated the mandala of TheGlorious Lunar Mansions (Kalachakra)".[14][15]Literary evidence shows that long before Satavahanas, a legendary king named AndhraVishnu ruled in and around theDiviseema region of Andhra Pradesh. After his reign, peoplecame to believe that he had an amsa of the divine savior Lord Maha Vishnu himself. Perhaps inhis honor, people dedicated a new temple now located at Srikaku?am, Krishna District. The lordof the temple is known as Andhra Vi?h?u or Srikaku?andhra Vi?h?u. The Mauryans extendedtheir rule over Andhra in the 4th century BC. With the fall of the Maurya Empire in the 3rdcentury BC, the Satavahanas became independent. After the decline of the Satavahanas in 220CE, the Ikshvaku dynasty, Pallavas, Ananda Gotrikas, Rashtrakutas, Vishnukundinas, EasternChalukyas, and Cholas ruled the land.[16]During this period, Telugu emerged as a popular language,supplanting Prakrit and Sanskrit.[17] Telugu was made the official language bythe Vishnukundina kings (5th and 6th centuries), who ruled from their capital city of Vengi.Eastern Chalukyas ruled for a long period after the decline of Vishnukundinas; their capital wasalso Vengi. As early as the 1st century CE, Chalukyas were mentioned as being vassals andchieftains under the Satavahanas and later under the Ikshvakus. The Chalukya ruler RajarajaNarendra ruled Rajahmundry around 1022 CE.[18] 7. The battle of Palnadu (1182) resulted in the weakening of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty and ledto the emergence of the Kakatiya dynasty in the 12th and 13th centuries CE. The Kakatiyas wereat first vassals of the Rashtrakutas, and ruled over a small territory near Warangal. Eventually allthe Telugu lands were united by the Kakatiyas. In 1323 CE, Delhi Sultan Ghiyath al-DinTughluq sent a large army under Ulugh Khan to conquer the Telugu country and capturedWarangal. King Prataparudra was taken prisoner. Musunuri Nayaks recaptured Warangal fromthe Delhi Sultanate in 1326 CE and ruled for fifty years.State language Telugu ()State symbolPoorna kumbham ()Maa Telugu Thalliki ()State songby Sri Sankarambadi SundaraachariState animalBlack Buck ()State birdIndian Roller ( )State treeNeem ( )State sport Kabaddi ( )State dance Kuchipudi ( )State flowerWater lily ()Inspired by their success, the Vijayanagara Empire, one of the greatest empires in the history ofAndhra Pradesh and India, was founded by Harihara and Bukka, who served as treasury officersof the Kakatiyas of Warangal.[19] In 1347 CE, an independent Muslim state, the BahmaniSultanate, was established in south Indiaby Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in a revolt against the 8. Delhi Sultanate. The Qutb Shahi dynasty held sway over the Andhra country for about twohundred years from the early part of the 16th century to the end of the 17th century.[20]Although Hyderabad was founded less than 500 years ago, archaeologists have unearthed IronAge sites near the city that could date back to 500 BC. Approximately over 1000 years ago thisregion was ruled by Kakatiyas until 1310 AD, and fell under Delhi sultanate from (13101345),when the central sultanate became weak the Bahmani Sultan revolted against the Sultan of DelhiMuhammad bin Tughluq and established an independent state in Deccan within the DelhiSultanates southern provinces and ruled until 1518 AD. Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk, governor ofgolconda, declared Independence from Bahmani Dynasty, and announced himself a sultan ofgolconda in the year 1518 AD, and founded the Qutb Shahi dynasty.[21]Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, a fifth Sultan of the Qutb Shahi dynasty (the ruling family of theGolconda Sultanate, previously a feudatory of Bahmani sultanate that declared independence in1512) founded the city of Hyderabad on the banks of the Musi River in 1591[20] to relieve awater shortage the dynasty had experienced at its old headquarters at Golconda city(11kilometers west of Hyderabad city on the other side of Musi). He also ordered the construction ofthe Charminar. The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb captured kingdom of Golconda including thecity of Hyderabad in 1687 and, during this short Mughal rule, Mughal-appointed governors ofthe city soon gained autonomy.[22]In 1724, Asaf Jah I, who was granted the title Nizam-ul-Mulk ("Governor of the country") by theMughal emperor, defeated a rival official to establish control over kingdom of Golcondarenamed it as Hyderabad state. Thus began the Asaf Jahi dynasty that ruled Hyderabad Stateuntil a year after Indias independence from Britain. Asaf Jahs successors ruled as the Nizams ofHyderabad. The rule of the seven Nizams saw the growth of Hyderabad city both culturally andeconomically. Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the kingdom (Hyderabad state) andGolkonda city was almost abandoned. Huge reservoirs, like the Nizam Sagar, Tungabhadra,Osman Sagar, and Himayat Sagar, were built. Survey work on Nagarjuna Sagar had also begunduring this time; the actual work was completed by the Government of India in 1969. The wealthand grandeur of the Nizams is demonstrated by the fabled Jewels of The Nizams, which is atourist attraction. The state was the richest and the largest among the princely states of India. Theland area of the state was 90,543 mi; its population in 1901 was 50,073,759. It enjoyed anestimated revenue of 90,029,000.[23][24] 9. Charminar at Hyderabad[edit]Early modern historyVizag skylineSee also: Andhra State, Vishalandhra Movement, and Telangana RebellionIn Colonial India, North


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