10 literary narrative fiction genres of narrative fiction; history of the form
Post on 31-Dec-2015
Embed Size (px)
10 Literary Narrative FictionGenres of Narrative Fiction; History of the Form
Dickens BicentenaryTeachers resources:http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/dickensLiterary events:http://literature.britishcouncil.org/projects/2011/dickens-2012Student website for info:http://dublin.studenty.me/2012/02/07/what-the-dickens-is-dickens-2012/
Dickens Bicentenary ContinuedCelebration on 19 December: a live-streamed audience with Lucinda dickens Hawksley, Great-Great-Great-Granddaughter of Charles Dickenshttp://audiencewithlucindadickenshawksley.eventbrite.com/
Narratives Personal, political, historical, legal, medical narratives: narratives power to capture certain truths and experiences in special ways - unlike other modes of explanation and analysis such as statistics, descriptions, summaries, or reasoning via conceptual abstractions
The spectrum of fictionfact fiction truth?
Realism vs romance: a matter of perception vs a matter of vision2 principal ways fiction can be related to life
Literary narrative fictionliterature: art of languagekinds of Iiterature: poetry, drama, narrative fictionprose: from Latin prosa or proversa oratio=straightforward discourseM. Jourdain: I've been speaking in PROSE all along! Moliere (1622-1673), Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme
Literary conventionsan agreement between artist and audience as tothe significance of features appearing in a work of art knowledge of conventions = literary competence narrative: tells of real or imagined events; tells a story fiction: an imagined creation in verse/prose/drama story: (imagined) events or happenings, involving a conflict plot: arrangement of action structure
Literary, narrative, fictional:
distinct features, do not presuppose each other
Where do we place lyric poetry?
Marie-Laure Ryan, Possible Worlds, Artificial Intelligence, and Narrative Theory. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana UP, 1991
Literary, narrative, fictional:
examplesliterarynarrativefictional+++Lit. narr. fict.++-+-++---++-+---+---Nonlit. nonnarr. nonfiction
The history of fictionIan Watt, The Rise of the Novel: Studies in Defoe, Richardson and Fielding (1957)Dale Spender, Mothers of the Novel (1988)Margaret Anne Doody, The True Story of the Novel (1996)
NovelIn: J. A. Cuddon: Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. London: Penguin, 1999Derived from Italian novella, 'tale, piece of newsapplied to a wide variety of writings only common attribute is that they are extended pieces of prose fictionThe length of novels varies greatly when is a novel not a novel or a long short-story or a short novel or a novella?Fewer and fewer rulesin contemporary practice a novel is between 60-70.000 words and, say, 200.000.
Cuddon NovelThe actual term 'novel' has had a variety of meanings andimplications at different stages.
From roughly the 15th to the 18th c. its meaning tended toderive from the Italian novella and the Spanish novela (theFrench term nouvelle, is closely related)
The term (often used in a plural sense) denoted short stories ortales of the kind one finds in Boccaccio's Decameron (c. 134951). Nowadays we would classify all the contents of these asshort stories.
CuddonNovel /noveltyThe term denoted a prose narrative about characters and theiractions in what was recognizably everyday life and usually in thepresent, with the emphasis on things being 'new' or a 'novelty'.
It was used in contradistinction to 'romance'.
In the 19th c. the concept of 'novel' was enlarged.
CuddonNovelA form of story or prose narrative containingcharacters, action and incident and, perhaps, aplot
CuddonNovelThe form - susceptible to change anddevelopment
Pliable and adaptable to a seemingly endless variety of topic and themes
A wide range of sub-species or categories.
CuddonNovelThe subject matter of the novel eludes classification.A number of these classifications shade off into each other.
or example, psychological novel is a term which embracesmany books; proletarian, propaganda and thesis novels tend tohave much in common; the picaresque narrative is often a novelof adventure; a saga novel may also be a regional novel.
CuddonNovelThe origins of the genre are obscure
but in the time of the XIIth Dynasty MiddleKingdom (c. 1200 BC) Egyptians were writingfiction of a kind which one would describe as anovel today
CuddonNovelFrom Classical times
Daphnis and Chloe (2nd c. BC) by LongusThe Golden Ass (2nd c. AD) by ApuleiusSatyricon (1st c. AD) of Petronius Arbiter
Most of these are concerned with love and contain therudiments of novels as we understand them today
CuddonNovelOriental prose fiction
Arabian Nights Entertainments, or The Thousand and OneNights, 10th c. the collection, collected and established as a group of stories probably by an Egyptian professional story-tellerat some time between the 14th and 16th c.
Became known in Europe early in the 18th c., since when theyhave had a considerable influence.
CuddonNovelCollections of novella or short talesItaly -Giovanni Boccaccios Decameron (134952, revised 13701371) had much influence on Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales (late 14th c.)Matteo Bandellos Le Novelle (written between 1510 and 1560)France -Marguerite of Navarre Heptamron (published in 1558)
These were integrated short stories but important as they werein proseIn their method of narration and in their creation anddevelopment of character they are forerunners of the modernnovel
CuddonNovelUntil the 14th c. most of the literature of entertainment (and thenovel is usually intended as an entertainment) was confined tonarrative verse, particularly the epic and the romance.
Romance eventually yielded the word roman, which is the termfor novel in most European languages.
In some ways the novel is a descendant of the medievalromances, which, in the first place, like the epic, were written inverse and then in prose (e.g. Malory's Morte D'Arthur, 1485).
Verse narratives had been supplanted by prose narratives by theend of the 17th c.
CuddonNovelSpain - was ahead of the rest of Europe in the development ofThe novel form. Cervantes's Don Quixote de la Mancha (1605, 1615) satirizedchivalry and a number of the earlier novels
In France Rabelais's Gargantua (1534) and Pantagruel (1532)can be classed as novels of phantasy, or mythopoeic
CuddonNovelEngland, end of the 15th c., extended prose narrative:John Lyly's Euphues (in two parts, 1578 and 1580Sir Philip Sidney's pastoral romance Arcadia (1590).
1719 Daniel Defoe published his story of adventure RobinsonCrusoe, one in a long tradition of desert island fiction
Defoe's other two main contributions to the novel form wereMoll Flanders (1722), a sociological novel, and A Journal of thePlague Year (1722) a reconstruction and thus a piece ofhistorical fiction
Books on FictionBooth, Wayne: The Rhetoric of Fiction. Second edition. London: Penguin, 1991 (1983)
Lodge, David: The Art of Fiction. London: Penguin, 1992
Rimmon-Kenan, Shlomith: Narrative Fiction: Contemporary Poetics. London and New York: Methuen, 1983
Sub-genresIntegrated short storiesArabian Nights' Entertainments, or The Thousand and One Nights, Boccaccio: DecameronJames Joyce: Dubliners
Sub-genresRomanceany sort of stroy of chivalry or of loveCervantes: Don Quixote (1605-1615)Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (14th c.)Thomas Malory: Le Morte DArthur (15th c.)
Pastoral romanceLongus: Daphnis and Chloe (2nd c. A.D.)Philip Sidney: Arcadia (1590)
Anti-pastoral:Thomas Hardy: Tess of the dUrbevilles (1891), Jude the Obscure (1895)
Sub-genresPicaresque noveltells the life of a knave or a picaroon who is the servant of severel mastersDaniel Defoe: Moll Flanders (1722)Henry Fielding: Jonathan Wild (1743)
Sub-genresNovel of adventure / desert island novelrelated to te picaresque novel and the romanceDaniel Defoe: Robinson Crusoe (1719)R.L. Stevenson: Treasure Island (1883)Mark Twain: Tom Sawyer (1876)Huckleberry Finn (1885)James Fenimore Cooper: The Last of the Mohicans (1826)
Sub-genresGothic novela type of romance, popular from the 1760s until the 1820s, has terror and cruelty as main themes, impact on the ghost story and the horror storyHorace Walpole: The Castle of Otranto (1764Ann Radcliffe: Mysteries of Udolpho (1794)Mary Shelley: Frankenstein (1818)Jane Austen: Northanger Abbey (1818)Charles Dickens: Great Expectations (1861)R. L. Stevenson: Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886)Dracula, doppelgnger
Sub-genresEpistolary novelin the form of letters, popular in the 18th c.Samuel Richardson: Pamela (1740) and ClarissaHarlowe (1747, 1748)Tobias Smollett: Humphrey Clinker (1771)
Sub-genresSentimental novel / novel of sentimentalitypopular in the 18th c., distresses of the virtuous Samuel Richardson: Pamela (1740)Oliver Goldsmith: The Vicar of Wakefield (1766)
Sentimentality in fictionLaurence Sterne: A Sentimental Journey (1768)
Sub-genresHistorical novela form of fictional narrative which reconstructs history imaginativelyWalter Scott: Waverly (1814)William Makepeace Thackeray: Vanity Fair (1847-48)Robert Graves: I, Claudius (1934)William Golding: Rites of Passage (1980)
Sub-genresDocumentary novelbased on documentary evidence in the shape of newspapee article, etc.Truman Capote: In Cold Blood (1966)Graham Greene: The Quiet America