17302 - kien truc may tinh

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B GIAO THNG VN TI TRNG I HC HNG HI B MN: K THUT MY TNH KHOA: CNG NGH THNG TIN BI GING KIN TRC MY TNH TN HC PHN: KIN TRC MY TNH M HC PHN: 17302 TRNH O TO: I HC CHNH QUY DNG CHO SV NGNH: CNG NGH THNG TIN

HI PHNG - 2010 - 1 - MC LC Chng I : GII THIU CHUNG .......................................................................................... 7 1.1. Lch s pht trin v phn loi ..................................................................................... 7 1.1.1. Lch s pht trin .................................................................................................. 7 1.1.2. Phn loi my tnh ................................................................................................ 8 1.2. Biu din thng tin trn my tnh ............................................................................... 10 1.2.1. H m ............................................................................................................... 10 1.2.2. i s thp phn ra s nh phn hoc ngc li................................................... 11 1.2.3. Cc loi m ......................................................................................................... 12 1.2.4. Biu din s nguyn theo m nh phn ................................................................ 12 1.2.5. Biu din s thc theo m nh phn .................................................................... 12 1.2.6. Biu din cc dng thng tin khc ....................................................................... 13 1.3. Cc loi my tnh c nhn .......................................................................................... 13 Chng II: B XL TRUNG TM ............................................................................... 15 2.1. T chc b x l ....................................................................................................... 15 2.2. T chc thanh ghi ...................................................................................................... 16 2.2.1. User-Visible Registers: ....................................................................................... 16 2.2.2. Control and Status Registers: .............................................................................. 17 2.3. n v s hc v logic ALU (Arithmetic and logic unit) ............................................ 18 2.4. n v iu khin CU(Control Unit).......................................................................... 19 2.4.1 Tn hiu iu khin: ............................................................................................. 20 2.4.2. n v iu khin vi chng trnh ...................................................................... 21 2.4.3. Mt s m rng cavi x l my tnh cho n ngy nay.................................... 21 2.5. Cu trc kt ni - BUS .............................................................................................. 22 2.6. Tp lnh v cc Mode a ch .................................................................................... 23 2.6.1. Tp lnh ca CPU ............................................................................................... 23 2.6.2. Cc nhm lnh ca CPU ..................................................................................... 24 2.6.3. Hp ng (Assembly) .......................................................................................... 30 2.6.4. Cc Mode a ch ................................................................................................ 34 Chng III: H THNG NH ............................................................................................ 37 3.1. Khi qut v h thng nh ......................................................................................... 37 3.2. Phn cp b nh ........................................................................................................ 38 3.3. B nh bn dn ......................................................................................................... 38 3.3.1. Cc loi b nh bn dn ...................................................................................... 38 3.3.2. T chc b nh ................................................................................................... 39 3.4. Cache Memory .......................................................................................................... 39 3.4.1. Nguyn tc ......................................................................................................... 39 3.4.2. K thut nh x b nh cache ............................................................................. 40 3.5. Qun l b nh .......................................................................................................... 43 3.5.1. Cc k thut qun l b nh................................................................................ 43 - 2 - 3.5.2. B nh o ........................................................................................................... 46 3.5.3. S phn on ...................................................................................................... 48 3.6. K thut gii m a ch ............................................................................................. 49 3.6.1. Cu to mt vi mch nh .................................................................................... 49 3.6.2. Gii m a ch cho b nh ................................................................................. 50 Chng IV: H THNG VO RA ...................................................................................... 53 4.1. Gii thiu chung ........................................................................................................ 53 4.1.1. Cc thit b ngoi vi ............................................................................................ 53 4.1.2. Modul vo ra ...................................................................................................... 53 4.2. Ghp ni my tnh vi thit b ngoi vi ...................................................................... 54 4.2.1. Ghp ni song song ............................................................................................ 54 4.2.2. Ghp ni ni tip ................................................................................................ 56 4.3. Cc phng php iu khin vo ra ........................................................................... 56 4.3.1. Vo ra iu khin bng cch thm d .................................................................. 56 4.3.2. Vo ra iu khin bng Ngt ............................................................................... 57 4.3.3. Vo ra iu khin bng DMA ............................................................................. 61 Chng V: THIT B NHP D LIU .............................................................................. 64 5.1. Gii thiu chung ........................................................................................................ 64 5.2. Bn phm ................................................................................................................... 64 5.1.1. K thut d phm ................................................................................................. 64 5.1.2. K thut qut phm (Scan) ................................................................................... 65 5.3. Chut ........................................................................................................................ 66 5.4. Cc thit b nhp liu tin tin ................................................................................... 66 Chng VI: THIT B XUT D LIU ............................................................................. 67 6.1. Nhng khi nim c bn ............................................................................................ 67 6.1.1. Nguyn l ca phng php hin th hnh nh video. .......................................... 67 6.1.2. Nhng c im chung ca mn hnh ................................................................. 67 6.2. Mn hnh mu CRT (Cathod Ray Tube) .................................................................... 68 6.2.1. Cu to ............................................................................................................... 68 6.2.2. Phng php qut dng ...................................................................................... 69 6.2.3. S ghp ni v hot ng: .............................................................................. 69 6.2.4. K thut lm ti hnh nh .................................................................................. 70 6.3. My in ....................................................................................................................... 70 Chng VII: THIT B LU TR ...................................................................................... 71 7.1. Gii thiu chung ........................................................................................................ 71 7.2. a t (Magetic) ........................................................................................................ 71 7.2.1. Tham s c ghi (u t) ................................................................................... 71 7.2.2. Tham s a t .................................................................................................... 72 72.3. Cc cng ngh sn xut a t .............................................................................. 73 7.2.4. Chun b mt a cng a vo s dng ......................................................... 74 7.3. a Quang (Optical Disk) .......................................................................................... 74 7.3.1. c im ............................................................................................................ 74 7.3.2. Nguyn tc c/ghi thng tin .............................................................................. 74 - 3 - 7.3.3. Phn loi ............................................................................................................. 75 7.4. Cc thit b lu tr khc .....................