10 late choson, nineteenth century

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<ol><li> 1. Korea in the Nineteenth Century Decline of Chosn: Domestic Unrest and External Threats </li><li> 2. Political realm: weak monarch/ powerful clans Sunjo (r. 1800-1834) Became a king at 11 Power in dowager queen =&gt; in-law government =&gt; Andong Kim clan Hnjong (r. 1834-1849) Became a king at 8 =&gt; power shift to Pungyang Cho clan (kings mother) Chljong (r. 1849-1864) Royal relations living on a farm Kanghwa Island Andong Kim clan =&gt; Cho clan made an alliance with Yi Hang, relative of royal family </li><li> 3. Kojong (r. 1864-1907) Yi Hangs second son became a king at 12 Kojong married Queen Min Yi Hang =&gt; Taewngun in power Social instability Social mobility Fallen yangabn: sell and buy the yangban title Improving position of chungin: amassing wealth The roster of government slaves were ordered burned in 1801. Fire-field people: famine-stricken people =&gt; abandon their villages wandering place to place =&gt; some migrated to Kando region </li><li> 4. Popular Uprising Hong Kyngnae Rebellion in 1811 He was a fallen yangban Followers: slaves, Confucian scholars, merchants, local clerks, peasants and mine workers Declaring that discrimination against the populace of Pyngyang province must end =&gt; 5000 people joined Seized Chngju (fortified town) and waited others to join but failed in 1812. The Chinju Uprising in 1862 Populace armed themselves with bamboo spears and rose under the leadership of a peasant of fallen yangban background =&gt; killed local government functionaries, set fire to government buildings =&gt; suppressed =&gt; tide of uprisings spread up and down the land =&gt; not national rising </li><li> 5. Eastern Learning (Tonghak) Founder: Choe Cheu (1824-1864) Began to be propounded in 1860 Nurtured people in farming land Doctrine included elements from Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism, Shamanism, Catholicism Unity of man with heaven (the supreme being) Equality of for all human beings Chanting of magical formulas Worship of mountain deities Not only religious movement but a social movement Called for reform of the corruption-ridden government Choe Cheu was arrested in 1863 and executed in 1864. </li><li> 6. Western Learning (Catholicism) introduced to Korea indirectly via written texts Diplomats to China met with western missionaries in 17th and 18th century Dismissive of Christianity =&gt; same as Buddhism Yi Snghun (1756-1801): baptized Korean in Beijing Small number of yangban converted =&gt; Southerners (namin) Spread by intellectuals, not by missionaries The government banned books about Christian writings. Hwang Sayng: Sent a letter to the French Catholic bishop in Beijing: the Pope to request that the Chinese emperor require the Korean king to grant the religious freedom The Catholic Persecution in 1801: 300 killed =&gt; mostly Southerners =&gt; purge the political opponents </li><li> 7. Western Learning (Catholicism) introduced to Korea indirectly via written texts Diplomats to China met with western missionaries in 17th and 18th century Dismissive of Christianity =&gt; same as Buddhism Yi Snghun (1756-1801): baptized Korean in Beijing Small number of yangban converted =&gt; Southerners (namin) Spread by intellectuals, not by missionaries The government banned books about Christian writings. Hwang Sayng: Sent a letter to the French Catholic bishop in Beijing: the Pope to request that the Chinese emperor require the Korean king to grant the religious freedom The Catholic Persecution in 1801: 300 killed =&gt; mostly Southerners =&gt; purge the political opponents </li><li> 8. Andong Kim Clan: the persecution of Catholics eased =&gt; three foreign priests came to Korean in 1830s Pungyang Cho Clan: three priests and 75 converts were executed Kim Taegn: the first Korean priest By 1864, 20,000 converted =&gt; the urban poor and women (in Seoul) Taewnguns Reform Policy From 1865 to 1873: served as King Kojongs regent Reform policy Strengthen the monarchy, weaken the factions and strong clans Enhance the revenue of the state Abolished most of sown (private school) Tax reform: grain loan system Household tax =&gt; replaced the military cloth tax =&gt; yangban also paid the tax Reconstruction of Kyngbok Palace: symbol of power of the monarchy Banned Christianity </li><li> 9. External Threats French disturbance in 1866 7 warships and 1000 men to attack Kanghwa Island =&gt; defeated US attack on Kanghwa Island 5 warships 1200 men =&gt; defeated resulted Seclusion Policy Treaty of Kanghwa in 1876 Unyo Incident in 1875: Japanese vessel Unyo was sent into the waters off Kanghwa =&gt; provoked Korean defenders =&gt; Japanese charged the Korean government Result was the Treaty of Kanghwa First modern treaty Unequal treaty </li><li> 10. 12 articles: opening the ports, declaration of Korean independence (open the way for Japanese aggression without Chinese interference), establishment of Japanese settlements in the ports, Japanese residents would be subject to Japanese law Japanese advancement in political, economic and military on Asian continent Korea open the country Facing twofold task: modernization and preserving national independence Dispatched special envoys to Japan Japanese legation in Seoul in 1880 </li></ol>

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