09 baroque

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    Baroque

    Striving to Impress

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    Baroque: Definition

    A period of history

    A description of artistic/musicalstyle after the Renaissance

    Originally a derogatory term

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    Causes and Origins

    Counter reformation movement

    (glory of the church) Rulers wanted a style signifying glory

    Artists desire to be more expressive Originated in Italy

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    Characteristics

    How does Baroque compare with the

    Renaissance? Unique contributions

    Emotion/Religious fervor/RealismDramatic (light and shade/perspective)

    Exploration of form (elaborateness,exaggeration) but all in control

    Virtuosity

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    Architecture and Sculpture

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    Architecture Style

    Versailles

    Landscaping

    Hall of Mirrors

    Extravagance

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    Architecture Style

    St. Peters Square (Bernini)

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    Gian Lorenzo Bernini

    Baldacchino(Altar

    covering in St. Peters)

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    Bernini

    Ecstasy ofSt. Theresa

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    Reading 76From Saint Teresas Visions

    It pleased the Lord that I should sometimes see the following vision. Iwould see beside me, on my left hand, an angel in bodily forma type ofvision which I am not in the habit of seeing, except very rarely. Though Ioften see representations of angels, my visions of them are of the typewhich I first mentioned. It pleased the Lord that I should see this angel in

    the following way. He was not tall, but short, and very beautiful, his faceaflame that he appeared to be one of the highest types of angel who seemto be all afire. They must be those who are called cherubim: they do not tellme their names but I am well aware that there is a great difference betweencertain angels and others, and between these and others still, of a kind thatI could not possibly explain. In his hands I saw a long golden spear and at

    the end of the iron tip I seemed to see a point of fire. With this he seemedto pierce my heart several times so that it penetrated to my entrails. Whenhe drew it out, I thought he was drawing them out with it and he left mecompletely afire with a great love for God. The pain was so sharp that itmade me utter several moans; and so excessive was the sweetness causedme by this intense pain that one can never wish to lose it, nor will ones soul

    be content with anything less than God. It is not bodily pain, but spiritual,though the body has a share in it indeed, a great share. So sweet are thecolloquies of love which pass between the soul and God that if anyone thinksI am lying I beseech God, in His goodness, to give him the same experience.

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    Bernini

    David

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    "Bernini criticized Michelangelo for failingto make his figures appear as if made of

    flesh, and bragged that stone was 'likepasta' in his handsthat he could fashionmarble like wax. And indeed he could.His genius for manipulating the act ofperceptionby altering perspective, or

    highlighting certain details in a rendering,or using materials and techniques to blurthe lines between sculpture and painting

    allowed Bernini to achieve new levels ofauthenticity in bringing a scene to life."

    Isacoff, Stuart, Temperament, Vintage Books, 2001, p. 23.

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    Bernini

    Apollo and

    Daphne

    Pluto andPersephone

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    Caravaggio(Michelangelo Merisi)

    The Calling of

    Saint Matthew Chiaroscuro

    Realism

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    Caravaggio

    TheMartyrdom ofSaint Matthew

    Emotion

    Perspective

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    Caravaggio

    David with thehead of Goliath

    Emotion/realism Perspective

    (foreshortening)

    Light/darkness

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    Caravaggio: The Supper at Emmaus

    Perspective Realism

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    Artemesia Gentileschi

    Judith andHolofornes

    Emotion

    Realism

    Perspective

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    El Greco

    The Burial of

    Count OrgazReligious fervor

    Virtuosity (color)

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    Diego

    Velazquez

    Las Meninas(Maids of Honor) Perspective

    Virtuosity (detail) The art of

    creating art

    (similar to theview of literaturemaking literaturein Don Quixote)

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    Velazquez: The Surrender of

    Breda (Las Lances) Perspective

    Virtuosity

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    Peter Paul Rubens

    Henri IVReceiving the

    Portrait ofMarie DeMedici

    Rape of the

    Daughters ofLeucippus

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    Anthony Van DykeCharles I onHorseback

    Charles I: King ofEngland at the Hunt

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    Rembrandt:Night Watch

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    Rembrandt

    Dr. TulpsAnatomy

    Lesson

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    Frans Hals

    TheLaughing

    Cavalier

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    Jan Vermeer

    The Art of Painting

    Study of a YoungWoman

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    Georges de

    La TourChrist in the

    Carpenters Shop

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    Music

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    Baroque Music Innovations

    Invention of Opera

    Homophony Development of the orchestra and types of

    orchestration

    Development of new forms of vocal music

    Development of purely instrumental music

    New instruments Temperament

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    Invention of Opera

    Singing and orchestra work together

    Use of an overture, several acts, etc Size of the orchestra increased

    Homophony

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    Claudio Monteverdi

    Made opera popular

    Technique to conveyemotion

    Orfeo The Coronation of Poppea

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    Development of Instrumental

    Music Luther

    God could be experienced throughmusic

    The Devil flees from the voice of music just as

    he flees from the words of theology.

    New vocal forms

    Hymn, anthem, cantata, oratorio

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    Baroque Music Innovations

    Purely instrumental music

    Counterpoint (a type of polyphony) Fugues

    Sonata, concerto, suite

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    Violin Invention

    Cremona, Italy

    Amati, Stradivari, Guarneri Became the heart of the orchestra

    Construction has not changed

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    Temperament

    Tempering: tuning that resulted

    in pleasant scalesThe Well Tempered Clavier

    Preludes and fugues written in allmajor and minor keys

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    Circle of Fifths

    do re mi fa sol la ti do re mi fa sol la ti do re mi fa sol la ti do re mi fa sol la ti do

    1st fifth 2nd fifth 3rd fifth 4th fifth 5th fifth 6th fifth 7th fifth

    Notes

    defined: do, sol re la mi ti fa do

    The ratio of the two "do" notes should be an even whole number

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    "The problem...began with the Greeks,

    who mistakenly believed that 3:2 was thereal ratio of a perfect fifth, when it isobviously only an approximation. Anyonewho multiplies this ratio and realizes thatits 'circle' of twelve tones produces a lastnote that is out of tune with the first, yetcontinues to maintain 'that the ratio 3:2 is

    the actual one, he in truth ignores theessential character of addition andsubtraction of ratios.' Any such person isstubbornly resisting the plain truth; his

    position is irrational and absurd."

    Isacoff, Stuart, Temperament, Vintage Books,

    2001, p. 145.

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    "Acceptance [of equal temperament] didnot come easily. Critics claimed theresulting music had been robbed of itsbeauty and emotional impact; supporterscountered that since all things are

    subjective, human ears and minds wouldlearn to adapt. The arguments, however,went well beyond musical aesthetics.Equal temperament represented anassault on an idea that had grippedthinkers in nearly every field as a powerfulmetaphor for a universe ruled by

    mathematical law."

    Isacoff, Stuart, Temperament, Vintage Books,2001, p. 6.

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    "Tempering meant that the principle

    of usefulness was more basic thanthe principle of purity."

    Adapted from: Isacoff, Stuart, Temperament, VintageBooks, 2001, p. 8.

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    Innovations in Orchestra

    Concertos

    Solo instruments Grosso led to orchestra works

    Composers notation:

    Specified instrumental parts

    Dynamic markings and speed

    Key signature in the title

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    Antonio Vivaldi

    Red Priest

    Details and complexity Operas

    Influenced Bach The Four Seasons

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    Vivaldi: Sonnet forSpring

    Spring has come with its gaiety,The birds salute it with joyous song,And the brooks, caressed by ZephyrFlow meanwhile with sweet murmur.

    The sky is covered with dark cloudsAnnounced by lightning and thunder,But when they are silenced, the little birdsReturn to fill the air with their song:

    Then does the meadow, in full flower,

    Ripple with its leafy plants.The goatherd dozes, guarded by his faithful dog.

    Rejoicing in the pastoral bagpipes,

    Nymphs and Shepherds dance neath heavens canopy,For the radiant onset of Springtime.

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    George Frederick Handel

    Personal Life

    Watermusic Royal Fireworks

    OperasCompany in London

    Wrote castratosLargo fromXerxes

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    George Frederick Handel

    Oratorios

    Long text with chorus and orchestraNo costumes and staging

    Developed after lack of interest for

    operas Messiah

    OvertureGlory to God

    Hallelujah Chorus

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    Johann Sebastian Bach

    Personal life

    Work life Over 1000 musical pieces

    Public complained for his

    flowery music Musicians felt his

    music too difficult

    Engaged the mind insearch for God

    After death becamewell known

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    Since the best man could not beobtained, mediocre ones would haveto be accepted.

    -Leipzig town council member commenting on the hiring ofBach

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    Johann Sebastian Bach

    Musical Contributions:

    Over 1000 pieces in every genre exceptopera

    Cantatas (one per week for 8 years)

    #140 part 1 part 4 part 7Protestant themes (in search of God)

    Counterpoint/fugue

    Complex compositions (upside down)

    Hymns (A Mighty Fortress)

    Brandenburg Concertos

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    Literature

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    Cervantes

    Don Quixote de la Mancha

    Greatest literature work inSpanish

    First Novel

    Reality versus illusion

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    Don Quixote

    (Sanchos early opinion of Don Quixote)

    I have seen from countless signs that this masterof mine is a raving lunatic who ought to be tied up and me, I cant be much better, for since I followhim and serve him, Im more of a fool than he

    (Sanchos later view of reality)

    Anythings possiblefor her beauty confused me,as her ugliness did your worship. But lets leave itall in Gods hands.

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    John Milton

    Devout Puritan

    Defender of CromwellianCommonwealth

    Political Activist and Essayist Paradise Lost

    SonnetWhen I consider

    Paradise Lost

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    Paradise Lost

    (Milton)At the days dawning, having said their morningprayers, Adam and Eve began considering howthey might best accomplish their growing work.

    (Simple)

    They said their prayers and planned their work.

    (Simpler)

    They prayed and worked hard.

    (Simplest)They had too much to do.

    Paradise Lost

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    Paradise Lost

    Hail, horrors! Hail,Infernal World! And thou, profoundest Hell,Receive thy new possessor one who brings

    A mind not to be changed by place or time.The mind is its own place, and in itselfCan make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of Heaven.What matter where, if I be still the same,And what I should be, all but less than heWhom thunder hath made greater? Here at leastWe shall be free; the Almighty hath not built

    Here for his envy, will not drive us hence:Here we may reign secure; and, in my choice,To reign is worth ambition, though in Hell:

    Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven.- Satan in Paradise Lost

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    When I Consider How My Life is Spent

    When I consider how my light is spent,Ere half my days, in this dark world and wide,And that one Talent which is death to hide,

    Lodgd with me useless, though my Soul more bentTo serve therewith my Maker, and presentMy true account, least he returning chide,

    Doth God exact day-labour, light denied,I fondly ask; But patience to preventThat murmur, soon replies, God doth not need

    Either mans work or his own gifts; his StateIs Kingly. Thousands at his bidding speedAnd post ore Land and Ocean without rest:They also serve who only stand and wait.

    - John Milton

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    Thank You

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    Messiah

    No tongue can speak, neither can

    there be written by any man, neithercan the hearts of men conceive sogreat and marvelous things as weboth saw and heard Jesus speak;and no one can conceive of the joy

    which filled our souls at the time weheard him pray for us unto theFather. (3 Ne. 17:17)

    Moliere

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    Moliere

    (Jean Baptiste Poquelin) Baroque comedy

    Targeted the Catholic church

    Tartuffe

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    "[Those] who insist on believing inthe purity of the simple ratios of old

    over all aural evidence to thecontrary...they are like the personwho proclaims, 'The sun may lie, but

    not the clock.'"

    Isacoff, Stuart, Temperament, Vintage Books, 2001, p. 146.