1900 b.c 500 a.d. ancient greece and rome chapter 2

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Homer After the collapse of Mycenaean civilization (1100 B.C.) population declined and food production dropped Iliad and Odyssey first great epic poems Stories about Trojan War Paris kidnapping Helen Greek wife of Spartan King Agamemnon Achilles, Trojan horse Odyssey the long journey home

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1900 B.C 500 A.D. Ancient Greece and Rome Chapter 2 Mycenae 1600 B.C 1100 B.C Fortified site on Greek mainland Inhabited by peoples from Europe and Asia Powerful monarchies Homer After the collapse of Mycenaean civilization (1100 B.C.) population declined and food production dropped Iliad and Odyssey first great epic poems Stories about Trojan War Paris kidnapping Helen Greek wife of Spartan King Agamemnon Achilles, Trojan horse Odyssey the long journey home CityStates of Greece Polis meaning fort and surrounding city (police, politics, policy) Characteristics: 1. Small size ( sq.miles) 2. Small population fewer than 10,000 people 3. Setting on a hill acropolis 4. Public Meeting place agora People had a real attachment to their city-state Although they had their own identity they spoke same language, same religion Sparta Sparta was a very militaristic society 3 Social Groups: Equals decedents of the Dorians Half-Citizens no political power Helots slaves of Spartan society Government: Council of Elders proposed laws 2 kings 5 ephors overseers elected for one year term Spartan Military Began at birth examined each child, if they were weak or unhealthy left to die At age 7 boys sent to barracks; military training read and write Boys were given inadequate clothing to toughen them up, give very little food expected to steal, if caught punished for not being sly enough 20 60 years of age - expected military service Women were also expected to stay healthy to bare children Sparta Athens Athens is located on the Attic peninsula All Athenian men had equal political rights includes all economic classes People born outside Athens were noncitizens metics More than of Athens were metics or slaves aristocratic government All adult males met in an assembly to elect 9 archons rulers who served one-year term Draco would codify Athens laws (Draconian Law); extremely harsh, but fair Solon He canceled t he debt of the poor, outlawed enslavement for debt, created nonaristocratic government, citizens courts appeal judicial decisions Peisistratus seize power and became tyrant; improved the economy and exiled any dissenters Cleisthenes turned Athens into a democracy; direct democracy People In Government DracoSolon Cleithenes Greek Wars Persian War Persian leader Darius would raise the taxes of the former Greek city-state of Lydia led to revolt that was supported by Athens Darius wanted to punish Athens for their involvement The Persian army would land on the coast of Attica near the plains of Marathon. Athenians would defeat the Persians at the Battle of Marathon Xerxes, son of Darius, led over 100,000 troops against the Spartans at the narrow pass at the Battle of Thermopylae Greek traitor showed Persians how to outflank the Spartans. Every Spartan died Xerxes moved onto Athens, where the city was abandoned, led by Themistocles Themistocles tricked Xerxes at the Salamis Staits Sparta and Athens allied themselves to defeat the remaining Persians at Plataea Athens would create the Delian League alliance of 140 Greek city-states Age of Pericles Pericles A general, statesmen, orator and public official for the city of Athens Greece reached its greatest power during his rule Direct Democracy Classical Greece Peloponnesian War Commercial rivalries between Sparta and Athens Athens more culturally progressive, open society Sparta closed, militaristic society Sparta was tired of Athens flaunting of power Spartans would invade Attica peninsula; trying to starve out the Athenians Athenians had a great navy to re-supply the city, however, a great plague broke out killing many citizens of Athens, including Pericles With the help of Persia, Sparta would eventually starve out Athens and force them to surrender Hoplites Greek Art of the Golden Age Greek Architecture Athens would surround themselves around beautiful temples, buildings, and gymnasiums. Parthenon marble temple built in honor of Athena ft long x 100 ft wide x 60 ft high - had doors but no windows Sculptures Few Greek statues exist today. Myron and Phidias most famous sculptors in Greece The discus thrower By Myron Statue of Zeus At Olympia One of the Seven Wonders of the World Philosophers and Writers of the Golden Age Cosmologist Understanding the universe and the cosmos Pythagoras Developed the mathematical explanation of the universe Everything can be explained in mathematical relationships and ratios Democritus Developed the atomic theory the universe is made up of tiny particles of matter he would called atoms. Socrates One of the worlds greatest thinkers and teachers who lived in Athens in 470 B.C. to 399 B.C. Severed as an infantry soldier in the Peloponnesian War Highly critical of Sophists in Athens they took money for teaching He believed the unexamined life was not worth living. Socratic Method way of teaching that involved intense questioning and engaging students in logical discussions Socrates had many enemies. His questioning and search for truth led to his accusations of impiety disrespecting the Greek Gods and corrupting the mind of Athenian youth. Found guilty and sentenced to death. Willfully drank poison made from hemlock plant. Plato Socrates greatest student Developed a school named the Academy which taught philosophy Topics of discussion were government, education, justice, virtue, and religion. Wrote the dialogue the Republic describes the concepts of an ideal organization of society. People should do jobs they are best suited for. Ex. Bravery army; Interest in material goods - business An ideal government should be an aristocracy base on intelligence, reasoning, and education not birth or family. Believed in a utopian community (what is better for the community than yourself) Aristotle He was the most coveted student of Plato Developed the modern day form of scientific thinking. This would be the process of organizing facts into meaningful systems. He collected, described, and classified plants and animals. Wrote the book Ethics examined the acts and beliefs of individuals to learn what brought them the greatest happiness. Ex. Intrinsic rewards He studied the political make-up of 150 Greek city-states to describe the political principles of government this book was called Politics (the middle class was the most important class of people) Aristotle v. Plato Aristotle believed in a limited democracy, whereas, Plato thought government should control a persons life for the betterment of the State and guidance from the wealthy intellectuals Aristocracy and democracy were goods forms of government both easily corrupted. Most famous student Alexander the Great Math and Science Pythagorean Theorem a2 + b2 = c2 Hippocrates founder of medicine All diseases come from nature, not upsetting the Gods Hippocratic Oath pledge to follow medical ethics based on Hippocrates teachings. Astronomy and Geography Aristarchus believed the earth and planets moved around the sun Hipparchus used trigonometry to calculate the eclipse of the sun and moon Eratosthenes calculated the circumference of the earth (within 100 miles!) Most scientist did believe the earth was round. Mathematics and Physics Archimedes considered to be the greatest scientist of the Hellenistic world. Used geometry to measure spheres, cones, and cylinders Developed Pi (3.14) Invented the compound pulley, Archimedes screw (device used to continuously draw water from the ground) Medicine Categorized human anatomy perform autopsies on executed criminals Brain was the center of the nervous system perform delicate surgery on patients (resetting compound fractures, 'trepanning' - a process which involves carefully drilling into the brain, etc.) History Herodotus father of history Often exaggerated his stories, however, he did detail important facts about events and battles Thucydides wrote the History of the Peloponnesian War Detailed, accurate description of the war which he hoped would help people understand human nature Greek Dramas Greeks were the first to write dramas, plays containing action or dialogue that usually involve conflict and emotion Often would sing and dance the play (today - musicals) Actors would use large padded costumes; men would dress up as women; orchestras would be set up to play music. Theaters would be carved into hillsides. Plays would be created to please Dionysus God of wine and fertility Tragedies often portraying the tragic hero as having hubris, excessive pride in ones self (The Gods hated that) Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Aristophanes were the most famous play writers of the Greek world Alexander the Great Philip II of Macedonia Macedonians would unite all of Greece. 359 B.C. Philip II, former hostage of Thebes, eventually became King of Macedonia. Create a strong army which would include a cavalry, infantry, archers and a phalanx, which were soldiers standing shoulder to shoulder with long pikes Demosthenes famous orator from Athens who opposed Philip II rule, led opposition force. Philip II was assassinated at his daughters wedding - his son Alexander would succeed him Alexander the Great Was a former student of Aristotle His military campaigns are among the most admired in world history. A fearless warrior who often led the charge into battle Alexanders Conquests Crushed all rebellions in Greece, declaring himself Master of Greece By 331 B.C. he had defeated the Persian armies and conquered Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, and northern India In 323 B.C. While in Babylon, he contracted either cholera or malaria where he would die at the age of 33 Alexanders Empire In 13 years, Alexander had never lost a battle He conquered much of the known world at that time in history; except India Alexander would spread Greek culture throughout his empire and create over 70 cities most of them named after himself Alexander would encourage integration of Macedonians marrying Persian women. He himself married a Persi