20th century russia

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Early 20th cENTURY rUSSIA

Early 20th cENTURY rUSSIAThe beginnings of the soviet union

Marxist tHEORY, yOU hAVE NOTHING TO LOSE BUT YOUR CHAINSAccording to Marx, whoever owns the means of production has always controlled the government and society.Means of Production are 1.) Land 2.) Labor 3.) Capital

Key Term: Bourgeoisie The capitalist upper class who control most of a nations wealth and means of production.

Key term: ProletariatThe low, laboring class that has to sell their labor to live.

Haves vs. Have-NotsMarx Believed that human history could be characterized by one theme: Class Struggle. Do you agree with this, or disagree? Why or Why not?

Key term: Capitalisman economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.

Key Term: SocialismAn ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL THEORY IN WHICH GOVERNMENT CONTROLS ALL THE MEANS OF PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION IN A SOCIETY.In marxist theory, a transitional stage between capitalism and communism

Key Term: COmmunisma theory advocating elimination of private property. goods are owned incommonand are available to all as needed.a doctrine based on revolutionary Marxiansocialismand Marxism-Leninism that was the official ideology of the U.S.S.R.

What does communism entail?No private property or inherited wealthSteep graduated income taxCentralized control of banking, communication, and transport industriesFree public educationAnti-religion

prosCapitalismFree Market, Free GovernmentInnovationEfficiencyIncreased Wealth, Trickle Down EffectCommunism No Class System = No InqualityNo Monopolies


CommunismLittle Financial FreedomLittle Personal FreedomNo Freedom of Innovation or growth

Who was lenin?

Vladimir Lenin was founder of the Russian Communist Party, leader of the Bolshevik Revolution and architect and first head of the Soviet state.Widely considered one of the most influential and controversial political figures of the 20th century, Vladimir Lenin engineered the Bolshevik revolution in Russia in 1917 and later took over as the first leader of the newly formed Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).

pRE-rEVOLUTION rUSSIAMonarchy: The Tzar Until 1905 the Tsar's powers were unlimited. Russia had no constitution, no political party system to check the Tsar's power A strong secret police which terrorized the people.

tSAR Nicholas iiHe believed that he was chosen by God to rule russia.Believed in autocracy, but was forced to create a legislaure.

Russo-Japanese WARRusso-Japanese War,(190405), military conflict in which a victoriousJapanforcedRussiato abandon its expansionist policy in the Far East, becoming the first Asian power in modern times to defeat a European power.This unpopular war exacerbated feelings of unrest among the poorer classes of russia. The loss shook russian confidence in their country and their tzar. Country went bankrupt.

rUSSIAN rEVOLUTION OF 1905The 1905 Russian Revolution was sparked off by a peaceful protest held on January 22nd. This protest may well have been the turning point in the relationship the tsar,Nicholas II, enjoyed with his people. Led by a Russian Orthodox priest, Father Gapon, 150,000 people took to the cold and snow covered streets of St Petersburg to protest about their lifestyle. They were not intent on making any form of political protest in the sense of calling for the overthrow of the government or royal family. The petition they carried clearly shows that they wanted Nicholas to help them.

The Petition: Oh Sire, we working men and inhabitants of St. Petersburg, our wives, our children and our parents, helpless and aged women and men, have come to You our ruler, in search of justice and protection. We are beggars, we are oppressed and overburdened with work, we are insulted, we are not looked on as human beings but as slaves. The moment has come for us when death would be better than the prolongation of our intolerable sufferings. We are seeking here our last salvation. Do not refuse to help Your people. Destroy the wall between Yourself and Your people.

Bloody sundayOn January 5, 1905, a sizable but peaceful demonstration of workers Marched on St. Petersburg. The demonstrators appealed to Nicholas II to improve working conditions and establish a popular assembly. Troops opened fire on the demonstrators, killing more than a thousand people in what would come to be called the infamous Bloody Sunday.

Bloody Sunday, ContinuedIn reaction, indignant workers throughout Russia went on strike. As peasants all over Russia sympathized with the workers cause, thousands of uprisings took place and were suppressed by Nicholas IIs troops, serving to further increase tensions.Although he believed himself to be an absolute ruler as ordained by God, Nicholas II was eventually forced to concede to creating an elected legislature, called the Duma. Despite this concession, Nicholas II still stubbornly continued to resist government reform, included those suggested by the newly elected minister of the interior, Peter Stolypin.


Drafted in response to the revolution of 1905, this document promised government reforms and a constitutional monarchy.

What was the duma?The Duma, or Gosudarstvennaya Duma (State Assembly), was an elected legislative body that, along with the State Council,constitutedthe imperial Russian legislature from 1906 until its dissolution at the time of the March 1917 Revolution. The Duma constituted the lower house of the Russian parliament, and the State Council was the upper house.constituted the first genuine attempt toward parliamentary government in Russia.

Exit Slip:What does the word revolution mean to you? Write 1 to 2 paragraphs and turn it in.