20100506 EBC Towards a global certification system for biomass

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Towards a global system for certified sustainably produced biomass for energy applications Jarno Dakhorst1, Harold Pauwels1, Ortwin Costenoble1, Michiel Roks2 18th European Biomass Conference, Lyon, 6 May 2010 1 NEN Netherlands Standardization Institute 2 TU/e Technical University Eindhoven Background (1) Biomass from green revolution to hot issue Establishment project group in 2006 by Dutch government addressing sustainability Final report 'Testing framework for sustainable biomass' in 2007 with sustainability criteria on: greenhouse gases (emissions and carbon stocks) competition with food or other local applications biodiversity environment (soil, water and air) prosperity social well-being Background (2) Establishment BIOPEC consortium in 2007 aiming at certification system for sustainable biomass Certification system requires: document with requirements for sustainable biomass production and chain of custody => NTA 8080 scheme with rules for certification => NTA 8081 NEN facilitates process to develop and manage certification system standard is voluntary agreement on product, process or service principles: all parties concerned, transparency, consensus NEN is not a certification body, so independent and neutral NTA 8080 Sustainability criteria for biomass for energy purposes (1) Developed by broadly composed working group => 25 organizations from industry, NGOs and government Translation of criteria from 'Testing framework for sustainable biomass' in verifiable requirements Developed in timeframe of 8 months Requirements apply to primary biomass producers except for greenhouse gas balance (entire supply chain) Residues => list of exceptions (based on NTA 8003) Small-holders => some exemptions or group certification NTA 8080 Sustainability criteria for biomass for energy purposes (2) Inclusion of consultation of stakeholders (by both producers and certification bodies) Based on continuous improvement (PDCA cycle) Chain of custody => all models possible Reference date new production units 1 January 2007 Available in Dutch and English NTA 8080 sustainability criteria (1) Principle Requirement Greenhouse gas balance Emission savings compared with fossil reference: 70% for power & heat, ref. coal-fired installations; innovative technologies 50% 50% for power & heat, ref. gas-fired installations 60% for biogas 50% for biofuels; 35% for some biofuels till 2012 Carbon stocks For new production units: exclusion of areas with high above-ground carbon stocks exclusion of areas with high risk of significant carbon losses from the soil carbon losses shall be compensated within ten years NTA 8080 sustainability criteria (2) Principle Requirement Competition with food and other local applications Reporting of information, if available, about: land use changes changes in land and food prices availability of biomass for food, energy supply, construction materials, medicines, etc. Biodiversity For new production units: exclusion of gazetted protected areas and high conservation value areas incl. 5 km zone around => under some conditions not excluded 10% of functional area covered with original vegetation NTA 8080 sustainability criteria (3) Principle Requirement Biodiversity (continued) For all production units: compliance with national and local relevant legislation measures to conserve, recover and strengthen biodiversity Soil quality compliance with national or local relevant legislation measures to preserve and improve soil quality conditions for use of residues Water quality compliance with national or local relevant legislation measures to preserve and improve water quality no use of non-renewable water sources NTA 8080 sustainability criteria (4) Principle Requirement Air quality compliance with national or local relevant legislation measures to preserve and improve air quality no burning during construction and operation; under conditions possible Prosperity measures to involve local population (also in management) and contribute to local economy Social well-being practices and measures to: provide good working conditions respect human rights respect property rights contribute to local social well-being prevent corruption and improve integrity NTA 8080 chain of custody Segregation Book & claim Mass balance (required by RED) NTA 8081 Certification scheme for sustainably produced biomass for energy purposes (1) Developed by broadly composed committee of experts => 25 organizations from industry, NGOs and government Developed and validated in timeframe of 12 months Validation by (inter)national projects (pilots) Pilots resulted in first interpretation document NTA 8080 Chain of custody => elaboration of mass balance Ready to use, formal publication after acknowledgement by Dutch Accreditation Council To be assessed by EC as tool to prove RED compliance Available in Dutch and English NTA 8081 Certification scheme for sustainably produced biomass for energy purposes (2) Certification scheme describes: scope of scheme requirements for certification bodies and auditor(s) audit effort in man-days method of conformity assessment assessment frequency and validity of certificate 'minor' & 'major' non-conformities and way to deal with conditions and requirements for group certification necessary information for register and report way of complaints, objection, appeal, suspension and de-registration Organization structure NEN Scheme ownership is acknowledged by Dutch Accreditation Council as scheme owner Certification system Documents and tools: NTA 8080 NTA 8081 interpretation documents central register* flow charts on procedures system plans* web portal www.nta8080.org or www.sustainable-biomass.org * in development Small-holders definition (1) Characteristics Description Physical farm size Maximum size differs from 2 to 100 hectares Financial farm size Various indicators: minimum 50% of income maximum income USD 5.000 below average income of village maximum annual turnover and/or balance sheet EUR 10 million maximum USD 100.000 sales and income under poverty level or half country median Challenge: How to define a small-holder? Wide variety of definitions: Small-holders definition (2) Characteristics Description Labour composition Various indicators: minimum from 50% to 100% of family (or family based) less than 50 employees Resources Various indicators: low-tech production system limited capacity of storage/ processing capital, assets and infrastructure require collective marketing limited endowment relative to other farmers in sector low asset base Small-holders importance About 2 billion small-holders (UNIDO) in least developed countries over 70% of population derive their livelihoods from agricultural sector and/or small-holder enterprises Small-holders are often poor, but present possibilities for development biomass is often claimed to be useful in increasing income, improving livelihoods and alleviating poverty Small-holders efficient and environmentally friendly limited economies of scale in agriculture; small-holders increase yields by polycultures preserving countryside, reducing soil erosion, positively effecting biodiversity, organic fertilizers, no pesticides, etc. Small-holders certification (1) Concerns small-holders involvement in certification based on their characteristics: small => limited voice and bargaining power often poor => inability and riskiness of investments informal => impossibilities in demonstrating compliance and adopting necessary management systems These three factors also present specifically in certification schemes: not always considered in initial formulation unable to adopt management requirements and demonstrate compliance faced with high certification costs Small-holders certification (2) Pathways to involve small-holders: Releasing from or simplifying requirements in NTA 8080: releasing from requirements related to consultation of stakeholders, prosperity, working conditions, contribution to social well-being of local population and integrity and simplifying requirements related to general documentation Group certification in NTA 8080: small-holders may organize themselves as a group (being an independent legal entity) => group will be audited as well as a sample of group members No disproportionate benefits should be created Outlook Standardization developments: CEN/TC 383 dedicated standards related to RED (at this moment) publication in May 2012 and adoption by all CEN members NTA 8080 shall be reviewed and revised ISO/PC 248 one standard covering similar scope as NTA 8080 publication in May 2014, might be adopted by NL if adopted, NTA 8080 will be superfluous (certification scheme not) Overview of best practices small-holders involvement Acknowledgments All parties who contributed to NTA 8080 and NTA 8081: Agriculture & Horticulture Organization (LTO) BioShape Bosschap Committee Board for Agriculture Control Union Dutch Association for Petrochemical Industry (VNPI) Dutch Forestry Commission ECN Ecolabel Foundation (SMK) Electrabel Eneco Energy Pellets Moerdijk Essent Gasunie IUCN-NL KEMA Consultancy KEMA Quality Kiwa Ministry of Economic Affairs Ministry of Environment NAK Agro Nature & Environment Foundation NL Agency Nuon Oxfam Novib Quality Services Rotterdam Climate Initiative SGS Shell University Leiden www.nta8080.org | nta8080@nen.nl | +31-15-2690326

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