20100506 EBC Towards a global certification system for biomass

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  • Towards a global system for certified sustainably produced biomass for energy applications

    Jarno Dakhorst1, Harold Pauwels1, Ortwin Costenoble1, Michiel Roks2

    18th European Biomass Conference, Lyon, 6 May 2010

    1 NEN Netherlands Standardization Institute

    2 TU/e Technical University Eindhoven

  • Background (1)

    Biomass from green revolution to hot issue

    Establishment project group in 2006 by Dutch

    government addressing sustainability

    Final report 'Testing framework for sustainable biomass'

    in 2007 with sustainability criteria on:

    greenhouse gases (emissions and carbon stocks)

    competition with food or other local applications

    biodiversity

    environment (soil, water and air)

    prosperity

    social well-being

  • Background (2)

    Establishment BIOPEC consortium in 2007 aiming at certification system for sustainable biomass

    Certification system requires:

    document with requirements for sustainable biomass production and chain of custody => NTA 8080

    scheme with rules for certification => NTA 8081

    NEN facilitates process to develop and manage certification system

    standard is voluntary agreement on product, process or service

    principles: all parties concerned, transparency, consensus

    NEN is not a certification body, so independent and neutral

  • NTA 8080 Sustainability criteria for biomass for energy

    purposes (1)

    Developed by broadly composed working group =>

    25 organizations from industry, NGOs and government

    Translation of criteria from 'Testing framework for

    sustainable biomass' in verifiable requirements

    Developed in timeframe of 8 months

    Requirements apply to primary biomass producers

    except for greenhouse gas balance (entire supply chain)

    Residues => list of exceptions (based on NTA 8003)

    Small-holders => some exemptions or group certification

  • NTA 8080 Sustainability criteria for biomass for energy

    purposes (2)

    Inclusion of consultation of stakeholders (by both

    producers and certification bodies)

    Based on continuous improvement (PDCA cycle)

    Chain of custody => all models possible

    Reference date new production units 1 January 2007

    Available in Dutch and English

  • NTA 8080 sustainability criteria (1)

    Principle Requirement

    Greenhouse gas balance

    Emission savings compared with fossil reference: 70% for power & heat, ref. coal-fired installations; innovative technologies 50% 50% for power & heat, ref. gas-fired installations 60% for biogas 50% for biofuels; 35% for some biofuels till 2012

    Carbon stocks For new production units: exclusion of areas with high above-ground carbon stocks exclusion of areas with high risk of significant carbon losses from the soil carbon losses shall be compensated within ten years

  • NTA 8080 sustainability criteria (2)

    Principle Requirement

    Competition

    with food and

    other local

    applications

    Reporting of information, if available, about:

    land use changes

    changes in land and food prices

    availability of biomass for food, energy supply,

    construction materials, medicines, etc.

    Biodiversity For new production units:

    exclusion of gazetted protected areas and high

    conservation value areas incl. 5 km zone around

    => under some conditions not excluded

    10% of functional area covered with original

    vegetation

  • NTA 8080 sustainability criteria (3)

    Principle Requirement

    Biodiversity (continued)

    For all production units: compliance with national and local relevant legislation measures to conserve, recover and strengthen biodiversity

    Soil quality compliance with national or local relevant legislation measures to preserve and improve soil quality conditions for use of residues

    Water quality compliance with national or local relevant legislation measures to preserve and improve water quality no use of non-renewable water sources

  • NTA 8080 sustainability criteria (4)

    Principle Requirement

    Air quality compliance with national or local relevant legislation measures to preserve and improve air quality no burning during construction and operation; under conditions possible

    Prosperity measures to involve local population (also in management) and contribute to local economy

    Social well-being

    practices and measures to: provide good working conditions respect human rights respect property rights contribute to local social well-being prevent corruption and improve integrity

  • NTA 8080 chain of custody

    Segregation

    Book & claim

    Mass balance

    (required by RED)

  • NTA 8081 Certification scheme for sustainably

    produced biomass for energy purposes (1)

    Developed by broadly composed committee of experts =>

    25 organizations from industry, NGOs and government

    Developed and validated in timeframe of 12 months

    Validation by (inter)national projects (pilots)

    Pilots resulted in first interpretation document NTA 8080

    Chain of custody => elaboration of mass balance

    Ready to use, formal publication after acknowledgement

    by Dutch Accreditation Council

    To be assessed by EC as tool to prove RED compliance

    Available in Dutch and English

  • NTA 8081 Certification scheme for sustainably

    produced biomass for energy purposes (2)

    Certification scheme describes:

    scope of scheme

    requirements for certification bodies and auditor(s)

    audit effort in man-days

    method of conformity assessment

    assessment frequency and validity of certificate

    'minor' & 'major' non-conformities and way to deal with

    conditions and requirements for group certification

    necessary information for register and report

    way of complaints, objection, appeal, suspension and de-

    registration

  • Organization structure

    NEN Scheme ownership is acknowledged by Dutch Accreditation Council as

    scheme owner

  • Certification system

    Documents and tools:

    NTA 8080

    NTA 8081

    interpretation documents

    central register*

    flow charts on procedures

    system plans*

    web portal www.nta8080.org or

    www.sustainable-biomass.org

    * in development

  • Small-holders definition (1)

    Characteristics Description

    Physical farm size Maximum size differs from 2 to 100 hectares

    Financial farm size Various indicators:

    minimum 50% of income

    maximum income USD 5.000

    below average income of village

    maximum annual turnover and/or balance sheet

    EUR 10 million

    maximum USD 100.000 sales and income under

    poverty level or half country median

    Challenge: How to define a small-holder?

    Wide variety of definitions:

  • Small-holders definition (2)

    Characteristics Description

    Labour

    composition

    Various indicators:

    minimum from 50% to 100% of family (or family

    based)

    less than 50 employees

    Resources Various indicators:

    low-tech production system

    limited capacity of storage/ processing

    capital, assets and infrastructure require

    collective marketing

    limited endowment relative to other farmers in

    sector

    low asset base

  • Small-holders importance

    About 2 billion small-holders (UNIDO)

    in least developed countries over 70% of population derive their

    livelihoods from agricultural sector and/or small-holder enterprises

    Small-holders are often poor, but present possibilities for

    development

    biomass is often claimed to be useful in increasing income,

    improving livelihoods and alleviating poverty

    Small-holders efficient and environmentally friendly

    limited economies of scale in agriculture; small-holders increase

    yields by polycultures

    preserving countryside, reducing soil erosion, positively effecting

    biodiversity, organic fertilizers, no pesticides, etc.

  • Small-holders certification (1)

    Concerns small-holders involvement in certification based on their characteristics:

    small => limited voice and bargaining power

    often poor => inability and riskiness of investments

    informal => impossibilities in demonstrating compliance and adopting necessary management systems

    These three factors also present specifically in certification schemes:

    not always considered in initial formulation

    unable to adopt management requirements and demonstrate compliance

    faced with high certification costs

  • Small-holders certification (2)

    Pathways to involve small-holders:

    Releasing from or simplifying requirements

    in NTA 8080: releasing from requirements related to consultation

    of stakeholders, prosperity, working conditions, contribution to

    social well-being of local population and integrity and simplifying

    requirements related to general documentation

    Group certification

    in NTA 8080: small-holders may organize themselves as a group

    (being an independent legal entity) => group will be audited as

    well as a sample of group members

    No disproportionate benefits should be created