1 tillage amp_land_preparation

Download 1 tillage amp_land_preparation

Post on 15-Jul-2015

61 views

Category:

Education

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • TILLAGE & LAND

    PREPARATION

    En Mohd Fauzie Jusoh

    Lecturer

    Agriculture Technology Programme

    Faculty of Agro-Based Industry

    Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (Jeli Campus)

    Locked Bag No.100, 17600 Jeli, Kelantan.

    014-2903025/fauzie.j@umk.edu.my/

  • INTRODUCTION

    Farm mechanization involves the use of equipment

    mounted to the tractor to accomplish tasks previously

    done by man or animals.

    Plowing equipment attached to tractors and used

    for land preparation.

    Proper soil preparation is required for the growth of

    seeds.

  • INTRODUCTION

    Task can be done including :

    Land clearing

    Tillage and seedbed preparation

    Fertilizer application

    Broadcasting or drilling of seeds

    Transplanting

    Pest and disease control

    Weed control

    Harvesting

    In-field transport of the harvested crop

  • INTRODUCTION

    Advantage of using tillage equipment :

    Various types of farm work can be done

    Better quality of job can be obtained

    Various type of farm soil can be cultivated

    Working time can be reduced

    Working schedule at farm can be arranged and smoothly

    done

  • TILLAGE

    Defined as mechanical modification of soil structure

    resulting in a soil tilth that is suitable for seed

    germination and plant growth.

    Objective :

    Provide a suitable environment for seed germination

    Root growth, soil aeration, soil compaction

    Weed control / Destroy Weed

    Control Insect & Pest

    Bury Stubbles (remain of previous harvest)

    Moisture control

    Soil erosion control

  • TILLAGE

    Tillage machinery : Tools or implements used to do a

    tillage job

  • SEEDBED

    place where seeds germinate & nourish young

    plants

    must be firm to allow seed to come in contact with

    soil particles to absorb moisture

    must be pourous to allow air to move, root

    development, water movement

    water will not easily penetrate hard soil to get to

    roots

  • SEEDBED CHARACTERISTICS if soil is too loose, rain will wash away young plants

    some soils have excess water

    oxygen is needed by roots

    plant residue on surface insulates, warms up

    slower, also provides buffer against wind

  • CULTIVATION

    Defined as an operation that requires some kind of

    tool that will stir surface of the soil to a shallow depth

    in such a manner that young weeds will be destroyed

    and crop growth is promoted.

    Usually begins soon after the emergence of young

    seedlings as weeds generally emerge about the same

    time as the crop

  • TILLAGE CLASSIFICATION

    Primary Tillage

    Tillage applied to break

    the compaction soil into soil

    clods.

    Secondary Tillage

    Tillage applied to reduce the size of

    soil aggregates and to level

    the soil surface after done with

    primary tillage

  • PRIMARY TILLAGE

    More aggressive, deeper operation and usually leaves

    the surface rough

    Function :

    Loosen the soil structure

    Bury the plant waste

    Erosion control

    Preparation for secondary tillage

    Weed control

    Kill pests

  • PRIMARY TILLAGE

    Example of primary implements :

    Moldboard Disc plough Rotary Tiller

    Chisel plough Subsoiler or cultivator

  • SECONDARY TILLAGE

    Works the soil to shallow depth

    Function :

    Break the soil clods

    Shatters the soil clods

    Level the soil surface

    Harrow the soil and plant waste (stubbles)

    Firm the soil

    Kill weeds and helps conserve moisture

  • SECONDARY TILLAGE

    Example of secondary implements :

    Disc, spring tooth and spike tooth harrow

  • SECONDARY TILLAGE

    Example of secondary implements :

    Spring and rigid tined cultivators

  • SECONDARY TILLAGE

    Example of secondary implements :

    Roller pocket and roller harrows

  • SECONDARY TILLAGE

    Example of secondary implements :

    Weed control implement

  • CLASSIFICATION OF TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS

    Mounted implements

    Attached to the tractor by 3 point hitch linkages

    Implements can be raised or lowered by the

    hydraulic system

    Example : A mounted 3 disc plough

  • CLASSIFICATION OF TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS

    Semi-mounted implements

    Attached to the tractor 2 point or 3 point linkage

    and these implements are normally provided

    with wheels to help in better performance of the

    machine

    Example : A seed drill implement can be raised or lowered

  • CLASSIFICATION OF TILLAGE IMPLEMENTS

    Trailed implements

    Attached to the tractors drawbar and this cannot be raised or lowered

    Implement trailed the tractor as it moves

    Implement are heavy and usually provided with

    wheels for easy hitching to the back of tractor

    and better stability

    Example : Trailed moldboard plough and trailer

  • DISC PLOW, ROTOVATOR, HARROW AND

    RIDGERS.

  • PLOW

    One of the oldest agriculture equipment and is

    generally considered to be the most important

    tillage tool

    It is used to cut, turn up and break up soil while

    turning over weeds

  • MOLDBOARD PLOW

    Mostly used for primary tillage in seedbed

    preparation

    One way plow

    Design to turn the furrow slices only to the right

  • MOLDBOARD PLOW

    Two way plow

    Has two sets of opposed bottoms that can be used

    selectively

  • MOLDBOARD PLOW

    All furrows can be turned toward the same side

    of the field by using right hand bottoms for one

    direction of travel and the left hand bottom on

    the return

    Used for plowing irrigated lands since it

    eliminated back furrows and dead furrows and

    leaves the field nearly level

  • DISC PLOW

    Disc plow was brought out in an effort to reduce

    friction by making a rolling bottom instead of a

    bottom that would slide along the furrow

    Consists of a series of individually mounted,

    inclined disc blades on a frame supported by

    wheels

  • DISC PLOW

    Used when moldboard plow does not work

    satisfactorily :

    Hard disc soils

    Stony fields

    Soils containing heavy roots

    Loose, push type soils and abrasive soil

    Built with heavy frame and wheels; in a hard dry soil, a

    disc plow can be forced into ground by its weight

  • ROTOVATOR

    A semi mounted implement that rests on its own

    land skids when at work

    PTO drives a horizontal rotor in the same

    direction as the drive wheels

    Knives mounted to flanges spaced regularly

    along the rotor will cut away soil slices which are

    then thrown backward and upward against a

    rear hood

    The impact will cause the soil slices to

    disintegrate into fine aggregates

  • ROTOVATOR

    The rotovator does not require the tractor to pull

    it forward when it is at work

    The action of the rotovator is very severe and it

    should not be used indiscriminately especially in

    sand soil it may lead to the loss of soil structure

  • ROTOVATOR

  • DISC HARROW

    Function :

    Controlling weeds, cutting up and mixing stubble

    or heavy crops with soil

    For primary tillage in orchards and vineyards as

    well as in open fields

    Lighter units used in seedbed preparation

    subsequent to plowing

  • DISC HARROW

    Single Acting Disc Harrow

    Has two opposed gangs of disc blades, both

    throwing dirt outward from the center of tilled

    strip

  • DISC HARROW

    Tandem Disk Harrow

    Has two additional gangs that throw the dirt

    back toward the center as second operation, thus

    tilling the soil twice and leaving the field more

    level

  • DISC HARROW

    Offset Disc Harrow

    Has one right hand gang (i.e: a gang that moves

    the soil to the right) and one left hang gang,

    operating in tandem

  • CULTIVATOR

    There are many different combinations of frames

    and tines (shovels)

    The common types are the standard rigid

    cultivators (with or without spring), light or

    heavy spring teeth and heavy coil spring

    Cultivator with tooth equipment is used for weed

    controls, seedbed preparation and other

    secondary tillage operations

  • CULTIVATOR

  • CULTIVATOR

    Spike Tooth Harrow

    Used for finishing the seedbed by smoothing it

    and breaking surface clods, particularly in

    mellow, friable soil

    Effective in killing small weeds

    Covering broadcasted seeds

    Breaking crusts that have formed over newly

    planted crops

  • SPIKE TOOTH HARROW

  • CULTIVATOR

    Spring Tooth Harrow

    Has long curved teeth made from spring steel 6 -

    8 mm thick and usually 19 25 mm wide

    Used in rough or stony ground

    Useful for loosening and bringing roots of certain

    obnoxious grasses and weeds to surface

    For bringing clods to surface for pulverization

  • SPRING TOOTH HARROW

  • CULTIVATOR

    Ridgers

    Comes under