2011 media chapter8 janda challenge of democracy political parties, 11e

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  • Chapter 8: Political Parties

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  • What Is a Political Party?

    A group of political activists who organize to win elections, to operate the government, and to determine public policy.How are parties different from interest groups?

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    Ralph E. Becker Collection /Smithsonian Institution

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  • Political Parties vs. Interest Groups

    Political Parties

    Run governmentSelect candidatesMultiple issues (party platform)

    Interest Groups

    Influence governmentSupport candidatesOften a single issue

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  • The Three Components of Political Parties

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    Multi-party systems are the norm throughout Western Europe. The two-party system in place in the United States is rather unique, using a winner-take-all structure.

  • Functions of Political Parties

    Recruit candidates to run for elective offices at all levels of government Mobilize citizens to vote and participate in electionsBear the responsibility of operating government at all levels Provide organized opposition to the party in power

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    Most major activities of political parties are carried out by a relatively small group of party activists.

  • Where the Voters Are

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    Some other democracies (Israel, France, Germany) use proportional representation in which the percentage of the vote that a party receives corresponds to the number of seats it hold in the legislature. This system allows minority parties to flourish.

  • History of Political Parties

    The Formative Years: Federalists/Anti-Federalists (1789-1816)The Era of Good Feelings (1816-1828)National Two-Party Rule: Whigs and Democrats (1828-1860)

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    The Granger Collection, New York

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    The two-party system has been in place since about 1800. Federalists were for the adoption of the Constitution, while Anti-Federalists were against it.

    The era of good feelings is also known as the era of personal politics, as competition for elected office took place primarily between individuals, not parties.

  • The Golden Age of Parties

    The Civil War CrisisThe Post-Civil War Period (1865-1896)Rum, Romanism,
    and RebellionThe Triumph of the Republicans

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    Courtesy of Smithsonian Institute,

    neg #98-4290

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    Conflicts over slavery split the North and South, causing the Whig party to split. The northern Whigs united with antislavery factions to become the modern Republican Party (not to be confused with the Jeffersonian Republicans.)

  • History of Political Parties

    The Progressive Interlude (1896-1932)The New Deal Era (1932-1968) An Era of Divided Government (modern period)After 1968, the general pattern was often a Republican president and a Democratic Congress2000 Presidential Election (Red vs. Blue States)Parties in relative balance

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    Political reform appeared in the early 1900s in response to economic pressures. Although of different parties, Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson both considered themselves progressive. Wilsons progressive policies started a shift in the Democratic party to more openness to government action.

  • Election 1896

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  • Election 2004

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  • Election 2008

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  • The Two Major Parties Today

    The parties core constituentsEconomic beliefsRecent economic convergence?Cultural politicsDemocrats have the reputation of supporting the less-well-off, Republicans the prosperous Regional factors

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    Third party groups such as the Green Party and the Libertarian Party believe that the Republican and Democratic parties are barely different.

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    The 2008 Obama presidential campaign energized many groups within the Democratic party.

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  • Income and Party Identification

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  • Republican and Democratic Issues

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  • The Three Faces of a Party

    The people who identify with the party or who regularly vote for the candidates of the party in general elections

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    Party-in-the-electorate

  • Three Faces of a Party (cont)

    Party Organization

    NationalConvention delegatesNational CommitteeNational ChairpersonState party organizationLocal (grassroots) organizationPatronage and city machinesLocal party organizations

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    The party organization is the formal structure and leadership of a party.

  • 2008 National Conventions

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    The 2008 Democratic National Convention was held in Denver; the 2008 Republican National Convention was held in Minneapolis.

  • Three Faces of a Party (cont)

    The Party in Government

    Divided GovernmentThe Limits of Party
    UnityParty Polarization

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    Andy Levin/Photo Researchers, Inc.

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    All elected and appointed officials identify with a political party.

  • Ethnic Politics and the Campaign
    for the White House

    This report discusses the importance of the Hispanic vote during the 2008 presidential election.

    Airdate: 7/13/2008

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    Click the icon to open the movie

    Video Supplied by Motion Gallery

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  • Video Questions

    What concerns might Hispanic voters have that other voting blocks do not share?

    Why is there a historic rivalry between Hispanics and blacks in some states?

    What was Bushs appeal to Hispanic voters in the 2004 election?

    Which party is most likely to appeal to Hispanic voters in the next election?

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  • Why Has the Two Party
    System Endured?

    DualityPolitical socialization and practical considerationsThe Winner-Take-All Electoral SystemPresidential VotingPopular Election of the Governors and PresidentProportional RepresentationState and Federal Laws Favor the Two PartiesRuling parties work to remain in controlNo party organization to join as independents

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    In every presidential election since 1856, Democrats and Republicans have been the two major political parties, with the exception of 1912. That year, former Republican President Theodore Roosevelt was the nominee of the Bull Moose (Progressive) Party, and finished second to Woodrow Wilson. Republican incumbent Taft finished third.

  • The Role of Minor
    Parties in U.S. Politics

    Ideological Third PartiesGreen PartySplinter PartiesThe Impact of Minor PartiesInfluencing the Major PartiesAffecting the Outcome of an ElectionSpoiler in 2000 Elections?

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    A modern example of an ideological third party is the Green Party, which is committed to environmentalism, non-violence and social justice. It is a federation of state Green Parties, and has fielded candidates for offices at all levels, including Ralph Nader as a presidential candidate in 2000. Nader received 2.7% of the vote.

  • Policies of Selected American Third Parties Since 1864

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    While platform positions are good indicators of where a party stands, they are not reliable guides to the issue positions of individual candidates.

  • Mechanisms of Political Change

    Realignment (occurs about every 32-36 years)Civil War era1890sGreat DepressionNixons victory in 1972 seemed to be a realignment, but Watergate changed this

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    Realignment may actually strengthen an already dominant party, or may cause a gradual shift to another party. Nixons southern strategy showed an immediate change in presidential election results, but a more gradual one in Congressional and state legislative elections.

  • Mechanisms of Political Change (cont)

    Minor realignments1980s conservative movement Shift of white southerners to Republican partyNorthern blue-collar workers to Republican partyMany professionals turn to Democratic partyReligious cleavageMakes Republican party more conservative, Democrats more liberal: but neither party dominates

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  • Mechanisms of Politic