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6.9 & 7.3. Cloning Reproduction in Flowering Plants. Cloning. Cloning is the process of forming identical genetic offspring from a single cell. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • 6.9 & 7.3Cloning Reproduction in Flowering Plants

  • CloningCloning is the process of forming identical genetic offspring from a single cell.It is a natural process that happens daily in nature when organisms produce exact duplicates of themselves by asexual reproduction (binary fission, budding).Cloning is referred to as asexual reproduction because the DNA originates from a single parent.

  • The First CloneCloning started in 1958 when Frederic Stewart grew a carrot from root cells.Clones are not actually identical in appearance; rather they are identical in genetics.Remember: A clone has the genes of only 1 parent so it is genetically identical to that parent. (We have our genes from one parent and from the other.

  • DollyIn 1996, Dolly the sheep, a species much more complex than simple plants or bacteria, was cloned. She was the first fertile clone!This is the most famous cloning case to date.Genetic information from a FINN DORSET sheep.Enucleated ovum from a POLL DORSET sheep.Surrogate mother Blackface sheep.Offspring Clone of the FINN DORSET.Dolly showed signs of premature aging, possibly due to using specialized somatic cell nucleus.

  • Genetic information from a FINN DORSET sheep.Enucleated ovum from a POLL DORSET sheep.Surrogate mother Blackface sheep.Offspring Clone of the FINN DORSET.

  • ACT Advanced Cell TechnologyACT is a cell cloning company. It claims to have taken the first step in cloning a human embryo an unborn baby in the first 8 weeks of development.The ACT clone didnt grow beyond the tip of a ballpoint pen, only 6 cells

    What does the future hold?

  • Other ClonesDolly the Sheep (1996)Tetra the Rhesus monkey (2000)Xena the Pig (2000)Alpha and Beta Male Cattle (2001)CC the Cat (2001)Idaho Gem & Utah Pioneer the Mules (03)Dewey the Deer (2003)Prometea the Horse (2003)

  • Types of CloningRecombinant DNA Cloning: Cloning a gene of particular interest.Reproductive Cloning: Cloning that develops into a birth. (Stem cell)Therapeutic cloning: Cloning with the goal of studying human development to treat disease.Is cloning a human being, part or whole, ethical or unethical?

  • Reproduction in Flowering PlantsPlants use sexual reproduction two plants combine to make one zygote through the process of fertilization of a female sex cell by a male sex cell.Some plants have separate sexes with one type of sex organ on each (poplar trees), while some plants have both sexes on one plant hermaphrodites (tomatoes).Most plants develop or mature in one growing season.

  • Plant Sex OrgansPlant sex organs are very different than humans. Male Sex Organs:Pollen male sex cellsStamen- anther, where pollen is produced.- Filament, holds anther away from plant.Female Sex Organs:Eggs female sex cellsPistil Sticky surface for the pollen to land on.Style traveling chamber from stigma and ovary.Ovary holds the egg.Plant sex organs vary in length, size, colour, and shape from plant to plant.

  • Ch. 6 Review QuestionsP. 198-199 # 4, 5, 12, 23 & 25

  • Anatomy of a Flowering Plant 7.3a StigmaStemSepalPetalFilamentAntherPollenStyleOvaryEggs

  • PollinationThe process by which pollen moves from an anther to the stigma so pollen can fertilize the egg.Can occur between plants or in the same plant.Wind, gravity, insects, animals, and water can carry pollen.It is beneficial for pollen to be spread over large areas for greater genetic disbursement.

  • FertilizationThe combining of pollen and eggs to produce a zygote.In plants , the zygote is better known as seeds.In some plants the ovary enlarges into fruit, therefore we are actually eating ovaries.Fruit is used for protection and disbursement ex. A bear eats berries and leaves seeds through its droppings.

  • Ch. 7 Review QuestionsP.228-229 # 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12 & 13