97/01888 Biocide for treating sandboxes
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04 By-products related to fuels
97l91874 Rotary reductor burner used for coal gasifier for slag deposit prevention Kai, S. and Hayata, Y. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 08,209,156 [96,209,156] (Cl. ClOJ3/46), 13 Aug 1996, Appl. 95/15,777, 2 Feb 1995; 5 pp. (In Japanese)
97101875 Sampling and characterization of high-molecular- weight polyaromatic tar compounds formed in the pressurized fluidized-bed gasification of biomass Oesch, P. et al. Fuel, 1996, 75, (12), 1406-1412. In order to analyse the tar content of fuel gas produced from sawdust, wood chips, wood residues (bark, forest residue chips), straw, wood, wood-coal mixtures, etc, sampling and analysis methods for high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons formed in pressurized fluidized-bed gasification were devel- oped. The best sampling method tested was based on controlled condensation at 150C. Gravimetric analysis at room temperature gave the total amount of heavy tar. Two gas-chromatography methods were developed with moderate success to match the result of the gravimetric analysis. The aim of the Pv-GC-AED. tests employed in this experiment was to determine the carbon/hydrogen ratio of the pyrolysis products. Most of the carbon was bound in the pyrolysis residue, the amount of which was too small to analyse.
97101876 Simulation of underground gasification of thin coal seams Kayper, R. A. cl al. In situ, 1996, 20, (3), 311-346. For the purpose of simulating the underground air gasification of thin deep-lying coal seams, a number of simulatidn models were developed based on transport equations for mass, momentum, energy and chemical species. The transport equations were discretized by a finite-volume method. A two-dimensional version of Hottels zone method to describe radiative heat transfer was developed. A simulation of the field experiment in Princetown, West Virginia showed that the model gave a good prediction of the product gas composition The model was used to predict the influence on the gasification process of coal seam thickness, absorption pressure, steam and COz injection, and coal composition.
97101877 Spouted-bed coal gasifier Kato, S. and Fukuda, H. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 08,199,176 [96,199,176) (Cl. ClOJ3154), 6 Aug 1996, Appl. 9517,191, 20 Jan 1995; 4 pp. (In Japanese) The apparatus is composed of a spouted-bed gasifier with a combustor zone and a reductor zone at the bottom for passing high-temperature combustible gas to a heat exchanger. It comprises means for blowing pulverized coal with air into the burner in the reductor zone, a char burner in the lower part of the combustor zone, a method for utilizing the high- temperature combustible gas as a heat source, and a method for generating high-temperature air for the combustor zone. This apparatus can significantly increase coal gasification efficiency.
97101878 Startup of large-scale projects casts spotlight on IGCC Swanekamp, R. Power, 1996, 140, (6). 59-60, 62, 64-65, 67-68. Large-scale demonstration plants using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology are the focus of this review. Types of gasifier (air- blown versus Oa blown), heating value of the syngas (low-Btu versus medium-Btu), and particle removal system (hot/dry versus cold/wet scrubber) are discussed. CO* emission, using petroleum coke or refinery residues as feedstock, and waste treatment are also discussed.
97101879 Study of microllptlnite by confocal laser scanning microscope (CL!%) and its sl eration in Jurassic coals from B
nificance for hydrocarbon gen- uha Basin and Erlian Basin
Liu, D. et al. Diqiu Huaxue, 1996, 25, (4), 309-316. (In Chinese) Coal-generated oil and gas were discovered in abundant quantities in the Tuha basin, China. This paper investigated the types, contents and distributions of microliptinite in coals and its relation with the formation and productivity of coal-generated oil and gas. The results of the study indicated that desmocollinites had made an significant contribution to hydrocarbon generation. Meanwhile, because the distributions of micro- liptinites in coals exist as point-line, bed-like filling and network shape, they facilitate the migration and accumulation of coal-generated oil and gas.
97iOl880 Sulfated zirconia strong solid acid catalysts and their application for the synthesis of branched hydrbcarbons from syngas (platinum) Song, X. 1995. 220 pp. Avail. degree-granting institution, From Diss. Abstr. Int., B, 1996, 57, (4), 2721.
97iOl881 Thermodynamic simulations of lignite-fired IGCC with in situ desulfurization and CO2 capture Wim F. et al. Fuel. 1996. 75. (12). 1449-1456. The ASPEN PLUS processsimulator was used to simulate integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCC) running on Greek lignite with in situ desulfurization and CO2 capture. The results were compared with other power cycles. Considering the power produced and residual sulfur content
of the offgas, and oxygen-blown gasifier operated at 1.8 MPa and 950C having a thermal efficiency of 38.9%, gives the best performance. The use of IGCC cycles can largely compensate for efficiency loss due to COz.
97101882 Two years successful operation of a hot gas filter in the Rheinbraun high temperature Winkier coal gasification demonstration plant Wischnewski, R. and Engelbard, J. 1995, 12, 52-57.
Proc. Annu. Int. Pittsburgh Coal Conf.,
97101883 Use of screw compressors in processing of coke- oven gas Kovalev, E. T. and Ivashchenko, V. A. Russian)
Woks Khim., 1995, (5), 35-37. (In
04 BY-PRODUCTS RELATED TO FUELS
97101884 Ge, L. et al.
Activated carbon from Chinese woody brown coals Proc. Annu. Int. Pittsburgh Coal Conf., 1995, 12, 875-880.
Approximately 70% of coals in Inner Mongolia and Yunnan Province are brown coals. A large amount of low rank brown coals, such as woody brown coal (WBC) can be found in Yunnan Province. Because of its hieh water content and its volatile matter content, it is low in calorific value and becomes smoky during combustion. WBC is low in ash and total S but high in chemical reducibility. In addition, it is easy to process.
97101885 Adsorption of gold on activated carbons prepared from some Tanzanian carbonaceous agrowastes and bitumi- nous coal Mdoe, J. E. G. and Mkayula, L. L. 21-32.
Bull. Chem. Sot. Ethiop., 1996, 10, (l),
A study of the adsorption capacities and kinetics of Au from aqueous solutions on activated carbons prepared from agrowastes and from bituminous coal. The carbons were characterized by N physisorption and their mineral impurities evaluated. The Au adsorption capacity on the carbons was affected by the type of carbon, percentage carbon burn-off (%CBO), pretreatment, temperature and ionic composition of the adsorp- tion medium. All source materials, except rice husks, produced carbons with good adsorption capacity. The adsorption was fast in the first hour and decreased gradually as equilibrium was approached. The adsorption data are described best by an equation proposed by A. Laidera et al. (1993).
97101886 Anisotropic crystalline growth developed in Ban- gladeshi coking coal during mesophase transformation Podder, J. and Hossain, T. Thermochim. Acta, 1996, 284, (2). 279-287. The development of anisotroov of the mesouhase suherules takes mace during the carbonization of eitiacted coking coal at 430-450. Mesophase transition is observed by the differential scanning calorimetric study. The growth of mesophase spherules, their coalesced structures, mosaic and flow type mosaic are observed by the polarized light technique as the evidence of graphitizing carbon. The solvent extraction of coking coal is carried out using benzene as a solvent at atmospheric pressure in a Soxhlet apparatus.
Artificial soil manufacture from fly ash and/or clean
Mori, K. et al. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 08,205,672 [96,205,672] (Cl. AOlGl/OO), 13 Aug 1996, Appl. 13,948, 31 Jan 1995, 6 pp. (In Japanese) The fly ash and/or clean ash obtained after burning powdered charcoal, gypsum, and desulfurizing agents such as calcium desulfurizing agents is used to manufacture artificial soil. This is achieved by mixing, hydration, and incubation with gas (mixture) selected from SO;?, NO,, and Oz.
97lO1888 Biocide for treating sandboxes Mori, K. U. et al. Jpn. Kokal Tokkyo Koho JP 08,157,314 [96,157,314] (Cl. AOlN59106), 18 Jun 1996, Appl. 941301,894, 6 Dee 1994, 7 pp. (In Japanese) Details a biocide useful for controlling odours and microorganisms from pet excrements, etc. in sandboxes The substance includes material selected from slaked lime, quick lime, gypsum, and volcanic ash, that is mixed into coal ash and/or spent lime from exhaust gas treatment.
97101889 Carbonization and graphltization of coal extracts Jasienko, S. and Swietlik, U. Chew Fiz. WegIu, 1995, 349-368. (In Polish). Edited by Jasienko, S. Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Wroclawskiej, Wroclaw, Poland. Coal extract characterization and carbonization processes, carbonization of group components, graphitization of cokes from extracts and their use as a raw material for the manufacture of electrodes are some of the issues discussed in this paper.
154 Fuel and Energy Abstracts May 1997