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  • *Greek

    1500 146 BCE

  • Chronology ofGreek History

    Minoan Civilization- 2000-1500 BCE The earliest known prehistoric civilizations occupy the Aegean world. This culture is apparently more female-oriented and peaceful than others at the time.

    Mycenaean Civilization- 1500-1200 BCE Bronze weapons, war-scenes on art, Cyclopean defense walls, and the fact that male warriors were buried with their weapons provide evidence for the claim that the Mycenaeans were militaristic. The horse-drawn chariot emerges around this time.

    Dorian Civilization 1250 800 BCE Dark Ages (1100): characterized by the disappearance of writing and a decline in architecture and other aspects of material culture. Homers Iliad and Odyssey were suggested to be written at this time.

    Archaic Period 800 (600)-480 BCE The pre-classical: growth of the city-states, building of the Temple of Hera.

    High Classical Period - 480-400 BCESocrates teaching in Athens, victory of the alliance of Athens and Sparta over the Persian Empire, building of the Agora and the Parthenon. This period is considered the High Classical, or the Golden Age.

    Fourth Century - 400-323 BCEDefeat of Athens by Sparta, Plato establishes the Academy, the sanctuary at Delphi and the building of the Tomb of Mausolus in Asia Minor.

    Hellenistic Period - 323 to the end of the 1st century BCEDeath of Alexander and the breakup of his empire, Roman domination, the theatre at Epidauros, and the monumental sculpture of Pergamon.

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    Minoan Culture: 1700-1300 BCE Palace of Knossos, Crete (Artist Interpretation)Post-and-Lintel

    Mud-Brick

    Dressed Stone: Finished or cut stone

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    Mycenaean Culture: 1500-1200 BCE Lioness GateOn the mainland immortalized by Homer in the Iliad and Odyssey

    Warlike strength and primitive power unlike the plays about them 700 years laterPrimitive Ritual in Polished Greek Drama

    Megaliths: giant stones Cyclopean Construction

    Stone Lintels

    Corbel Arch

  • Mycenaean Culture: 1500-1200 BCE Megaron Audience HallCellaCella: Chamber (housing of God Statuary)Pronaos: VestibulePortico: PorchPronaosPortico

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    The Treasury of Athens, Mycenae - Tomb (c. 1300-1200 BCE)Domed Vault - Single Keystone CompletionCorbeled Arch Dimensions: 18 Door, Dome: 47 d., 43 h.

    Largest Interior space until the Pantheon

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    The Early Greeks The Dark Ages Dorian (c. 1100-900 BCE)A period of cultural darkness descended over the region, with the disappearance of written language and an absence of artistic output in any form.Helladic Language (c. 900 BCE)The Greek peoples developed a distinctive form of government called the polis, or city-state citizens shared in decision-making and possessed individual rightsThe big shift from Ancient HUMAN SCALE. Ancients strove for magnitude and permanence (eternity). Greeks celebrated the exploration of human possibilities and experimented in order to continually improve.

  • *GreekArchitecture

  • *Doric Order: Oldest and plainest. Squat and heavy (5.5 to 1 ratio)

    Preferred style of Greek Mainland and Western Colonies.

    Simple, rigid and controlled (geometric)Art is a tool of religion and state

  • *All types of columns have a shaft and a capital; some have a base.

    Columns are formed of cylindrical sections of stones (drums) joined together inside with metal pegs.

    The shaft is most often articulated with shallow flutes (concave vertical indentations).

    The capital consists of a flared and rounded section and a rectangular pad, upon which rests the entablature.

  • *Ionic Order: more elegant proportions: height of the column shaft is about nine times its diameter.

    Ionic capital is carved in a distinctive scrolled volute.

  • *Ionic Order: Separation between columns is often wider than Doric. The fluting is deeper and closer together, with a flat space separating each flute called the fillet. Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens (c. 425 BCE)

  • *Corinthian Order: Late Classical. Often found in interior Greek architecture.

    Imitation of the slenderness of a maiden.

  • *Corinthian Order : The capital is the most elaborate of the three, adorned with stylized acanthus leaves carved in high relief.Temple of Zeus, Acropolis, Athens (c. 170 BCE)

  • *Pediment: A triangular gable across a portico.Metope: Space between two triglyphs.Triglyph: The grooved projecting blocks between the metopes.Frieze: The middle section of the Classic entablature; Decorative Band.

  • *Peristlye: Perimeter ColumnsThe Archaic Period, 800 (600)-480 BCE : Plan of a Typical Greek TempleThe time of growth of the city-states.

  • *The High Classical Period - 480-400 BCEThe time of extraordinary flowering of artistic and intellectual activity .

    Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens (c. 447-438 BCE)

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    Golden Age (High Classical)

    Balancing:Formal and NaturalMind and matterMan and stateSocial and Political Development

    Philosophers

    Socrates, Plato and Aristotle pondered the nature of the universe

    Playwrights

    Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides wrote plays dealing with the nature of humankindGreek culture was spread by Alexander the Great of Macedonia (356-323 BC)

  • *The Theatre of Dionysus, Athens (c. 350 BCE)Amphitheatre Orchestra Skene Paraskenia Proskenium Eccyclema

  • *The Theatre of Dionysus, Athens Proscenium DecorationPorch of Maidens, Acropolis, Athens

    Caryatids: Female Sculptures

  • *GreekFurniture

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  • *FUNCTIONAL POTTERY DESIGN

    The krater had a wide mouth to facilitate mixing wine and water, the staple Greek beverage. The kylix was a two-handled drinking cup. The hydria, for carrying water, had two horizontal handles for lifting; a third handle, not visible here, made pouring easy. The pitcher-shaped oinochoe was the standard wine jug. The amphora was a large urn for storing supplies. Such vases established the Mediterranean supremacy of Athenian potters.

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    Athens

    Simple and DisciplinedZestful, exciting, fun-loving, and even frivolousChildren led a carefree life of play, amusement and sportGirls at homeBoys to schoolMarketplace is center of activityBanquets for the ordinary TO reclining on couchesPost-banquet performance and drinking

    Fabric and Cloth

    Most of fabric was wool or linen, some imported silk (Far East) and cotton (Egypt)The wool could be a thin gauze or thick feltFabric was most likely woven to the correct size and not cutIn reality fabric was died with plants, minerals, and even shellfishFabric was embellished with embroidery

  • *GreekCostume

  • *Minoans and Myceneans

    Women: tightly fitted bodices, sometimes with breasts exposed, and tiered skirts.

    Men: skirt-like garment wrapped tightly around the body, with torso exposed.

  • *The Archaic Period, 800 (600)-480 BCE :

    Humanistic glories of classical naturalismAristocratic control (limited democracy)Relaxed, free-standing and balls of the feetRelationship of religion and art declinesStorytelling becomes dramatic reality of human beings

    Women:

    Were not equal to menWere not allowed in public unveiledMarriages were arrangedMarried women remained covered until 400 B.C.Courtesans were often more educated and could move about freely

  • *Greeks Dont Wear Togas!

  • *Vocabulary

  • *Doric Chiton: Women wore the chiton fairly closely wrapped on the body, with a pin at each shoulder. Kolpos: Bloused Section

  • *Doric Chiton: This is pictured as a patterned garment, probably of wool, and is called the Doric Peplos (skirt).

    Variations in the placement of pins and belting developed into different styles of chiton that are closely related to the changing aesthetic in the development of Greek art and architecture.

  • Ionic Chiton (390-380 BCE): Both men and women wore this version. It was fuller, of a lighter weight wool or pleated linen, with a sleeve created by pinning the opening closed from shoulder to elbow. Women wore it long, and men both short and long. Figure of sea nymph from the Nereid Monument, Xanthos

  • *Ionic Chiton:

    This drawing shows the amount of fullness being controlled by the girdle and forming the sleeves. In this instance there is no Kolpos formed from excess length.

    *More sophisticated garment and often appears both more sheer and fuller than the Doric Peplos.

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  • *Chiton worn Exomis:(1 shoulder chiton) Worn by: athletes, children, slaves and workers

  • Himation: body enveloping blanket for men and women.Cloaks and shawls, both decorative and utilitarian, could be layered over the chiton. Plato, not one to shrink from making definitive arguments, stated that it was absolutely necessary that a man should know how to throw his Himation from left to right as a gentleman should, and that a gentleman should never extend his arm outside his Himation.

  • *Himation: A favored garment of politicians and intellectuals/scholars.

  • *Statue of Dionysus wearing an ivy wreath. (350-325 BCE)

    While most classical images of Dionysus showed him as youthful and slightly effeminate, this bearded version looks back to Archaic representations of God.

  • Chlamys: CapePetasos: Straw HatGreeks had mastered the art of dying, using plant material such as saffron and to obtain yellows, and extracting a purple pigment from a certain form of seashell.

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  • *Hairstyles for men chan

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