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What is Powered Exoskeleton? History Making Exoskeletons Practical EMG Control Neural Control Brain Control Exoskeletons in development Control Methods Advantages Disadvantages Advancements and the Future
What are Powered Exoskeleton?
Powered Exoskeleton are peoplepeopleoriented exoskeleton designed to be worn. These exoskeleton are designed around the function and shape of the human body and the human will be able to control the robotic limbs.
History1965: General Electric Research & Development: Hardiman 1
Weighed 1500 lbs Could lift 750 lbs Attempting to operate both legs at once leads to violent and uncontrollable motion
Making Exoskeletons Practical
Problem was not just size & weight: key problem was control Hardiman controlled by operators arms, hands, and legs pushing against switches The delay between the operators intent and the exoskeletons motion made dynamic balance difficult or impossibleIntent to move Muscles start contractin g Limb moves Switch Closes Robot moves
Can detect early activation of muscle using electromyograph Modulate robot motion to move at precisely the same rate the real limb moves
Intent to move
Muscles start contractin g
Detect neural impulse at limb stump Modulate robot motion to move at precisely the same rate a real limb would move
Intent to move
Muscles start contractin g
Detect pattern of neural activity in brain that precedes motion Simulate transmission to muscle, contraction, limb movement Timing experiments show that movement intent pattern appears before the subject is consciously aware of decision to move limb!Intent to move Robot moves
Linear mapping between EMG muscle activation and force of robot joints User must learn mapping through practice Suitable for small number of degrees of freedom Works well for 1 or 2 degrees of freedom (e.g., pincher grip) Human arm: 7 degrees Human hand: 20 degrees Neuronal decoding Determine how a population of neurons in the cortex encode motion intent: speed, direction, force Decode neuron activation, e.g. using an artificial neural network
Disruptive Technology DARPA Haptic Technology Military Benefits of an Exoskeleton
Wearable robots are most definitely a disruptive technology. If and when these exoskeletons are put into use in the medical and/or military fields, we will see life-altering changes to everyone lifeinvolved..
Military Benefits of an Exoskeleton
The exoskeleton will protect a soldier from enemy fire by repelling bullets. It will also allow the soldier to do more without getting as tired. This will increase the soldiers efficiency which should allow us to decrease the amount of soldiers used which in turn would of course prevent the casualties of many soldiers. If the advancements are made, an exoskeleton may even be able to carry a wounded soldier back to base, once again possibly preventing the death of a soldier. You cannot measure the importance of a human life and these wearable robots should be able to prevent us from having to when it comes to the military.
Haptic technology provides an interface with the user through the sense of touch, and using the exoskeleton as a haptic device has many applications in scientific visualization and manipulation, gaming, and simulation. E.g. Surgery:- handle from remote location. Surgery:-
Exoskeletons in development
In 2004, Berkeley Lower Extremity Exoskeleton(BLEEX) was the most advanced exoskeleton
The Landwalker Exoskeleton was created by Japanese Robotics Manufacturer SakakibaraSakakibara-Kikai.
It stands at 3.4 meters tall and weighs an astonishing 1000 kilograms.
The HAL5, short for hybrid assistive limb.
The HAL5 mimics every move of its user while weighing so little it is unnoticeable.
This exoskeleton is called the Trojan and is being worked on by inventor Troy Hurtubise. Hurtubise. It is the first ballistic proof exoskeleton.
It is helping a disabled person to walk. walk. Helping in the physical therapy of a person who recently suffered a stroke. stroke. Using an exoskeleton to perform surgery while the surgeon controls the robot. robot. Allowing a soldier to lift heavy objects with no problem at all. all. Protecting soldier from bullets, knives, clubs and small explosives.
If the enemies get the knowledge of our exoskeleton then they easily use this technique for our destruction. destruction. More costly.
Advancements and the Future
The advancements of the technology in the Wearable Robots/Exoskeleton field have been booming in the past 5 years. These exoskeletons have the potential to be lifelifealtering. Within the next 5 to 10 years we could possibly see these exoskeletons out on the battlefield helping, as well as, protecting our soldiers. Further down the road we could also see robotic surgeons in operating rooms being controlled by surgeons in another room. But most likely, even sooner than both of those options, is the potential to see these exoskeletons helping the disabled as well as people with degenerative diseases. .