1 Lecture 25: Byzantium and Western Monasticism 2 December 2014

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> 1 Lecture 25: Byzantium and Western Monasticism 2 December 2014 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> 2 Outline History of Fifth Century and Barbarian Invasions Justinian the Great The Conversion of the Franks Roman Monasticism and Benedict Irish Monasticism Meeting of Irish and Roman Monasticism </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> 3 Roman-Barbarian Relationships Because it is over-extended, Roman military tries to enlist barbarian tribes into defense of frontier along Danube, Rhine, and in England Barbarians get trade Romans get security Two problems with arrangement Barbarians come peacefully into Roman territory during times of famine or when pushed by other tribes (e.g. Huns) Romans increasingly think of tribes as auxiliary troops and try to move them around Empire, especially to fight Persians in 4 th C </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> 4 Battle of Adrianople Recall Battle of Adrianople 378, Eastern Roman Emperor Valens locked in battle with Persians, tries to commandeer Gothic border troops to move to Persia Huns are pushing Goths out of their territory along Danube Goths enter Macedonia, in force Valens brings his army from Persia to push Goths back across Danube Goths destroy roman Army and kill Emperor Valens; sets stage for Theodosius the Great to take over Also sets stage for sack of Rome in 410 Confidence of Roman military shattered </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> 5 Key Historical Events 5 th Century Increasingly West was under pressure from northern tribes (Goths, Visigoths, Vandals) who in turn under pressure from Huns Some of those Goths led by Alaric sacked Rome in 410 Sack of Rome caused Christian theologians to rethink the initial triumphal historical view of Constantine: Augustine The City of God Augustine dies in 430 as Hippo is besieged by Vandals Only center of power in Empire is Constantinople Attila the Hun reaches Rome in 452, persuaded by Pope St. Leo the Great not to sack Rome Last Roman emperor in West abdicated in 476 </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> 6 5 th Century Invasions http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/firsteuro/imgs/map24.html </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> 7 Eastern Reaction to Barbarian Invasions: Justinian the Great (482-565) Justinian manages to reconquer most of Western Mediterranean from Vandals, Visigoths and Ostrogoths Reworked Roman Law; basis for law in East until Fall of Constantinople, 1453 Rebuilt Ravenna as capital of Western Empire Boethius (480-524) Consolation of Philosophy Justinian considered a saint in East Called Constantinople II to try and encourage Egyptian monophysites to return to Orthodoxy Origen and Theodore of Mopuestia condemned http://employees.oneonta.edu/farberas/arth/arth212/sa n_vitale.htm l </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> 8 Importance of Hagia Sophia The Mother Church of Orthodox Christians Original built by Constantine Rebuilt by Justinian after an earthquake in 537 Conquered by Turks in 1453, converted to a mosque; mosaics covered over Changed to a museum by Ataturk in 1935, mosaics start to be uncovered </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> 9 http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/firsteuro/imgs/map24.html </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> 10 Eastern Monasticism: Early 4 th C Desert Monks (from Greek for solitary), primarily in Egypt: anchorites withdrawn from society Most famous: Anthony (251-356), Athanasius (Bishop of Alexandria, opposed Arius) wrote a very influential life of Anthony, example: Augustine Confessions Book VIII Communal monasticism: cenobitic Many attracted to this way of life, come together in groups Rule of St. Pachomius (286 346) Pachomius sister, Mary, establishes an Egyptian monastery for women </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> 11 Early 5 th C Western Monastic Developments: John Cassian (360-435) Born in France, spent time as an anchorite in Egypt Brought Pachomius Rule back with him Made it available in West in his Divine Institutes and Conferences Wrote against Augustine in the Pelagian controversy Considered a semi-Pelagian Revered as a saint in the East, but not the West </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> 12 Whats a Rule Prescribes the way of life for the community Includes what prayers are said when Defines balance between work, study, prayer Community organization (abbot, monks, novices) and how leaders are selected Process for acceptance into community How new communities are created Relation between community and diocese </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> 13 St. Benedict of Nursia (480-547) Predominately influenced by Pachomius via John Cassian Lived during the attempted reconquest of Western Roman Empire by Justinian the Great Established an order of Monks, now known as Benedictines, governed by his Rule Founded a monastery outside of Rome, Monte Casino Sister, Scholastica, founded an order of nuns to follow the Rule Most popular religious order in West until 13 th C (Dominicans and Franciscans) </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> 14 Benedicts Rule God brings good works to perfection, not our efforts Focus on Scripture, especially Psalms A school for the Lords service Jacobs ladder and steps of humility leading to perfect love of God Rules for abbot; how abbot is chosen Other positions in monastery Cycle of work and prayer Discipline Reception of guests </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> 15 Roman-English Frontier and Early English Christianity Julius Caesar first to send expedition to England in 55 BC Roman influence in southern Britain, not in Scotland; Hadrians Wall built 122 AD Recall that Constantine the Great was born in England Roman troops brought Christianity with them in 4 th C Native English (Picts, Angles, Scots) population never converted After Fall of Rome in 410, Roman troops leave England </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> 16 Development of Early Irish Christianity Recall that Pelagius was from England In fact, most of English hierarchy supported Pelagius Pope Celestine (same pope who sided with Cyril over Nestorius) in 430 sent a new bishop to England and one to Ireland, Palladius Palladius is from Gaul Charged with destroying Pelagianism in England and proselytizing Ireland Palladius mission was not successful </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> 17 St. Patrick (387-493) Born on Roman-Scottish frontier to prominent Gallic French Roman family Captured by Irish marauders in 406; spends 6 years as a slave in Ireland During this time he has a conversion experience Escapes and returns to family in England Goes to Gaul for training in priesthood Returns to England as part of group headed by St. Germain sent by Pope Celestine after Palladius Patrick begs to be sent as a missionary to Ireland in 433 Has difficulty with Pelagian bishops in England Established many Christian communities in Ireland, monasteries and convents St. Brigit Latin as school language in Ireland Wrote numerous prayers, letters, Confession Died 493 </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> 18 Patricks Confessions Story of sin, capture, conversion, return Studies for priesthood in France, not England Importance of Scripture; told in Scripture Suspicious of rhetoric Role of dreams At odds with English clergy </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> 19 Irish Christianity Bishops in Ireland and England did not become civil administrators after Romans Never were Roman administrators in Ireland Native pagan tribes took over in England; Romans in England were occupiers, not colonizers English (Pelagian) Christianity seems to have disappeared with Roman authorities during the 5 th C Ireland not affected by barbarian invasions until Vikings in 800 Irish communities developed around monasteries with bishop/abbot as leader Developed Christian customs for 150 years nearly completely isolated from Rome Different calculation for Easter Discipline (penance, private confession) Organization: abbots rather than bishops Strong missionary spirit, founded most important Irish monastery at Iona in Scotland led by St. Columba in 563 Monks from Iona evangelize Europe from 7 th through the 8 th C In later 6 th and early 7 th C: St. Columbanus heads a mission to Italy??!! </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> 20 </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> 21 Late 6 th and 7 th Century Parallel Missionary Activities in Western Europe Parallel, independent missionary activities from Rome going Northwest and Ireland (Iona) going Southeast Irish monks in 6 th and 7 th Century go to France, Germany, Holland to preach Christianity; follow Rhine to Southern Germany then across Alps into northern Italy St. Columban(us) travels extensively through Europe establishing Irish style monasteries, including one in Bobbio, Northern Italy (d. 615) His biography is written by a monk in Irish monastery in northern Italy Meanwhile, missionaries from Rome are also trying to convert Arian and Pagan Germanic tribes in what is now France Conversion of Chlodwech (Clovis) 496 Pope St. Gregory the Great sends Augustine to England 597 Pope Honorius I (625), a Benedictine, grants Monastery at Bobbio exemption from oversight by local bishop Irish refer to Pope as the Abbot of Rome Differences between Irish and Roman Churches resolved at Synod of Whitby, 664, in favor or Roman customs </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> 22 European Debt Owed to Monasteries Both Irish and Western Mediterranean monasteries preserved literacy for Europe Copying Scripture key work of monks Preserving works of Fathers important tasks Preserving Latin and Greek philosophy Replaced schools as places of learning Missionary zeal flowed out from monasteries Democratic institutions Preserved and developed art Oasis from turmoil of political and social disruption (dark ages) associated with fall of Roman Empire in West </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> 23 Pope St. Gregory Great (546-604) Established a monastery in Rome that followed Benedicts Rule Wrote a life of Benedict; only source of information on Benedict and Scholastica (according to Gregory both smarter and greater in love than her brother) Reformed Roman clergy around monastic model Sent Augustine of Canterbury to England Earliest extant life of Gregory written by a nun in Whitby, 8 th C </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> 24 Introduction to Pastoral Rule Issues with clergy in West during time of Gregory Great: crass Money and power were in Church Tax and military benefits for clergy Issues with clergy: intellectual Church controlled education Church (monasteries) places of quiet refuge </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> 25 Pastoral Rule, Government of Souls: the Art of Arts First published as a short work in 593; also translated into Greek Key theme: Pastor must meet his people where they are (condescension) and draw them up toward salvation To do this, the Pastor must be a man of personal wisdom and spirituality Pastor is a doctor of souls Model for entire church is relation between abbot and monks Division of Pastoral Rule Part I Who should (and should not) be pastors Part II How Pastors should lead their lives Part III Teaching and Preaching Part IV Greatest temptation for Pastors: pride </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> 26 Pastoral Rule Part I Pastors must live the life they preach Distinction between studying and learning something academically and being able to live it Pastor must follow example of Christ in humility; be careful not to be like Saul and David A man endowed with great gifts should not decline becoming a pastor; in so doing he also deprives himself of the advantage of his gifts Man with ability to rule should not be content to hide in monastery </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> 27 Pastoral Rule Part II Life of pastor set apart from flock Symbolism of priests vestments Pastor should transfer to himself the infirmities of others even as his contemplation leads him to God Example of Pauls condescending love to those who are married Moses gong in and out of tabernacle Humility of pastors: joy should not be in ruling over men, but in helping them to salvation Pastor must continue to develop his own inner life, even as he is occupied with external affairs Vices can sometimes masquerade as virtues Pastors must study Scripture every day to renew their heart </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> 28 Pastoral Rule Part III Pastor must distinguish among his listeners must touch the hearts of his hearers by using one and the same doctrine, but not by giving to all one and the same exhortation Series of admonishments; longest part of Rule </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> 29 Pastoral Rule Part IV While restoring others to health, the pastor must not neglect his own health Greatest problem for pastor is pride Pastor must not be secure in his self- confidence The pastor must not be deceived by success when the wealth of virtues flatters us, the eye of the soul should turn its gaze on its infirmities </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> 30 Gregorian Liturgical Reforms Distinctive Roman liturgical practices started in 5 th C with Popes Leo and Gelasius But practices were local depending on bishop Gregory collected and ordered various liturgical prayers and hymns Gregorian Sacramentary Gregorian Antiphonary Gregorys Roman Sacramentary quickly became standard throughout Europe in Roman Catholic Church Gregorian Chant became the standard music of Roman Catholic Church Emphasis on Mass as sacrifice </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> 31 Gregory as a Man of Antiquity and Middle Ages Antiquity Education, social status in Rome Time in Constantinople; impact of Gregory Nazianzus Letters with Eastern Rulers (spiritual and civil) Sadness over destruction of Western Empire and continued distancing from East Epitaph of Gods Counsel Medieval Combination of Eastern and Irish monasticism Missionary activities in Europe Recognized that future of West was with barbarians Importance of Church hierarchy Latin Liturgical Reform Set the course for future of Catholicism in Europe Gave Europe a structure for unified religious practice and moral perspective that would be needed to withstand the coming invasion from the South: Islam </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> 32 Timeline </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> 33 Assignments Gregory the Great FC Vol. 39 Dialogs FC Vol. 39 Translated Odo Zimmermann. Washington: Catholic University, 1959, (from Second Dialog: Life of Benedict) pp 102-110. Also available at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/g1-benedict1.asp http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/g1-benedict1.asp Gregory Great, Letter 64 (Book XI), in Letters of Gregory the Great., available at http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/360211064.htmhttp://www.newadvent.org/fathers/360211064.htm De Vogue Eucharist and the Monastic Life CCC 1174-1178 </li> </ul>