20 Essential Tips for Portrait Photography

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<p>20 essential tips for Portrait Photography (Phn Retouch) Cng nh phn 1, nhng k thut retouch trong phn ny da trn kinh nghim c nhn ca tc gi (hafoto) nn n c tnh cht ch quan. Cc bc c thy c g hay hn xin vui lng b sung :lol: Mt tm nh t memory card, n ch l mt tm nh th (raw image, xin ng hiu lm vi RAW format), cn phi c edit (retouch, post-processing, s, tt... :) ) c c mt tm nh t yu cu v k thut. Nhng yu cu v k thut l: 1. ng sng (right exposure): "ng" y bao gm c ngha "Under" (nu chp theo style "Under exposure") v "Over" (cho style "Over exposure"). 2. ng mu: Khng b m mu, da ng mu... y xin ng lm ln gia color cast vi off-color. Mt s ngi thch nh b (c) color cast v tc dng c bit nh "reveal mood" (bui ti th phi hi m xanh...). Cn offcolor c ngha l "sai" mu, mu b qu xanh hay qu . 3. ng nt (sharpness): y nn phn bit gia "dreamy" v "blurry". Dreamy n vn c focus ca n nhng nh (soft), cn blurry l sai nt hay out focus. p ng c 3 yu cu trn l hnh c th "giao c cho khch hng ri" :lol: .Nhng steps trn c th thu li thnh action nn mt tm hnh v c bn ch mt khong 30 giy l xong. Tuy nhin ti y hnh ch mi t c phn cn bn (basic) v mt k thut. Yu cu th 4 c tnh cch ngh thut (nn phi tr tin thm mi lm :lol: ) v n i hi "close-retouching" nh: cn bng highlight v shadow, lm cho da mn, blur background, v i khi nhng g lin quan n "Thm m vin"...Nu cn th lm trng en, duotone. Sau y l nhng vic cn lm u tin t kt qu tt: Ni lm vic: 1. Calibrate ci monitor trc. Nu c th c, th xi CRT monitor flat screen :) 2. t monitor ni no m nh sng n nh, khng b nh hng ca nhng ngun sng chung quanh d l thi im no i na trong ngy. 3. Play some jazz music (ci ny th optional :lol: )</p> <p>Photoshop Workspace: 1. Nhng panel sau y c dng nhiu nht cho nhip nh: Tools Bar, Layer, History, Action. Nu bn khng thy nhng panel ny th bm window menu, make sure nhungx panel ny c check. Chng nhng panel ny thnh mt nhm khng b chon ch. (Chc nng ca nhng panels ny s c gii ngha sau. :)</p> <p>2. La Eyedropper trn Tool Bar: y l tool dng chn mu, PS mc nh l "point sample", c ngha l nu bn</p> <p>dng tool ny click ln mt vng no ca nh th n s cho ta bit mu c la. V "point sample" ch la 1 pixel i din cho vng nn thng l khng chnh xc, nn ta cn phi i qua "3 by 3 Average" (xem nh di). Vi s thay i ny, Eyedropper s la 9 pixels (3 nhn 3 l 9 :) ) i din cho vng c la.</p> <p>3. Hu ht cc lnh (command) trong PS u c th tm thy trong menu, tuy nhin t hiu qu cao nht v tc , nhng keyboard shortcut sau y cn phi nh (khi bn dng bn phm lm vic nht l trc mt khch hng th d "h" (impress) hn, bn cho khch hng cm tng l "Wow!!! This guy is good.. :lol: ) Control-J: Copy layer hay phn c la chn vo 1 layer mi. Control-Z: "Ci ny xu qu! thi lm li nhe" :) Control-F: p dng lnh cui cng 1 ln na. Control-H: Du i vng la chn. Control-D: B (cancel) vng chn. Thi di dng vy ri, bt tay vo tip u tin nhen. Tip 7: How to fix underexposed photos. Bc u tin l nh phi c nh sng retouch. Theo kinh nghim ca tc gi (hafoto) lm vic ti Pictage, trong 10 tm nu c problem v nh sng th 8 tm l underexposure (1 tm b "chy", cn tm kia th nh sng ln xn ) C 2 dng nh b ti: Ton b b ti v mt phn no ca nh b ti. 1. Trng hp ton b b ti.</p> <p>Step 1: Control-J copy nh ln 1 layer mi. Nhn ln layer panel, ta c background (nh gc) v layer 1 (phn c copy). Step 2: i mode t "normal" sang "screen"</p> <p>Ti y, nu bn cm thy hnh cha sng, th bn c th Control-J thm mt ln na copy "layer 1" thnh "layer 1 copy", layer mi to thnh cng c mode "screen" nn nh c nng sng thm mt ln na. Tuy nhin ti y, th nh li qu sng nn bn c th gim Opacity xung cn 50%.</p> <p>nh sau khi c nng sng ln 150% (tm gi l 1 layer ri).</p> <p>2. Trng hp nh b ti mt phn: nh di nu ta p dng phng php trn th c du, ch r sng ln, nhng bu tri li qu sng, nn ta phi tm cch nng sng vng m ta cn thi.</p> <p>Step 1: Vo "Select" menu (pha trn cng), chn "Color range...", vo "Select" box, chn shadow (xem minh ha di). Lnh (command) ny ch la phn shadow ca nh.</p> <p>Step 2: Vo "Select" menu mt ln na, chn "Feather..."</p> <p>Mc ch ca command "feather" (command ny ch active ch sau khi mt vng no c chn) l to thnh mt vng chuyn (transiotional area) gia vng c chn v vng cn li. Ty theo effect m ta dng trn vng chn nhiu hay t m ta cho n s pixels thch hp trong "Feather Radius" box (Cho nhiu pixels nu efect gy nh hng "ln" trn nh). Thng th nh High Resolution cao hn nh Low Resolution khong 100 pixels. Trong nh ny ta ap dng 58 pixels. K tip bm OK. Step 3: Control-J copy phn c chn ln layer mi. Nu bn "tt con mt" layer background th bn s thy vng chn ( c "feather") trn layer 1.</p> <p>Step 4: i mode t "nomal" sang "screen". nh sau khi vng ti c nng ln (vng sng khng b nh hng)</p> <p>Sau khi lm cho nh sng, step cui cng (ca c 2 phng php) l flatten image. C ngha l nh c to bi nhng "lp" (layer), ta cn phi lm "bp" :) n li thnh 1 lp. Vo ci tam gic nh bn phi pha trn ca layer panel, bn s thy command "Flatten Image".</p> <p>-</p> <p>Merge Visible s merge tt c cc layer ang hin th, nhng layer ang n (khng cho hin con mt) th s gi nguyn hin trng. Kt qu l ta cn 1 layer cha nhng g ang thy v nhng layer n. - Flatten Image th s merge tt c lun, v su xa th c th hin l PS s merge Visble li ri delete cc layer n i, kt qu l ta ch con duy nht 1 layer.</p> <p>V hnh nh sau khi Merge Visible hay Flatten Image th u nh nhau, nhng mi cch s c dng tu vo chng ta nh lm bc k tip vo mc ch g. - C 2 yu t nh hng n Feather Radius: 1. Hnh high resolution hay low resolution. Thng th hnh high th set khong 100 pixels hn hnh low. V d nu hnh low set 58 px th hnh high set 158 px. 2. Nu ci effect (hay filter) m ta p dng ln vng la lm cho vng ny thay i qu khc bit so vi vng cn li ca nh, th cn phi set nhiu pixel vng c effect chuyn qua vng cn li nhn t nhin hn. Nu set thp qu th s thay i nhn s "t ngt" hn. Trong PS, khng c nhng con s thn diu (magic numbers), v n ty thc vo camera, ng knh, s thch ca ngi chp nh. Kinh nghim ca hafoto :) : Khong 40-60 pixel: Cho nhng effect "trung bnh" (Hnh high th thm 100 px). Tip 8: How to Enhance Color and Contrast. Sau khi chnh exposure (xem tip 7), bc k tip l chnh (enhance) mu sc. Thng th raw image mu sc khng c vivid v radiant (tm dch l "bt mt"), v s tng phn gia highlight v shadow khng c cao cho lm. V d nh nh sau:</p> <p>C 2 cch chnh color v contrast: Thm "density" v dng "diffused glows" Cch 1: Adding density with Blend Modes.</p> <p>Step 1: Control-J copy nh vo layer mi. Step 2: i mode nomal thnh soft light.</p> <p>Step 3: Trn layer panel, bm nt "Add a layer style", v chn "Blending Options"</p> <p>Step 4: Ti "Layer Style" dialogue box, ko ci slider ca "this layer" v bn phi khong 200. (Khi ta ko slider v pha bn phi nh vy l bo v phn shadow)</p> <p>Step 5: Ci slider , nu nhn k n c 2 tam gic. Ci tam gic bn tri n nh hng ti phn highlight. tch n ra: Gi Alt phm, ng thi ko ci tam gic tri v bn tri khong 50 lm l (reveal) phn highlight.</p> <p>Sau khi bm Ok, th ta s thy hnh c tng density vo phn highlight -&gt; tng phn hn vi phn shadow. (Mun bit effect ny nh hng g ti highlight, ch cn tt con mt ca background layer) y l phn density c thm vo:</p> <p>Cn y l nh sau khi c tng density:</p> <p>a qun, nh flatten image nhe. Cch 2: Diffused Glows Technique: K thut ny dnh cho cc bc thch hnh soft v romantic (mn v lng mn :wub: ), v n "diffused" v lm "rc" (glow) phn highlight. Cng dng hnh trn lm v d: Step 1: Control-J copy nh ln layer mi (layer 1) Step 2: Vo Filter Menu, chn Blur -&gt; Gausian Blue...</p> <p>Ty theo mc soft v glow, p dng khong t 5 -&gt; 50 pixels (hnh HighRes v LowRes nh nhau :) ). y p dng 30 px.</p> <p>Sau khi bm OK, bn s thy hnh n blur lun, ng hong ht , ch cn i mode t normal thnh softlight. Hnh sau khi i thnh mode softlight</p> <p>Nhn vo nh ta thy phn highlight nhn mn v rc (soft, glow), nhng phn shadow b mt chi tit. Step 3: Ging nh cch 1, m "Layer Style" dialogue box, nhng ln ny bo v phn shadow 100 v l phn highlight 25.</p> <p>Nu bn mun bit effect ny nh hng g n phn highlight, ch cn tt con mt ca background layer.</p> <p>Step 4: Flatten nh v ta da, here you go :)</p> <p>Tip 9: "Man! You look sharp!" Tip ny ni v k thut dng "Unsharp Mask" Filter cho chn dung. Tip ny p dng cho nh High Res nn s khng c nh minh ha v nh trn din n ch dnh cho Web (tc l nh LowRes). C t nht l 5 cch "sharpen" trong PS, nhng Unsharp Mask c xem nh d dng v h hiu nht (bit nhiu phng php cng c ci li l dnh "ci ln" vi ngi khc cho vui C 2 trng hp cn phi dng Unsharp Mask: 1. Cho d my ca bn "xn" ti u i na, th nh sau khi download t memory card, cng cn phi sharpen (trust me, hnh cng sharp th ch cng nhn bnh bao hn, bi vy mi c ta l "Man! You look sharp!") 2. nh sau khi resize: Cho d l phng ln hay thu nh, sau khi resize cn phi sharpen li (ci ny ng qu hen ) Unsharp Mask c th tm thy Filter - Sharpen - Unsharp Mask... ).</p> <p>C 3 slider iu khin mc sharpen: 1. Radius: Cnh (edge) c xem l c bn sharpen, nn ngay ti cnh bn c th quyt nh bao nhiu pixels p dng lnh ny. V vy, vi nhng hnh c ng nt "mng" v "smooth" nn set t pixel, v ngc li vi ng nt "thick" th set nhiu pixel. Thng th setting t 1 n 4 pixel l "an ton" 2. Amount: Quyt nh bao nhiu phn trm "cnh" c sharpen. Thng th setting t 50 n 150% l "an ton" 3. Threshold: Ci ny quyt nh "intense" ca "surface". Ni mt cch khc phn "bng phng" (khng phi edge) nhn mm mi (soft) hay anh (strong, hard). Thng th setting t 3 n 20 l thng dng Mi tng quan gia radius, amount, v threshold. Nu radius c set thp (1 px), th bn c th set amount cao (150%) v ngc li: Nu radius c set cao (4 px) th bn c th set amount thp (50%) Threshold: Ty theo bn thich nh cao hay thp intension: set thp (3) th nhn sc, set cao (20) th nhn "mm". Cn c vo nhu cu ca nh m set cho thch hp (v d nh nh c edge mnh hay mm mi, nh nhn soft hay high contrast). V nhng thng s trn ty thuc vo my nh, ng knh, v k thut ly nt nn bn cn phi b thi gi th nghim coi thng s no tt nht cho my ca mnh (There are no magic numbers ) Killing Tips cho Unsharp Mask: Tip 1: Nu sau khi p dng Unsharp Mask, m nhn cha "sharp" th click Control-F (p dng filter thm mt ln na). p dng filter 2 ln vi low-setting hay hn l 1 ln vi high-setting. (Ci ny k hn ) Tip 2: Nu hnh b sharp hi qu trn ( ci edge n b halo effect) th vo Edit -&gt; Fade, i mode thnh luminosity.</p> <p>hafoto's favorite setting: *Hnh high-res: Threshold:0, Radius: 1, Amount: 300 (Sorry, I broke the rule * Hnh low-res: Threshold:0, Radius: 0.3, Amount: 150. Tip 10: Go Beyond The Real World</p> <p>).</p> <p>Mt trong nhng k thut to n tng cho ngi xem l lm cho mu sc "rc r" hn mt thng cm nhn (surreal). Khi m mu sc tr nn "vibrant" v "vivid" th d "bt mt" ngi xem hn. Nu bn no chp "commercial"(chp cm go :lol: ) th k thut ny l dnh cho bn :gathering C 2 k thut thng dng l "Masking with blending modes" v "Paint with softlight brush". 1. Masking with blending modes: nh di ta thy ch nhn "nht nht", qun Jean cha c "xanh blue" lm, c cha c xanh "zd"(hay "r" :lol: ) lm, my th cha kch tnh (dramatic) lm</p> <p>Step 1: Control-J copy nh ln layer mi Step 2: i mode ca layer trn t "Normal" thnh "Color Burn",</p> <p>By gi th bu tri nhn "kh" hn, nhng m mu sc th nhn "bt bn bt". Khng sao, v mnh ch dng layer trn (layer 1) nh l mt ci "mask" (mt n) che phn my pha di. Step 3: bin layer ny thnh ci mask, gi phm Alt v bm vo nt "Add layer mask" trn layer panel (c khoanh ). By gi, hnh s tr li bnh thng, v trn layer 1 bn s thy mt hnh ch nht mu en, iu ny c ngha l layer ny ng vai tr nh l mt ci mask.Ti thi im ny, th layer 1 cha c mask layer backgrounk (ni mt cch khc l layer 1 cha che y layer background).</p> <p>Step 4: bt u dng phn my ca layer 1 che y (masking) phn my ca layer background, bm phm "D" set foreground mu trng, ri chn mt ci soft edge brush trn Tool Panel, vi mode "normal, opacity 100% .</p> <p>Step 5: che (mask) layer background, bt u di ci brushd ly phn my ca ca layer 1 p ln (hay "" ln) phn my ca layer background)</p> <p>Cn y l phn my c dng "" ln phn my ca nh "gc" (tt con mt ca layer background)</p> <p>Tng t nh vy, lm cho c xanh hn th chn Mode: Color Dodge, Opacity: 50%. lm cho qun Jean xanh hn v tc "" hn th chn Mode: Overlay, Opacity: 50%. Nhng layers pha di c i tn thnh May, Co, QuanToc tin theo di.</p> <p>Nu bn thy c xanh qu th c th gim Opacity xung cn 30% hay 40%.</p> <p>Ch thch: S tht th nhng layer trn (May, Co, QuanToc) khng "che" layer gc m chnh xc hn l chng "tng tc" vi layer background bng nhng mode khc nhau (Color Burn, Color Dodge, Overlay) nhng mc khc nhau (ty theo Opacity). Phn ny rt quan trng v hi di dng, em xin dng y coi cc bc phn ng ra sao? Em vit c d hiu khng? Hay l cn phi vit li - Cng dng ca BURN layer cng ging nh ci burn tool trn bn dng c, tc l n t/lm nhn thm cc mng ti, v vy trong v d ca anh H khi anh ta burn ci mng tri th mu xanh tri nhn n gi di (dramatic) hn.</p> <p>- Cng dng ca DODGE layer cng ging nh ci dodge tool trn bn dng c, tc l lm nhn phn sng ni ln, v vy trong v d ca anh H, anh lm th vi c em ln phn c sng lm n ni ln 3 chiu hn. - BURN v DODGE lm vic phn no tri ngc nhau, 1 ci lm ti phn ti v ci kia sng phn sng. BURN c dng nhiu cho nh khi tri overcast em ln nhng chi tit gn mt. DODGE dng nhiu khi xa bt cng chi tit v d nh khi lm trong trng trng mt. - OCAPACITY thay i ty theo khu v ca ngi lm PS chn ng cng thay i so vi nh "gc". - BRUSH + MASK dng lm ch mng no mnh mun p dng cc ch chnh sa cho hp l. Tip 10: Go Beyond The Real World (continue) 2. Paint with Softlight Brush: K thut sau y d gp 10 ln k thut trn v mt hiu qu nhng em phi trnh by k thut (masking with blending modes) trc l v: 1. Nu k thut ny c vit trc th ch ai thm c k thut trc :lol: 2. K thut trc c coi nh tiu chun (standard), k thut ny c coi l "t o" (underground). 3. K thut trc c dng minh ha cho khi nim v layers, masking, blending modes...K thut ny dng "kim tin" nhanh hn nh sau y, ta thy background rt l mu sc (, xanh l cy, xanh da tri, vng), nhng nhn "cht" (dull).</p> <p>Step 1: Control-J copy nh ln layer mi. Ta s t mu trn layer copy ny, v nu ta c qu tay t nhiu qu hay lm sai ta ch c vic delete layer ny m khng nh hng n layer di. Step 2: Bm ln "Set Foreground Layer", di ci vng trn la mu m bn mun t.</p> <p>Step 3: La "soft edge brush" trn Tool Panel, set mode Soft Light, Opacity 30% trn Option Bar.</p> <p>Step 4: Ri by gi l phn "" nht. Vi ci tng mu th bn chn Foreground Color m sng hn 1 t (bng cch di ci vng trn nh vo vng ti), ri t "hn nhin" ln ci tng . Tng t nh vy vi mu vng, green, blue.... Lu , t va va thi nhe coi chng mu le lot qu ging nh GO BEYOND THE REAL WORLD (ta ca tip ny :lol: )</p> <p>Tip 11: The Power of Darkness. Thng th ch ca mt tm nh l thuc v phn highlight, nhng chnh phn shadow p lm ni bt phn</p> <p>highlight. Phn shadow gip cho vic loi b nhng chi tit khng cn thit, hng mt ngi nhn vo ch , v lm cho nh thm phn kch tnh. Cho nn iu chnh t l gia highlight v shadow quyt nh n ci "hn" (mood) ca nh. C 3 cch thng dng iu chnh phn shadow: Vignette technique, Color range, v Magic wand. 1. Vignette Technique: Phng php ny thng c dng khi chung quanh ch c nhiu vt th "distracting" v sng lm cho nhi nhn b chia tr. khc phc, 4 gc ca s c lm ti i hng mt ngi nhn vo trung tm. (xem nh di)</p> <p>Step 1: Bm vo nt "Create a new layer" trn layer panel to nn 1 layer trng (blank layer).</p> <p>Step 2: Bm phm "D" set foreground mu en. Gi Alt key, ng thi bm phm "backspace" lm cho "layer trng" mu en.</p> <p>Step 3: Ko Opacity ca "layer trng" t 100 xung 0. Chn Elliptical Marquee Tool trn Tool pane...</p>