a prevention-centered homelessness assistance system: a paradigm shift?

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Post on 12-Dec-2014




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Dr. Dennis Culhane's presentation on homelessness at the Center for High Impact Philanthropy Donor Education Seminar.


  • 1. A Prevention-CenteredHomelessness Assistance System:A Paradigm Shift?
    • Dennis Culhane,
  • Stephen Metraux and
  • Thomas Byrne

2. Typology of Single Adult Homelessness (Philadelphia)

  • Transitionals:
    • 1.19 stays
    • 20.4 days
  • Episodics:
    • 3.84 stays
    • 72.8 days
  • Chronics:
    • 1.53 stays
    • 252.4 days

3. Disability Rates(Single Adults in Philadelphia) 4. Implications

  • Transitionally Homeless:Prevention and Relocation Assistance
  • Episodically Homeless:Low Demand Residences (Safe Havens), Harm Reduction, Transitional Housing, Residential Treatment
  • Chronically Homeless:Permanent Supportive Housing

5. What has been done?:Chronic Homeless Initiative

  • Congress and Bush/Obama have increased funding $600 million since 2003; 45% increase
  • 80,000 units created
  • HUD reported a 30% decline in CH from 05 to 09

6. Typology of Family Homelessness (Massachusetts)

  • Transitionals:
    • 1.0 stays
    • 105 days
  • Episodics:
    • 2.0 stays
    • 195 days
  • Long-Stayers:
    • 1.0 stays
    • 444 days

7. Intensive Service Histories of Families 8. Income Sources 9. The Average Cost ofShelter Stays by Type (Massachusetts)

  • Transitional$11,550
  • Episodic $21,450
  • Long-term $48,440
  • Does not include McKinney-Vento funding or non-DTA public service contracts.

10. Summary

  • Cluster patterns are robust across sites
  • Most families (75%) leave quickly and dont return
  • A small number (5%) return repeatedly
  • 20% of families have long stays, using 50% of resources
  • BUT unlike singles long stays do not indicate personal barriers to housing stability

11. Conclusions

  • Policies and programs driving long stays
  • Characteristics of graduates may reflect selection effects of policies and programs
  • Most costly service users are not differentially service-needy
  • Need for reform

12. Volume Cost per Case Model Service Systemfor Addressing Housing Emergencies Prevention SupportiveHousing Shelter Admission Diversion,Relocation, andEmergency RentalAssistance Mainstream systems Community- Based programs 13. Shelter Day Care Employment Assistance Housing Placement Family Supt Services MH/SA Services Prevailing Model Emerging Model Housing Stabilization Day Care Employment Assistance Shelter Family Supt Services MH/SA Services Turning the Continuum of Care Inside Out? 14. Target Population Prevention Objective Most At Risk Protocols for Institutional Discharges Imminently Homeless Crisis Intervention and Tenancy Preservation(Shelter Diversion) Homeless Emergency Shelter and Rapid Rehousing 15. Most At-Risk

  • Prisoners awaiting discharge
  • Patients Exiting Hospital or Detoxification
  • Youth Exiting from FC
  • Domestic Violence Victims
  • Formerly Homeless
  • Protocols Needed with Standard Screening for Risk, Tenancy Preservation, and Rehousing Plans

16. Imminently Homelessness (HH w/ Eviction Notice, Shelter Requestors)

  • For Primary Tenants Landlord Tenant Mediationand Relocation Grant (if necessary)
  • For Those Leaving Family/Friends:
    • Home visits
    • Options counseling
    • Family mediation
    • Transition planning
    • Flexible emergency cash assistance
    • Employment coaching

17. Homeless

  • Crisis Intervention (same as for imminently homeless) for newly homeless to restore prior tenancy or provide relocation grant
  • At some threshold (3-4 weeks):Rehousing Plan
    • Deeper Assessment and Services Screen
    • Service Coordination referral until touch is made
    • Relocation
    • Emergency Assistance- flexible cash assistance, can provide shallow rent supports, with six month review

18. Shelter admission Community-based Prevention (Diversion and Stabilization) Rapid Exit: Relocation Up to 2-4 weeks shelter Housing StabilizationService I Relocation, Critical Time Intervention CM, Temp Rental Ass. 1 year shallow rental subsidy Housing Stabilization Service II More intensive services, 1 more year ofTemp Rent Ass. Shelter exit Transition to mainstream systems Long-Term Subsidy and Service Engagement Progressive Engagement Approach 19. The English Experience:Prevention Oriented SystemFunded in 2003

  • New Ethos: All Cases Can Be Prevented/Rehoused
  • 50% Decline in Homelessness from 2003-2006
  • Keys to Success:
    • Flexible resources that could be tailored to client
    • Strong agency collaborations with mainstream systems
    • Timeliness intervening as early and quickly as possible

20. Systems Transformation

  • From the Continuum to the Network
  • Creating a New Field of Practice:Housing Stabilization
  • New Service Priorities:
    • Tenancy Sustainment
    • Service Coordinators
    • Benefits Counselors
    • Housing Relocation Specialists
    • Family Mediation
    • Home Visitors

21. Challenges

  • Engaging Human Services Systems:Prevention Concept has to be embracedacross systems
  • Local Housing Authority Participation Need for some permanent subsidies for households with long-term needs
  • New Data Collection and Performance Standards Needed

22. Issues for Philanthropy

  • Engaging and convening community stakeholders
  • Supporting systems change and culture change activities
  • Mobilizing private sector participation into a housing and jobs network:landlords, legal services, employers
  • Home programs move-in assistance, house-starter kits, furniture banks, etc.

23. Suggested web resources

  • National Alliance to End Homelessness web site:HPRP Resources section, includes guides for good practice
  • Funders Together to End Homelessness:
  • http://funderstogether.org/



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