a collection of reports on bolshevism in russia-no-1 - 1919.pdf

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British diplomats in Russia report back on life under the first years of Bolshevik rule. They report on the loss of civil liberties, the confiscation of property, the drop in productivity and the widespread lack of public support for the Bolsheviks.

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COLLECTION OF REPORTSON

'5.67

3LSHEVISM IN RUSSIAUNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES

LIBRARY GOVT. PUBS, ROOM

Abridged Edition of Parliamentary Paper, Russia No.(1919).

1

rmail

LONDONPUBLISHED BYILLS

:

MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE.

To be purchased through any Bookseller or directly from H.M. STATIONERY OFFICE at the following addresses IMPERIAL HOUSE, KINGSWAY, LONDON, W.C. 2, and 28 ABINGDON STREET, LONDON, S.W. 1:

;

or

PETER STREET, MANCHESTER ANDREW'S CRESCENT, CARDIFF 23 FORTH STREET, EDINBURGH from E. PONSONBY, LTD., 116 GRAFTON STREET, DUBLIN.371;

ST.

;

;

1919.

Price Qd. net.

Ill

TABLE OF CONTENTS.No.

Name.

Date.

SUBJECT.

1

Sir

Foreword M. Findlay(Christiania)

Telegraphic Telegraphic

1918 Aug. 1919

Arrest of British subjects in

Petrograd and Moscow

2

Sir E.

Howard(Stockholm)

Armed

raid

on British con-

sulate-general at Moscow, and arrest of British officials

3

Sir R.

Paget (Copenhagen)

Telegraphic

Sept. 3

and other persons Murder of Captain Cromie bySoviet troops. Informs of telegram from Petrograd Wholesale arrests and executions in Petrograd as a result of attempts on Bolshevik leaders. Arrest of Mr. Lockhart. British sub.

.

Telegraphic

9

jects starving in prison

.

.

5

Mr. Lindley (Archangel).

.

Telegraphic

6

Murder

of

Captain

Cromie.

Tribute to services which he renderedTelegraphic17

6

Sir

M. Findlay(Christiania)

Arrest of British subjects in Moscow. Report by NetherMinister on their lands

present condition, and his efforts to obtain their release. Funeral of Captain Cromie. Letter appealing for help from British subjects imprisoned in Fortress of Peter and Paul

7

Mr. Alston (Vladivostock)Sir C. Eliot

TelegraphicOct.

165

8

Report of murder of ex-Emperor of Russia Informs of events leading upto the murder of the exEmperor and other members of the Imperial family. Transmits letter from tutor of Czarevitch

(Ekaterinburg)

9

Mr. Alston(Vladivostock)

Telegraphic

Nov. 4

Discovery of corpses in minepit at Alapaevsk of members of Imperial family. Fateof other members Oppression by Bolsheviks of their opponents, includingSocialists, abolition of right of holding public meetings, suppression of all but Bolshevik press, and of all

10

Mr. Lockhart

10

1 1

Report by Mrs.

Nov.

liberty. General terrorism Peasants and the land. Industrial conditions. Repression of all non-Bolsheviks. Con-

Mr. H-

Conditions

ditions in the prisons in factories at Moscow. Trade conditions. .

Mr.

GTelegraphic

Anti-Bolshevik generally. feeling among peasantry Report on the internal situation.

Growing discontent

13

Sir C. Eliot

..

29

(Vladivostock)

under Bolshevism Murder of ex-Empress of Russia and children supposed to have been committed about the same time as the murder of the

14

Lord KilmarnockWt. 2827/17(108)

ex-Emperor..

274/19D.St.

(Copenhagen)(1057)

Conditions in Petrograd

a. .

factory

in

10M

IV

TABLE OF CONTENTS.No.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.No.

VI

TABLE OF CONTENTS.No.

FOREWORD.following collection of reports from His Majesty's official representatives in Russia, from other British subjects who have recently

THE

returned from that country, and from independent witnesses of various nationalities, covers the period of the Bolshevik regime from the summer of 1918 to the present date. They are issued in accordance with a

Cabinet in January last. They are unaccompanied by anything in the nature either of comment or introduction, since they speak for themselves in the picture which they present of thedecision of theprinciples

War

and methods

of Bolshevik rule, the appalling incidents

by

which

has been accompanied, the economic consequences which have flowed from it, and the almost incalculable misery which it has produced.it

2nd

(abridged)

Edition.

A Collection of Reports on Bolshevism in Russia.No.Sir1.

M. Findlay

to

Mr. Balfour.

(Received August 20.)

(Telegraphic.)I

Christiania,

August

19,

1918.

HAVE

Woodhouse and Cromie"

received following telegram dated the 9th August from at Petrograd to General Poole:

British subjects have been arrested during the past two days without any charge having been made against them, but only two have been detained so far. We protested and asked for explanation. On 5th August all British officials at Moscow were arrested, but the majority were subsequently released and are presumably now under housearrest.

Their probable evacuation was notified to us, and we were warned to be ready to leave with them, but as yet we have no definite news from them. Commissary threatens to intern all allied subjects. Please inform London of above, as we are not allowed to telegraph in any direction. Tell London also that up to the present all are well here.

'

In Petrograd position of Soviet power is becoming rapidly untenable, and orders are being given for various units and places to be evacuated. That they are in touch with Germans is quite evident. A yacht is ready at Peterhof to take Lenin away."

No.Sir E.

2.

Howard

to

Mr. Balfour.

(Received August 20.)

(Telegraphic.)

Stockholm, August 19, 1918.

FOLLOWINGseries of

is a summary of the more important points in a despatches from Mr. Wardrop, at Moscow:

August 5. About 4.30 this morning a band of ten armed men attacked consulate-general and demanded admittance. Without my authority one of the inmates of the house opened the door, being threatened with fire-arms. This was the fourth armed raid on thepremises. "

"

Guards

left at

5.30 and local commissary expressed his regret

at the incident.

During the morning I learnt of arrest of several British subjects, including Messrs. Armitage, Whitehead, William Cazalet, Hastie (over B (1057)

"

seventy years old), North (chaplain), Beringer (Renter's agent), and Miss H. Adams, one of my staff. In the afternoon, while Mr. Lockhart was calling, another raid on the premises was made with warrant for arrest I protested and declared that I only yielded to force. of staff. Office was sealed in great detail, seals being attached to every drawer, to both safes, and to all receptacles for papers, also to outer doors to the office rooms. All the staff were then arrested, including Mr. Stevens, Mr.Douglas, and lady clerks, and conveyed to Soviet's police quarters in Tverskoi Boulevard. Mr. Lockhart, Captain Hicks and I were not arrested, as Chicherin had promised that consuls and military missions should not be arrested. Their staffs, however, had not been specifically mentioned. French military attache, General Lavergne, was liberatedafter short

watch my premises and I do not regard failure to"I

Guards were stationed to private apartments there. arrest myself and Mr. Lockhart as evidence of intention to treat us better than our staffs, but rather the contrary.arrest.

Staff

were detained.

I

was

left

in

my

do not regard Bolshevik detention of our nationals as aimed at deterring us from vigorous action in distant places, so much as intended to protect Bolshevik leaders on their fall. They are converting houses in centre of the city into improvised fortresses in the belief that there will be soon a serious rising, in which their Allied prisoners will serveas centres."

Finally, if they regard all as lost they will probably hound populace on to massacre these prisoners.

released about 3 A.M., also

Lowdon and Douglas North and others, and French Consul-General Grenard and French Consul Labonne, by efforts of Swedish colleagueAugust6.

Consul Stevens, Vice-Consuls

who

spent the night in negotiations." "

At 10

P.M. following

still

detained

:

Vice-Consuls Whishaw, Greenep, and Jerram, passport officer

his assistant, Gibson senior, Tamplin and Lingner of Lockhart's staff, Fritz Mucukaln, and the Misses Galbally and Adams of staff. Prisoners so far fairly comfortably housed and fed and

Webster and

my

allowed to associate with one another."staffI

Guards conciliatory.

am

can"

visit

allowed to go in and out, and Mr. Lockharj: and his remaining me..

temporary prison and saw Greenep, are well treated by their guards who They are real Russians, unlike most of their leaders, who are either fanatics or Jewish adventurers like Trotsky or Radek.August 1I

called

at

Whishaw, and Jerram.

"

All

British

and

French

women

are

now

released.

Also

Mr. Beringer and others.

August 8. Whishaw, Greenep, Jerram, and Webster brought here this morning by efforts of my Swedish colleagu

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