20. medicinal plants , producing nursery crops by allah dad khan

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  1. 1. Producing NurseryProducing Nursery CropsCrops What are the operational proceduresWhat are the operational procedures used for container and field nurseries?used for container and field nurseries?
  2. 2. Key Questions What is the importance of nursery production in Pakistan ? Why are marketing and product mix important to nurseries? What are the differences between container and field-grown plants? Why is nutrition monitoring important in producing container-grown plants? How does temperature limit the production of plants?
  3. 3. What is the importance of nursery production in Pakistan Nursery production is considered relatively new Top 4 Nursery InHazara Fruit Nursey Fasrm Haripur, Haji Abdul Salam Nursery Farm , Awan Nursery Farm , Gulshan Nursery Farm
  4. 4. Why are marketing and product mix important to nurseries? Container Nurseries Determines the propagation needs of nursery General rule- 70% of plants grown should be staples of industry Specialty nursery- only grow one or two species
  5. 5. Field Nursery Typical crops: Shade trees- red maple most popular Flowering trees- crab apple most popular Evergreen and deciduous shrubs Specialize in growing seedlings.
  6. 6. What are the differences between container and field- grown plants?
  7. 7. Container-Grown Production Propagation Important factors of media: Firmly hold cuttings Free of insects and diseases Good water-holding capacity Excellent aeration and drainage Aeration- exchange or air in the soil with the air in atmosphere Container- provides protection for plant root system
  8. 8. Container selection criteria: Adequate drainage Hold sufficient volume of media Lightweight Easy to handle Durable Free of toxic substances Prevent root circling
  9. 9. Container selection and pruning Must consider consumer appeal Root circling- root systems become too long for their containers Prevention of root circling: Air root pruning Bottomless containers Copper compounds Pruning may be necessary to induce growth and to remove undesirable growth and damaged or dead stems.
  10. 10. Watering C-G Plants Determine water needs by: Weighing pots Feeling growing medium Using indicator plants that readily show water stress Water in early morning to minimize evaporation loss
  11. 11. Check irrigation systems regularly for uniformity. Cyclic irrigation, applying water in two or more applications, conserves water.
  12. 12. Container beds Stand alone plot that contains only container plants Factors to consider: Size of plant being produced Container spacing requirements Production practices (pruning/fertilization)
  13. 13. Weight of containers Irrigation design Coverage Cover beds (ground) with: Black polyethylene-short life Ground cover cloth- 3 to 5 yr life Gravel- allows weed growth Crushed seashells- plants root into bed
  14. 14. Overwintering C-G plants Roots are not as cold-hardy as shoots Container temperature is less than 5 degree F than air temperature Drying out of roots is a problem in winter Methods of cold protection: Crowding and wrapping Cover with whit polyethylene or winter blanket Overwintering houses
  15. 15. Pest Control Scout- individual trained to identify plant pests Weed control is major problem, use pre-emergence herbicide Eliminate alternate host for other pests
  16. 16. Field Nursery Production Check fields to determine nutritional requirements and need for soil amendments Test soil so materials can be added during site preparation May require fumigation of soil
  17. 17. Plant Spacing Distance between row depends on: Marketable size Harvesting equipment General rule: 3 feet per inch of stem diameter at harvest
  18. 18. Liner selection and planting Seedling sold by stem diameter or cost per tree Height from few inches to three feet Topping- increases caliper size and uniformity Stubbing- cutting seedling down to stub to regenerate a new trunk Vegetatively propagated liners can be purchased in cuttings, grafted plants, tissue culture produced plants Most growers prefer trees grown on their own roots
  19. 19. Production Systems Balled & Burlapped (B&B)- trees dug keeping ball or soil around root system, then covered with cloth material Advantages: Plants can be held for limited time Digging and transplanting season is extended Less transplanting shock occurs
  20. 20. Mechanical harvesting- tree gathered by mechanical means, like tree spade Bare root (BR)- trees dug without taking soil; may have more transplant shock than container grown liners Advantages: Lightweight plants Economical shipping Initial cost per plant is lower Disadvantages: Exposure to environmental extremes damages fine roots Handling problems Field Survival
  21. 21. Gro-bag- cylinder of porous fabric with plastic bottom Prevents formation of tap roots, allowing more of root system to be harvested Quicker harvest than B&B Pot-in-pot- planted container placed in a holder pot Combination of container and field production
  22. 22. Fertilization Steps to take to implement fertility program: Determine soil types Perform soil tests Interpret results Make corrective applications Soil sampling- should be a representative sample
  23. 23. Incorporate nutrients prior to planting: P, K, Ca, Mg Lime- to raise pH Tissue analysis: Monitor plant nutritional levels Sample during fall- stored levels determine the spring growth Sample mature leaves
  24. 24. Nitrogen requirements: Deciduous trees- 250 lb./N/yr/acre Narrowleaf evergreens- retain needle-like leaves through the winter, require 200.n/N/yr/acre Broadleaf evergreens- do not have needle-like leaves, but retain leaves through the winter, require 100 lb./N/yr/acre Apply nitrogen in split applications
  25. 25. Pruning Helps control growth and shape of nursery stock Removes dead, diseased, or damaged stems Serves to control plant size and remove weak areas in branching pattern Root pruning removes outward root tips to encourage plants root system to remain within a small area. Enables easier transplanting
  26. 26. Irrigation Especially important during transplanting and establishment Reduce production time Overhead irrigation- wastes water by up to 25%
  27. 27. Pest Control Regular scouting is imperative Weed control is major concern
  28. 28. Why is nutrition and monitoring important in producing C-G plants? Fertilization of C-G plants Most growing media contain minimal nutrients Types of fertilizers used: Pre-plant amendments Dolomitic limestone- provides Ca and Mg and neutralizes acidity Add 5-8 lbs per cubic yard of media Ideal pH for most plants is 5.0-6.0
  29. 29. Micronutrients Required in small quantities, but essential Prevent chlorosis and stunting Application usually good for one year Controlled release fertilizer- nutrient becomes available to plant over extended period of time Media temperature between 70-80 degrees F N,P,K needed in a ratio of 3-1-2 Best to mix into media
  30. 30. Quick release fertilizer Readily soluble and immediate nutrition 10-10-10 is an example Liquid feed system- Concentrated fertilizer mixed in a holding tank, then diluted and injected into an irrigation system Liquid fertilizer- fluid in which the plant nutrients are in true solution Used as supplement to controlled release fertilizers
  31. 31. Monitoring Nutrition of C-G plants Use to determine excessive or deficient nutrient status of media Two tests to perform: pH and soluble salts
  32. 32. Pour-through method- simple method of sampling media fertility Advantages Short time for extraction Conducted in the field No medium handled No specialized equipment for extraction Does not rupture controlled release capsules
  33. 33. Interpreting media analysis, consider: Nutritional requirement of species tested Stage of crop growth Time of year Fertilization program Growing medium Other environmental and cultural factors
  34. 34. Test every two week & plot data High soluble salt levels means water frequently to leach out nutrients Low soluble salt levels means it is time to fertilize High pH means inject acids: Sulfuric acid Iron sulfate To raise pH add: Dolomitic limestone Calcium carbonate Hydrated lime Can use foliar analysis Leaf tissue test to diagnose nutrient deficiency symptoms
  35. 35. Why does temperature limit the production of plants? Cold, winter temperatures in particular cause two concerns Overwintering- How will you carry the plant through the winter Length of growing season- cold temps shorten the growing season


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