A Case Study of an Emerging Eco-City in China

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  • A Case Study of an Emerging Eco-City in China

    Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City:

    THE WORLD BANK

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  • Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City: A Case Study of an Emerging Eco-City in ChinaTechnical Assistance (TA) ReportNovember 2009

  • Foreword

    China is experiencing rapid and large scale urbanizationand the resulting local and global urban environmental challenges are unprecedented. The Chinese Government has fully recognized these challenges and is aiming to promote more sustainable urbanization in line with the objectives of the 11th Five Year Plan, which calls for building a resource-conserving and environmentally friendly society. Various initiatives are being pursued to support this objective, both at the national and local levels. At the local level, cities have responded by developing eco-cities, which aim to promote a more sustainable urbanization model. More than one hundred eco-city initiatives have been launched in recent years. One such initiative is the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City.

    Tianjin Municipality has requested that the World Bank support the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City through a Global Environmental Facility (GEF) grant that is currently under preparation. This Technical Assistance (TA) report was launched in conjunction with the GEF preparation process. The objectives of this report are to create a detailed knowledge base on Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City, and to provide policy advice on key issues and challenges, especially those related to the GEF project, early during the projects design and implementation. Contextualizing the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City in the wider ecological urban development initiatives in China and broadening the Banks engagement beyond the GEF project was assessed to be important given the projects complexity, and its potential to provide lessons learned for Chinas sustainable urban development challenges.

    The report was prepared during the early development stages of the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City, mainly between September 2008 and June 2009, after the master plan was developed but before many of the detailed sector plans and feasibility studies were available. It therefore provides an initial overview of some of the key issues and challenges faced by the eco-city, many of which need to be further analyzed during the detailed sector planning and feasibility study review process. Given the scope of the project, the analysis presented necessarily had to vary in coverage, with some topics covered in greater depth than others.

  • Acknowledgements

    The report was developed in collaboration with the Tianjin Municipal Government, the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Administrative Committee, and the Tianjin Eco-City Investment and Development Company Ltd. The team would like to particularly thank Mr. Lin Xue Feng, Vice Chairman of the Sino-Singapore Eco-City Administrative Committee and his team for the open and constructive exchange of information and ideas that enabled the preparation of the report.

    The project was managed by Axel Baeumler and a core team including Mansha Chen, Arish Dastur, Hinako Maruyama, and Hiroaki Suzuki. Chapter one was written by Mansha Chen. Chapter two was authored by Arish Dastur based on inputs from Belinda Yuen and Mansha Chen. Chapter three was authored by Yabei Zhang based on inputs from Liu Feng, Bernd Kalkum, Bill Nesmiths, and Arto Nuorkivi. Richard Filewood (McCormick Rankin Cagney) wrote chapter four with inputs from George Darido. Chapter five was written by Khairy Al-Jamal with inputs from Sing Cho. Chapter six was written by Charles Peterson; chapter seven by Monali Randale, Nat Pinnoi, and Charles Peterson; and chapter eight by Axel Baeumler. Annex two is based on findings from a stocktaking study on Chinese eco-cities conducted by the Chinese Academy of Urban Planning. Dean Thompson edited the final report.

    Others who contributed to the report included Bob Taylor, Stephen Karam, Neeraj Prasad, and Sam Zimmerman, who served as peer reviewers. World Bank management provided valuable guidance throughout the process, particularly Christian Delvoie, Ede Ijjasz, and Keshav Varma.

    The project was supported by generous funding from the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID).

    Supported by theAustralian Government, AusAID

    The World BankInfrastructure Department

    East Asia and Pacific Region

    DisclaimerThe views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID)

    DisclaimerThis volume is a product of the staff of the World Bank. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the views of the Board of Executive Directors of the World Bank or the governments they represent.

  • Table of Contents

    Executive Summary i

    Chapter I: Chinas Ecological Urban Development: Progress and Challenge 1

    Chapter II: Urban Planning and Spatial Development 13

    Chapter III: Energy Sector Overview 27

    Chapter IV: Transport Sector Overview 48

    Chapter V: Water Sector Overview 65

    Chapter VI: Solid Waste Sector Overview 78

    Chapter VII: GHG Emission Reduction Potential 91

    Chapter VIII: Institutional, Financial, and Risk Management Challenges 101

    Chapter IX: Conclusion, GEF Project and Summary Recommendations 114

    Annex 1: Key Performance Indicators (KPI) for SSTEC 119

    Annex 2: Summary Profiles of Eco-City Initiatives in China 125

  • Tables, Boxes, and Figures

    Tables Table E.1: Summary of Estimated GHG Emission Reductions viiiTable E.2: Summary Recommendations xiiTable 1.1: Quantitative Indicators of National Standards for Eco-Garden City by MoHURD 4Table 1.2: Indices for Eco-County, Eco-City and Eco-Province by MEP 5Table 1.3: SSTEC Key Performance Indicators 12Table 2.1: Population Projections Up to 2020 15Table 3.1: Energy Sector: Key Performance Indicators 29Table 3.2: Additional Quantitative Objectives of Energy Sector Plan of SSTEC 30Table 3.3: Comparison of SSTEC GBES and National GBES for Residential Buildings 33Table 3.4: Objectives of Heat Supply in SSTEC 35Table 3.5: Sources, Types and Capacity of Heating System of SSTEC 36Table 3.6: Comparison of Domestic Hot Water Sources 39Table 3.7: Example of Incentive Programs for Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy in the US 41Table 4.1: Transport Sector: Key Performance Indicators 50Table 4.2: Base Case Mode Share 52Table 4.3: International Benchmarking of Green Trips 2001 53Table 4.4: Green Transport in Chinese Cities 2006 54Table 4.5: International Benchmarking of Public Transport Mode Share 2001 55Table 4.6: SSTEC Daily Trips by Purpose 55Table 4.7: SSTEC Trip Data by Mode Share 55Table 5.1: Forecasted Balance of Water Demand and Supply for SSTEC in 2020 65Table 5.2: Quality of Treated Wastewater Effluent from Hangu WWTP 66Table 5.3: Water Sector: Key Performance Indicators 67Table 6.1: Solid Waste Sector: Key Performance Indicators 79Table 6.2: Net Waste Generation Rates 80Table 6.3: Forecast Net Generation Rates in SSTEC 2010-2020 80Table 6.4: Estimated Gross Waste Discards in SSTEC, 2010-2020 82Table 6.5: Waste Composition, China and Tianjin 83Table 6.6: Forecast Truck Fleet for SSTEC Based on Gross Waste Generation, 2010-2020 84Table 6.7: Recycling: Five Countries with Highest Rates 86Table 6.8: Gross Waste Quantity Forecasted to be Recycled and Source Segregated and Waste in SSTEC

    Without the Proposed Waste Reduction Measures, 2010-2020 87Table 6.9: Gross Waste Quantity Forecast to be Recycled and Source Segregate and Waste in SSTEC

    With the Proposed Waste Reduction Measures, 2010-2020 87Table 7.1: Illustrative List of Interventions 93

  • Table 7.2: Waste Management Opportunities for SSTEC 96Table 7.3: Transport Sector Opportunities for SSTEC 97Table 7.4: Energy Sector Opportunities for SSTEC 98Table 7.5: Preliminary Estimates of Quantity and Value of GHG Emission Reductions 99Table 8.1: TECID Investment Overview 106Table 8.2: Indicative Economics of Sustainable Energy Options 110Table 9.1: Summary Recommendations 116Table A1.1: Quantiative Key Performance Indicators 119Table A1.2: Qualitative Key Performance Indicators 124Table A2.1: List of Selected Eco-City Initiatives in China 132

    Boxes Box 1.1: Examples of Local-Level Sector-Focused Initiatives 7Box 1.2: Caofeidian Eco-city, Tangshan 8Box 1.3: Lessons from Eco-city Developments in China 9Box 1.4: Tianjin Municipality Ecological City Development 10Box 1.5: Key SSTEC Milestones to Date 10Box 1.6: Three-Phase Development from South to North 11Box 2.1: Proposed Economic Structure in SSTEC 14Box 2.2: Affordable Housing Provision in SSTEC 16Box 3.1: An Extensive Solar Water Heating Program in Rizhao, China 40Box 3.2: Economic Impact of Using Energy Tax Credit in Oregon 42Box 3.3: ESCO and Solar Service Model 43Box 3.4: How to Motivate Behavior-Based Energy Efficiency 46 Box 3.5: Green Building Program in Seattle 46Box 5.1: Effect of Distribution System Configuration on Energy Consumption 69Box 5.2: Watergy Case Study: Fortaleza, Brazil 70Box 5.3: Energy Use in the Water Sector 72Box 5.4: Singapore Incentive and Demand Management to Support the Water Conservation 74Box 5.5: Domestic Water Consumption in Canada and Conservation 75Box 6.1: Waste Reduction through Stakeholder Engagement 82Box 6.2: Pneumatic Solid Waste SystemBarcelona 84Box 8.1: SSTEC Project National-level Coordination. 102Box 8.2: SSTEC in the Binhai New Area 102Box 8.3: Land Acquisition 105Box 8.4: Life Cycle Cost/Cost Benefit Analysis 107Box 8.5: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for District Heating 107Box 8.6: Results of Life Cycle Cost ComparisonDistrict Heating 108Box 8.7: Environmental Bond Issue 110Box 8.8: The European Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) 113

  • Figures Figure E.1: Institutional Overview iiiFigure 2.1: SSTEC in the Regional Context 13Figure 2.2: Urban Form and Density Gradient 17Figure 2.3: Mong Kok, Hong Kong SAR, China (Block size 40x100m) 18Figure 2.4: SSTEC Urban Design 19Figure 2.5: Block Comparison: SSTEC and New York City 20Figure 2.6: The Hammarby Model, Stockholm: 22Figure 2.7: Initial First Phase Results of Hammarby Sjostad 22Figure 2.8: Evolution of the Integrated Bus Network (1974 - 1995, and 2009) 23Figure 3.1: Simplified Scheme of the Energy System of SSTEC 31Figure 3.2: Scheme of District Heating Substations 37Figure 4.1: Regional Transportation 51Figure 4.2: Regional Transport Corridors 51Figure 4.3: Six-Lane Arterial Road 56Figure 4.4: Four-Lane Main Road 56Figure 4.5: Direct Below Ground Access to Metro Stations 57Figure 4.6: Aesthetics of LRT and BRT 58Figure 4.7: LRT Routes 58Figure 4.8: Green Valley above Metro 59Figure 4.9: Green Valley above Metro 59Figure 5.1a: Area at Risk from 0.5 m Sea-level Rise in Asia (left) 72Figure 5.1b: Annual Mean Daily Precipitation Changes Expected by 2100 (mm) (right) 72Figure 6.1: Pneumatic Waste Collection System Schematic 85Figure 8.1: Project Implementation Overview 103Figure 8.2: TECID Subsidiary Companies 104Figure A2.1: National Eco-City and Eco-County approved by MEP 125Figure A2.2: National Eco-Garden City approved by MoHURD 125

  • Selected Abbreviations And Acronyms

    ACEEE American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy

    AP Acidification Potential

    AusAID Australian Agency for International Development

    BETC Business Energy Tax Credit

    BHNA Binhai New Area

    BRT Bus Rapid Transit

    CAGECE Companhia de gua e Esgoto do Ceara

    CAPEX Capital Expenditure

    CDM Clean Development Mechanism

    CFL Compact Florescent Light Bulbs

    CHP Combined Heat & Power

    CNCCP China National Climate Change Program

    CNG Compressed Natural Gas

    CNY Chinese Yuan

    Co. Company

    DH District Heating

    DHW Domestic Hot Water

    EMAS Eco-Management and Audit Scheme

    EP Eutrophication Potential

    ESCO Energy Service Companies

    EU European Union

    GBEC Green Building Evaluation Committee

    GBES Green Building Evaluation Standard

    GEF Global Environment Facility

    GHG Greenhouse Gas

    GWh Gigawatts

    GWP Global Warming Potential

    HVAC Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning

    ITS Intelligent Transport System

    IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    JV Joint Venture

    km Kilometer

    KPI Key Performance Indicator

    l Liter

    LCC Life Cycle Costing

    LCE Lower Carbon Emission

    lcpd Liters Per Day

    LED Light Emitting Diode

    LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

    LFG Landfill Gas

    LNG Liquefied Natural Gas

    LRT Light Rail Transit

    LTD Limited

    m Meter

    MEP Ministry of Environmental Protection

    mg milligram

    MLNR Ministry of Land and Natural Resources

    mn Millions

    MoHURD Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development

    MW Megawatts

    NDRC National Development and Reform Committee

    NGO Non-Governmental Association

  • NMT Non-Motorized Transport

    NRE Non-Renewable Energy

    OD Origin Destination

    OPEX Operational Expenditures

    POCP Photochemical Ozone Creation Production

    PT Public Transport

    PUB Public Utility Board

    PV Photovoltaic

    R&D Research and Development

    RETC Residential Energy Tax Credit

    RMB Chinese Renminbi

    RW Radioactive Waste

    SCE Standard Coal Equivalent

    SEER Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio

    SO2 Sulfur Dioxide

    SSTEC Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City

    SSTECAC Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Administrative Committee

    STEC Singapore Tianjin Eco-City Investment Holdings Ltd.

    TA Technical Assistance

    TBNA Tianjin Binhai New Area

    tCO2 Tons Carbon Dioxide

    TDM Travel Demand Management

    TECID Tianjin Eco-City Investment and Development Company

    TEDA Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area

    TFTZ Tianjin Free Trade Zone

    TOD Transit Oriented Development

    TPD Tons Per Day

    UAFW Unaccounted for Water

    UK United Kingdom

    UN United Nations

    UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    USD United States Dollars

    WWTP Wastewater Treatment Plant

  • i Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City: A Case Study of an Emerging Eco-City in China

    Executive Summary

    IntroductionUrbanization and Environmental Pressures. China is experiencing the largest scale of urbanization in historyat an unprecedented pace. Over the past three decades, the share of Chinas population living in cities more than doubled, reaching 44.9 percent in 2007. Urbanization is projected to rise to about 64 percent by 2025, which translates to slightly over 350 million more people living in urban areas. The annual population increase in Chinas cities over the next 20 years is forecasted to be about 17.7 millionthe equivalent of adding one global megacity, such as New York City, each year. As Chinas rapid urbanization takes shape, the country is facing severe challenges related to resource conservation and environmental sustainability. These challenges impact all major areas: water pollution, waste manageme...

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