44272709 stevie wonder groove and flow

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Copyright 2003 Timothy S. Hughes

Groove and Flow: Six Analytical Essays on the Music of Stevie Wonder

Timothy S. Hughes

A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Doctor of Philosophy

University of Washington 2003

Program Authorized to Offer Degree: Music

University of Washington Graduate School

This is to certify that I have examined this copy of a doctoral dissertation by

Timothy S. Hughes

and have found that it is complete and satisfactory in all respects, and that any and all revisions required by the final examining committee have been made.

Chair of Supervisory Committee:

Jonathan Bernard

Reading Committee:

Jonathan Bernard Lawrence Starr Thomas Collier Date:

In presenting this dissertation in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctoral degree at the University of Washington, I agree that the Library shall make its copies freely available for inspection. I further agree that extensive copying of the dissertation is allowable only for scholarly purposes, consistent with fair use as prescribed in the U.S. Copyright Law. Requests for copying or reproduction of this dissertation may be referred to Proquest Information and Learning, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346, to whom the author has granted the right to reproduce and sell (a) copies of the manuscript in microform and/or (b) printed copies of the manuscript made from microform.

Signature

Date

University of Washington Abstract Groove and Flow: Six Analytical Essays on the Music of Stevie Wonder Timothy S. Hughes Chair of the Supervisory Committee: Professor Jonathan Bernard Music Theory

This dissertation is a collection of analytical essays on songs made by Stevie Wonder between 1972 and 1974. The essays focus on two interwoven aspects of soul and funk music, as they are employed by Wonder: the use of repeated musical figures, particularly grooves, to generate a sense of forward motion, or flow; and the use of flow in a variety of ways and on many levels to give songs both shape and life. I begin by introducing the primarily African-American musical paradox of collective individuality and the musical concepts of groove and flow that are central to soul and funk. Chapter 1 is a general analysis of Living for the City that is primarily concerned with formthe shape of the song over timeand the way in which that form interacts with the text and generates meaning(s). It also demonstrates for the first time how Wonder uses repetition of musical elements to create a sense of flowsimultaneously on several different structural levels and in many different waysand then manipulates that flow throughout the course of the song. Chapter 2 is an

analysis of Golden Lady that demonstrates groove and flow operating in areas other than rhythm and meter, in scales beyond the merely local, and in a compound, multidimensional manner. Chapters 3 through 6 constitute a single, in-depth discussion of Wonders distinctive brand of clavinet-based funk music, divided into four parts. Chapter 3 outlines the primary musical characteristics of funk and how Wonders style grew out the specific approach to funk developed by the house band and producers at Motown Records. I then analyze Superstition, Higher Ground, and You Havent Done Nothin, focusing on the interactions of rhythm and meter. Each song is analyzed separately but in a similar fashion, allowing for depth of analysis without sacrificing detail. Based on the concepts of groove and flow established earlier, this four-chapter discussion explores Wonders particular version of the robustly collective grooves that are essential to funk, demonstrating vital musical processes and accounting for some of the unusual power and life of this music.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page List of Musical Examples ................................................................................................ii List of Figures................................................................................................................. v List of Tables ...............................................................................................................viii Introduction..................................................................................................................... 1 Chapter 1: Chapter 2: Chapter 3: Chapter 4: Chapter 5: Chapter 6: Living for the City .............................................................................. 20 Golden Lady....................................................................................... 60 Funk and Stevie Wonder ...................................................................... 107 Superstition ...................................................................................... 140 Higher Ground.................................................................................. 178 You Havent Done Nothin............................................................... 221

Conclusion .................................................................................................................. 260 Bibliography ............................................................................................................... 268 Discography................................................................................................................ 274 Filmography................................................................................................................ 279

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LIST OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES

Example Number

Page

1. The Primary Groove of Living for the City .......................................................... 29 2. The Melody and Lyrics of the First Verse of Living for the City .......................... 33 3. The Refrain of Living for the City........................................................................ 34 4. The Chorus of Living for the City ........................................................................ 37 5. The Ending of Living for the City ........................................................................ 43 6. The Transitional Figure between Living for the City and Golden Lady ............. 44 7. A Transcription of the Introduction to Golden Lady ............................................. 67 8. A Lead-Sheet Transcription of the A-Section Melody.............................................. 75 9. The B-Section Melody of Golden Lady................................................................ 84 10. The Chorus and Transition of Golden Lady ........................................................... 93 11. The Stem, or Primary Groove, of Papa Was A Rolling Stone.......................... 122 12. The Cadential Progression in the Chorus of Superstition .................................... 150 13. The Opening Drum Figure of Superstition.......................................................... 152 14. The First Statement of the Primary Groove of Superstition................................. 157 15. The Vocal Melody of Verse 1 of Superstition..................................................... 164

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16. Comparison of the Melody and Ostinato of Superstition.................................... 164 17. The Augmented Primary Groove of Superstition................................................ 167 18. The Chorus of Superstition................................................................................. 169 19. The Bridge of Superstition ................................................................................. 173 20. The Harmony and Bass Line of the Primary Groove of Higher Ground.............. 191 21. The Harmony and Bass Line of the Refrain of Higher Ground ........................... 192 22. The Harmony and Bass Line of the Chorus of Higher Ground............................ 194 23. The First Eight Measures of the Introduction to Higher Ground ......................... 200 24. A Generalized, Composite Rhythm of the Primary Groove of Higher Ground.... 202 25. The Bass Groove from Chics Good Times ........................................................ 203 26. Separate Bass Voices in the Primary Groove of Higher Ground ......................... 205 27. The Drum and Bass Parts of Measures 5-12 of Higher Ground........................... 208 28. Phrase Structure in the Melody and Bass Line of the Verses of Higher Ground.. 210 29. Correspondences between the Vocal and Bass Melodies in the Verse and Refrain of Higher Ground ................................................................................................... 211 30. The Vocals, Clavinet Section, and Bass Line of the Chorus of Higher Ground ... 214 31. The Bass Line and Drums of the Chorus of Higher Ground................................ 216 32. The Chorus of You Havent Done Nothin......................................................... 236 33. The First Eight Measures of the Introduction to You Havent Done Nothin ..... 242 34. The Vocal Melody of the Verse of You Havent Done Nothin .......................... 245 35. The Horn Melody of the Verse of You Havent Done Nothin............................ 246

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36. Lead Parts during the Bridge and Closing Vamp.................................................... 248 37. Downbeat Articulation in the Chorus of You Havent Done Nothin.................. 251

iv

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Number

Page

1. Examples of Terms and Labels Used in Form Diagrams............................................ 9 2. The Verse Structure of Living for the City ........................................................... 23 3. The Stanza Structure of Living for the City ......................................................... 24 4. The Larger-Scale Form of Living for the City ..................