1. geoinformatics

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  • INTRODUCTION TO GEOINFORMATICS

  • Contents What is Geo-informatics?

    Its fundamental aims

    Main tasks of it

    Branches of Geo-informatics

  • What is Geoinformatics / Geomatics Technology Geoinformatics is the science and the technology which develops and uses

    information science infrastructure to address the problems of geosciences andrelated branches of engineering

    It encompasses a collection of special techniques, technologies, and tools forthe acquisition, processing, management, analysis, and presentation ofgeospatial data

    Geoinformatics is based on a range of synergetic activities including geospatialmodeling, geospatial analysis, geospatial databases, geospatial technologies,information systems, systems design, spatial cognition, human-computerinteraction, mobile computing, wired and wireless network technologies

  • Fundamental Aims of Geoinformatics Make maps

    Basic school atlases Study urban sprawl Archaeological data

    - Study patterns of cultural and economic exchanges Enable navigation

    - Car based navigation systems, military navigation Enable the humans to make decisions

    - Buying your house, best picnic spot etc.Enable urban management and development HA

    - Design of roads, bridges, communication and power networks- Waste disposal - Disaster Management

    Data understanding and analysis SU Data visualization systems and algorithms

  • Main Tasks of GeoinformaticsThe main tasks are:

    Extract information and generate the data base relating to these parameters

    To forecast situations arising out of change in parameters

    To reach to centralized strategy and management plan at regional level

    Development & management of databases of geodata

    Analysis & management of geodata

  • Branches of GeoinformaticsFollowing are the branches of it:

    Photogrammetry

    Surveying

    Cartography

    Remote Sensing

    Global Positioning Systems (GPS)

    Geographic Information System (GIS)

  • Photogrammetry Photos lightGramma to drawMetron to measure

    Photogrammetry is defined as the science of obtaining reliable measurements,by the use of photographs, in order to determine characteristics such as size,shape and position of photographed objects

    The art, science and technology of obtaining reliable spatial information aboutphysical objects and the environment through the processes of recording,measuring and interpreting image data

  • Types of PhotogrammetryAerial photography is the taking of photographs of the ground from an elevated position. The term usually refers to images in which the camera is not supported by a ground-based structure

    Close-range Photogrammetry the camera is close to the subject and is typically hand held or on a tripod

  • Terrestrial using photographs taken on the ground with the camera usually pointing in a horizontal direction

    Industrial & Scientific an adaptation of terrestrial techniques to small distances, the camera set at any suitable angle

  • Surveying Oldest branch of geoinformatics

    Pioneered by Egyptians

    EquipmentOld (Tapes, Chains, Sextants, Tacheometer)New (Theodolite, Auto Levels, Total Stations)

    Old New

  • Photogrammetric SurveyingMainly of two types:

    1. Aerial

    2. Terrestrial

    Aerial: With the use of a camera positioned in an airplane

    Terrestrial (on ground): Reconnaissance, triangulation and camera work

  • Cartography The science and art of making maps

    It is the design and production of maps, or visual representations of spatial data

    The vast majority of modern cartography is done with the help of computers, usually using GIS but production of quality cartography is also achieved by importing layers into a design program to refine it. Most GIS software gives the user substantial control over the appearance of the data

    Cartographic work serves two major functions:

    First, it produces graphics on the screen or on paper that convey the results of analysis to the people who make decisions about resources. Wall maps and other graphics can be generated, allowing the viewer to visualize and thereby understand the results of analyses or simulations of potential events

    Second, other database information can be generated for further analysis or use. An example would be a list of all addresses within one mile (1.6 km) of a toxic spill

  • Remote Sensing Remote sensing is a method of obtaining information about the properties of

    an object without coming into physical contact with it

    Most popular remote sensing device: eyes

    Satellite remote sensing

    Aerial remote sensing

    Laser remote sensing

  • Global Positioning System (GPS)The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based Navigation system

    developed and operated by the US Department of Defense

    GPS is the shortened form of NAVSTAR GPS. This is an acronym for NAVigationSystem with Time And Ranging Global Positioning System

    GPS uses constellation of 24 satellites to determine the accurate three-dimensional position of the user on the earth

  • Segments of GPS

    Space SegmentGPS Satellite constellation composed of 24operational satellites in spaceControl SegmentThe control segment comprises of 5 ground stationslocated on equator. This information is sent back tothe satellites using ground antennasUser SegmentThe User Segment consists of all earth-based GPSreceivers. The user segment is totally usercommunity, both civilian and military

  • Geographic Information System (GIS) A system for capturing, storing, checking, integrating, manipulating, analyzing anddisplaying data which are spatially referenced to the Earth. This is normally considered toinvolve a spatially referenced computer database and appropriate applications software

    Thus GIS is a set of tools for

    Collecting

    Storing

    Manipulating

    Retrieving

    Transforming and

    Display of Spatial Data from the Real World

  • ConclusionGeonformatics has at its core the technologies supporting the processes of

    acquiring, analyzing and visualizing spatial data

    It combines geospatial analysis and modeling, development of geospatialdatabases, information systems design, human-computer interaction and bothwired and wireless networking technologies

    Geoinformatics uses Geocomputation and Geovisualization for analyzingGeoinformation