4989 2mb ins & maintenence

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Learner Guide 04989

2Mb/s Installation and maintenance principlesMulti - Frame ( 2 milli seconds )

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This an in depth 5 Day theoretical and practical course on the 2Mb/s structure and its associated criteria

A Publication of Telkom SA Limited Centre for Learning

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2Mb/s Installation and maintenance principles Table of Content

Table of ContentsPreface........................................................................................................................I General Information...................................................................................................I Safety, Health & Environment..................................................................................II

Chapter 1 Introduction to 2Mb/s bit structure ....................................................................................1Performance objectives............................................................................................2 2.048 Mb/s Systems Overview.................................................................................3 Alignment...................................................................................................................6 Signalling.................................................................................................................14 CRC-4 Framing........................................................................................................18 Alarms......................................................................................................................22 Signalling.................................................................................................................25 2 Mb/s Impairments.................................................................................................27 Analyzing 2 Mb/s Impairments...............................................................................28 Application 1: In-Service Analysis of Live Traffic................................................30 The AIS and FAS Distant Alarms...........................................................................32 Code Error analysis................................................................................................34 Application 2; Out-Of service testing of 2.048 Mb/s Circuits...............................39 Analysis of Slips.....................................................................................................41 E1 Pulses.................................................................................................................42 Error performance...................................................................................................47 Error Performance Events......................................................................................48 Error performance parameters..............................................................................50 The measurement of the block..............................................................................55 Exercise...................................................................................................................59

Chapter 2

Synchronisation.........60

Performance Objectives.........................................................................................61 Introduction.............................................................................................................62 Exercise..................................................................................................................69

Chapter 3

Earthing ......70

Performance Objectives.........................................................................................71 Overview..................................................................................................................72 Earthing protection.................................................................................................76 Exercise...................................................................................................................80

Chapter 4

Surveillance .....82

Performance Objectives.........................................................................................83Course Code: 04989 Draft: 2 2002-06-24 Draft copy of Learner Guide

This document contains confidential and proprietary information. The dissemination, copying, disclosure, use or the taking of any action in reliance on the contents thereof without the written consent of Telkom S.A. Limited, is strictly prohibited.

Page 1

2Mb/s Installation and maintenance principles Table of Content

Overview..................................................................................................................84 Exercise...................................................................................................................88

Chapter 5

Installation ......89

Performance Objectives.........................................................................................90 Introduction.............................................................................................................91 Fault localisation ....................................................................................................92 Exercise...................................................................................................................93

Chapter 6 Practical Tasks ...................................................................................................................94Performance Objectives.........................................................................................95 Task 1.......................................................................................................................96

Chapter 7 Acronyms and Verification................................................................................................98Acronyms.................................................................................................................99 Verification.............................................................................................................102

Course Code: 04989

Draft: 2

2002-06-24

Draft copy of Learner Guide

This document contains confidential and proprietary information. The dissemination, copying, disclosure, use or the taking of any action in reliance on the contents thereof without the written consent of Telkom S.A. Limited, is strictly prohibited.

Page 2

2Mb/s Installation and maintenance principles Preface

Preface General InformationGender Neutrality

Gender-specific terms within this document are used for illustrative purposes only and should not be construed to discriminate. For more information about Telkom Centre For Learning (CFL), visit our web site at http://www.telkom.co.za/company/cfl/index.shtml Or call us at +27 12 663 5892 or FreeCall in South Africa 0800 224 224 Or fax us at +27 12 663 8683 Or e-mail us at cflsolutions@telkom.co.za CFL Solution Services 2001 Lenchen Avenue (South) Private Bag X118 Centurion 0046 Republic of South Africa Telkoms vision is to become a World-Class Communications Company. In 1999, our Chief Executive Officer, initiated the Service Excellence Drive. All of us within Telkom do not serve external customers directly. However, we all serve internal customers. Identify who your customers are and determine how they will be affected by the service you provide. Be prepared to commit yourself to Service Excellence by putting your name on any task or problem that comes your way!

Telkom CFL Information

Or visit CFL at:

Customer Care

Other

Course Code: 04989

Draft: 2

2002-06-24

Draft copy of Learner Guide

This document contains confidential and proprietary information. The dissemination, copying, disclosure, use or the taking of any action in reliance on the contents thereof without the written consent of Telkom S.A. Limited, is strictly prohibited.

Page I

2Mb/s Installation and maintenance principles Preface

Safety, Health & EnvironmentLegislation

The Occupational Health and Safety Act, Act no 85 of 1993, compels management and employees of an Organisation to provide for the health and safety of: persons at work, the use of plant and machinery, the protection of other persons against hazards arising out of or in connection with the activities at work. The Environment Conservation Act, Act no 73 of 1989, provides for the effective protection and controlled utilisation of the natural environment. The National Environmental Management Act, Act no 107 of 1998, provides for the establishment of forums for decision-making on matters affecting the environment and promotes co-operative governance and procedures for co-ordinating environmental functions.

SHE Policies

In Telkom, the safety, health of our employees is not only dictated by what the legislation requires. It is also a moral responsibility in which Telkom acknowledges and respects the value of its employees. Environmen