A plan for co‐operation in transport between South and North Korea

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<ul><li><p>This article was downloaded by: [McGill University Library]On: 16 October 2014, At: 07:43Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK</p><p>Transport Reviews: A TransnationalTransdisciplinary JournalPublication details, including instructions for authors andsubscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ttrv20</p><p>A plan for cooperation intransport between South andNorth KoreaMyongSop Pak a &amp; TaeYong Kim aa National Sussan University , Namku, Pusan, Korea ,608737Published online: 13 Mar 2007.</p><p>To cite this article: MyongSop Pak &amp; TaeYong Kim (1996) A plan for cooperationin transport between South and North Korea, Transport Reviews: A TransnationalTransdisciplinary Journal, 16:3, 225-241, DOI: 10.1080/01441649608716949</p><p>To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01441649608716949</p><p>PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE</p><p>Taylor &amp; Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information(the Content) contained in the publications on our platform. 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Terms &amp; Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</p><p>http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ttrv20http://www.tandfonline.com/action/showCitFormats?doi=10.1080/01441649608716949http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01441649608716949http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditionshttp://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</p></li><li><p>TRANSPORT REVIEWS, 1996, VOL. 16, No. 3, 225-241</p><p>A plan for co-operation in transport between South andNorth Korea</p><p>By MYONG-SOP PAK and TAE-YONG KIM</p><p>National Sussan University, Nam-ku, Pusan, Korea 608-737</p><p>This paper investigates the setting up and co-ordination of an adequatetransport network between South and North Korea in anticipation of the ultimateunification of the Korean peninsula which occupies an important geopoliticalposition in the transport network of northeast Asia. Such a transport network isanalysed in all modes of transport by sea, land and air.</p><p>1. IntroductionWith the rapid growth of South Korea's economy in recent years, a considerable</p><p>amount of capital and technology has been accumulated, which should become abasis for strengthening economic co-operation with the North, preparing the way torestore the people's homogeneity and achieving peaceful unification. On the otherhand, there is North Korea's shortage of foreign currency and technological back-wardness because of its self-reliant economic policy which is now being changed to apolicy of opening the country.</p><p>Due to the long military and political confrontation between the North andSouth, a communication network between the two nations, whether roads, railways,air or maritime services, does not exist. These would be essential for an activeeconomic exchange. The more economic co-operation between the South and theNorth improves, the higher will be the quantity of goods that have to be transported.Hence the necessity for a connecting transport network is to increase.</p><p>Even if North Korea adopts a policy of promoting the expansion of imports andexports to satisfy the domestic demand, it will be very difficult to solve the question ofinternational transport with the existing infrastructure. A solution could be the useof South Korean transport facilities, but then it would not only be necessary to buildsuitable roads but also to set up an adequate transport network between North andSouth Korea in anticipation of the ultimate unification of the Korean peninsula. Suchan inter-Korean transport system would enable North and South Korea, whichoccupy an important geopolitical position in the transport network of northeast Asia,to become a strategic region that links northeast Asia to Europe and North Americain the transport of people, cargoes and information.</p><p>2. Korean transport policy for economic co-operation in northeast AsiaAs the end of the Cold War era leads to the reshaping of the international order,</p><p>northeast Asia is also seeking out a new inter-relationship. The trend of regionaliza-tion, transformation of the former Soviet Union, China's continued efforts towardsopenness and reform, and North Korea's attempt to expand its external economicrelationship, are basic conditions for the realization of the great developmentpotential.</p><p>The northeast Asia region has become an area which has received a lot ofattention, and is closely watched by the rest of the world community for various</p><p>0144-1647/96 $12.00 1996 Taylor &amp; Francis Ltd.</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>McG</p><p>ill U</p><p>nive</p><p>rsity</p><p> Lib</p><p>rary</p><p>] at</p><p> 07:</p><p>43 1</p><p>6 O</p><p>ctob</p><p>er 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>226 Myong-Sop Pak and Tae-Yong Kim</p><p>reasons. This area consists of South Korea, North Korea, Japan, Mongolia, China(specifically the provinces of Heilong-Jang, Jilin and Liaoning), Inner Mongolia andthe Russian Far East with a total area of about 10 million square kilometres.According to United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) estimates of1990, the total population of this area is about 320 million people, with a GNP ofabout US $3 500 billion. However, if we include China as a whole, then we will have atotal population of about 1-425 billion or 27% of the total population of the world.</p><p>In the northeast Asia region, we have countries with different levels of develop-ment which could compliment and help each other. They range from an under-developed country like Mongolia to a highly industrialized country like Japan. Thisregion is also endowed with the largest concentration of natural resources in theworld. To develop and utilize these resources, Japan possesses large amounts ofcapital and advanced technology, South Korea has experience in successfullyachieving economic development with quite a high standard of technology andcapital (Noland, 1990). China has a vast labour force which also provides a hugeconsuming power.</p><p>China is the most distinctive case in the region. Since the opening of the country in1978, China has shown a really impressive growth performance. Its annual averagegrowth rate was 10-1% during 1980-1985 and 7-9% during 1985-1990. The growthrate of China's GDP is 8-2% for 1991, 13-4% for 1992 and 1993, and 11-6% for thefirst half of 1994 (Ling, 1994). With a population of 1-2 billion and its economic andnon-economic potential, it seems that China will play a very important role in thecoming century in this region as well as in the world. Some economists predict thatChina will surpass Japan in GNP after 2020 if she keeps her high growth rate in thefuture. With the establishment of a socialist market economy, the total amount ofeconomic income will grow rapidly and the people's standard of living will get closerto that of affluent societies. Transport as the infrastructure of the national economyand social development will then face new situations and new patterns and assume anincreasingly important role.</p><p>On the other hand, Japan and South Korea, both densely populated countries, arepoor in natural resources and depend largely on foreign trade. North Korea hasample mineral resources, and is attempting to liberalize its closed economic structuregradually; it looks likely that North Korea will adopt a Chinese style of market-oriented economy step by step. For example, North Korea is also adopting a limitedopening in the TREDA (Tumen River Economic Development Area) by allowing itto develop as a special export-oriented free economic trade zone along the Chinesemodel. TREDA is an area bordering China, Russia and North Korea (Seol, 1993).</p><p>The Tumen River Economic Development Area (TREDA) project is co-ordinatedand supported by the UNDP on behalf of the five countries signatory to the October1991 Tumen River Area Development Programme (TRADP) agreement: SouthKorea, North Korea, China, Russia and Mongolia. The long-term goal of thisproject is twofold: to develop the region as the hub of transport and as the centre ofprocessing and manufacturing industry. The achievement of these two goals is verylikely to turn Tumen River area into an epicentre, like Hong Kong.</p><p>The Tumen river flows mostly along the Korea-China border, but also along theKorea-Russia border over a distance of 15 kilometres between Fangchuan in Chinaand the East sea (sea of Japan). TREDA basically consists of that terrain locatedwithin conceptual boundary lines drawn from Chongjin in North Korea, throughYanji in China to Nakhodka in Russia. TREDA specifically incorporates the Najin/</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>McG</p><p>ill U</p><p>nive</p><p>rsity</p><p> Lib</p><p>rary</p><p>] at</p><p> 07:</p><p>43 1</p><p>6 O</p><p>ctob</p><p>er 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>Co-operation in transport between South and North Korea 227</p><p>Sonbong Special Economic Zone in North Korea, the Yanbin Autonomous Pre-fecture in China which includes the Special Economic Zones of Yanji and Hunchu,and Vladivostok and the Free Economic Zone of Nakhodka including Vostochnyand Primorsky Krai towns and ports south of those cities in Russia.</p><p>According to the TRADP Infrastructure Sub-Group UNDP (1995), the currentTREDA population of 3 million is expected to exceed 10 million by 2020 while thereal average annual GDP per capita of this population is expected to rise by a factorof more than five from approximately US $1 200 in 1990 to some US $6 500 in 2020, inconstant 1990 dollars.</p><p>The potential for a transport hub lies in its possible role as a bridgeheadconnecting such areas as Japan and South Korea, since TREDA, in addition to itsproximity to those two countries, can be connected to either the Trans-SiberianRailway or the Trans-China Railway (figure 1). The rail network within TREDA canbe considered the most efficient and best developed transport mode for supporting theeconomic development of the area, since although it is not yet completed, it is muchfurther advanced than the highway network. The missing railway links betweenHunchun and Zarubino and between Hunchun and Najin would give the ports ofZarubino and Najin the critical transport connection with the rest of TREDA. Ifthese connections are completed, it will curtail transport distance and diversifytransport mode from the east coast of Korea and the west coast of Japan toEurope. In addition, it will provide China with access to the East sea throughTREDA, which in turn will facilitate external trade with northeast China. Also, aconnection could be made to the Trans-Siberian Railway through northeasternMongolia upon completion of links within TREDA: this would pass through</p><p>RUSSIA</p><p>WIDE GAUGE</p><p>STANDARD GAUGE</p><p>COMPOSITE CAUCE</p><p>- UNDER CONSTRUCTION</p><p>Figure 1. Railway transport network of TREDA.</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>McG</p><p>ill U</p><p>nive</p><p>rsity</p><p> Lib</p><p>rary</p><p>] at</p><p> 07:</p><p>43 1</p><p>6 O</p><p>ctob</p><p>er 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>228 Myong-Sop Pak and Tae-Yong Kim</p><p>Table 1. Feasibility of economic cooperation among northeast Asian countries.</p><p>Southern countriesJapanSouth Korea</p><p>Northern countriesRussia (Siberia)China (3 provinces)North Korea</p><p>OthersChina (mainland)</p><p>Resource</p><p>AA</p><p>OO</p><p>O</p><p>Labour</p><p>AA</p><p>AOO</p><p>O</p><p>Capital</p><p>O</p><p>AAA</p><p>A</p><p>Technology</p><p>O</p><p>AAA</p><p>A</p><p>Social overheadcapital (SOC)</p><p>O</p><p>AAA</p><p>A</p><p>Note: Symbols indicate rich (O), moderate (O) and poor (A).</p><p>Changchun to Arxan on the Mongolian border and to Choybalsan to connect withthe Trans-Siberian Railway at Borzya. This will make it easier to develop easternparts of Mongolia. However, because the would-be partners are proposing planswhich are based on their own national interests and circumstances, the task ofco-ordination and integration is expected to require a considerable period of time.</p><p>The combination and complimentariness of various forces, capacities andopportunities will undoubtedly help foster the development and growth of thisregion (table 1). For efficient economic co-operation here a transport network inthe northeast Asia region appropriate for the 21st century must be established.</p><p>Transport is a crucial link in the world economy, both as a servant and as a creatorof trade. Cheap and efficient transport services are a prerequisite to an expandingworld trade. As Stubbs et al. (1980) put it:</p><p>Transport is a keystone of civilisation. The spread of production, trade and ideasand the economic ascendancy of mankind all depend upon movement. Personalmobility is one of democracy's most valued freedoms, and a surprisingly highproportion of our income is devoted to our movement and to the movement of thegoods that we buy.</p><p>The transport network development strategy for the Korean peninsula is thedevelopment of contiguous routes between South and North Korea. Transport routesthat are the most rational for the entire economy of northeast Asia should beconsidered.</p><p>The Korean peninsula is situated between the Yellow sea where it faces China andthe East sea (sea of Japan) where it faces Japan and Russia. Thus it is the centre of thenortheast Asia region. The East sea maritime transport network should link the portsof Pusan, Sokcho (South Korea), Najin (North Korea), Niigata (Japan) and Vladivo-stock (Russia). Express highway and express rail routes are to be constructed betweenPusan and Vladivostock. All of these express highway and rail routes are to beconnected to Japan through an undersea tunnel constructed under the strait betweenKorea and Japan. The Yellow sea transport networks for both sea and air should linkcities on the Korean peninsula with Kyusha (Japan), Dalian (China), Beijing andShanghai.</p><p>In the past, the intermodal transport network linking northeast Asia with Europefocused on the Trans-Siberian Railway (TSR), the alternative to the all-water servicevia the Suez canal. Today, however, the world's interest is in potential landbridges</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>McG</p><p>ill U</p><p>nive</p><p>rsity</p><p> Lib</p><p>rary</p><p>] at</p><p> 07:</p><p>43 1</p><p>6 O</p><p>ctob</p><p>er 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>Co-operation in transport between South and North Korea 229</p><p>that link China (Trans-China Railway, TCR) with the Korean peninsula (Trans-Korean Railway; TKR) as well. Exploitation of a trans-continental railway isregarded as the most important development in the supra-regional transportsystem as it has remarkable impacts on transport cost and time savings. Accordingto Containerisation International Yearbook (1992), an examination of the competi-tive distance, tim...</p></li></ul>


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