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    i

    DECLARATION

    I declare that to the best of my knowledge that this project has been done by myself and has notbeen copied from anywhere else.

    Prepared by:

    Abdallah Yahaya Hussein

    Supervisor:

    PHILLYMON L.T.Y

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    ii

    ABSTRACT

    The purpose of this project is to reduce theft incidence by providing an automatic detection of

    burglars for the building at Kibamba residential house. The detection will be provided byinfrared sensors to detect the presence of burglars near the building at the required time. The

    signal will be sent to initiate the buzzer at the security Control room after the burglar being

    detected. Then the Camera will continuously store the video events.

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    iii

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    I would like to thank all lectures and colleagues of Electrical Engineering Department of Dar es

    salaam Institute of Technology for their assistance, advices and cooperation, which made this job

    to be the fulfilled. My special thanks are given to my supervisor Mr. Phillymon .l. Yacobo who

    gave me great cooperation from the beginning to the end of this project, also a project

    coordinator who gave the time table of the project in the right time from the beginning to the end

    of this project.

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    iv

    TABLE OF COTENTS

    DECLARATION ............................................................................................................................. i

    ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................... ii

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................................. iii

    TABLE OF COTENTS.................................................................................................................. iv

    LIST OF TABLES ....................................................................................................................... viii

    LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................................... ix

    ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................................................ x

    CHAPTER ONE ............................................................................................................................. 1

    INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 1

    1.0 Background Information ....................................................................................................... 1

    1.1 Problem Definition. ............................................................................................................... 2

    1.2 Project Objectives. ................................................................................................................ 3

    1.2.1 Main Objectives. ............................................................................................................. 3

    1.2.2 Specific Objectives ......................................................................................................... 3

    1.3 Methodology ......................................................................................................................... 4

    CHAPTER TWO ............................................................................................................................ 5

    LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................................... 5

    2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 5

    2.2 Hardwire Security System ..................................................................................................... 5

    2.3 Operation of Existing System ............................................................................................... 6

    2.3.1 Existing System .............................................................................................................. 7

    2.3.2 Photocells........................................................................................................................ 7

    2.3.3 Relay ............................................................................................................................... 8

    2.3.4 Choosing a relay ............................................................................................................. 9

    2.4 Alert Systems ...................................................................................................................... 10

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    2.4.1The Alarm System Process ............................................................................................ 10

    2.4.2 Previous Work Carried Out On Alert Systems ............................................................. 10

    2.4.3 Using Telephones for Alert Systems ............................................................................ 11

    2.5 Proposed System. ................................................................................................................ 11

    2.5.1. Significance of the Proposed System. ......................................................................... 11

    2.5.2 Project Design............................................................................................................... 12

    2.5.3 Microcontroller ............................................................................................................. 12

    2.5.4 Central Processing Unit ................................................................................................ 13

    2.5.5. Microcontroller Memories ........................................................................................... 13

    2.5.6 Input Lines. ................................................................................................................... 13

    2.5.7 Control Unit. ................................................................................................................. 13

    2.5.8 Output Lines. ................................................................................................................ 13

    2.5.9 Analogue to Digital Converter. ........................................................................................ 14

    2.6. Factors to Consider In the Choice of a Microcontroller..................................................... 14

    2.7. Current to Voltage Converter and Control System ............................................................ 14

    2.8. Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) .................................................................................... 14

    2.8.1 Alarm System ............................................................................................................... 16

    2.8.2 False Alarm................................................................................................................... 16

    2.8.3 Power Supply ................................................................................................................ 16

    2.9. Sensors. .............................................................................................................................. 16

    2.9.1 Passive Infra-Red Sensor .............................................................................................. 17

    2.9.2 Pir-Based Motion Detector (PID). ................................................................................ 17

    2.9.3 Operating Principles of Pir ........................................................................................... 17

    2.9.4 Active Infra-Red Beam ................................................................................................. 18

    2.10 Calibration ......................................................................................................................... 19

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    vi

    2.11 Sensitivity .......................................................................................................................... 19

    CHAPTER THREE ...................................................................................................................... 20

    METHODOLOGY ....................................................................................................................... 20

    3.1 Introduction: ........................................................................................................................ 20

    3.2 Literature review: ................................................................................................................ 20

    3.3 Circuit design: ..................................................................................................................... 21

    3.4 Simulation: .......................................................................................................................... 21

    3.5 Implementation and testing: ................................................................................................ 21

    CHARTER FOUR ........................................................................................................................ 22

    D