08 buddhist town planning in india

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  • Buddhist Town Planning

    -Sagar Ikade

    EVOLUTION OF AESTHETICS, CULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY

    College of Engineering, PuneAn autonomous Institute of Government of Maharashtra

  • Contents Basic development elements of Settlement/Town

    Evolution of Settlements

    Architecture in India

    Buddhism

    Concept of religion

    Devotion to a deity

    Evolution of Buddhism & teachings of Buddha

    Desire and Nirvana

    4 Noble Truths

    Noble 8 Fold Path

    Mental Disciplines: Enlightenment

    Dalai Lama in Tibet

    Rock-cut Architecture

    Ajanta

    Ellora

    Learnings

  • Contributing Forces for the origin of Settlement

    State any Contributing forces for the origin of Settlement?

  • Contributing Forces for the origin of Settlement1. Topographical features:-

    a) Conditions favourable for industrial units

    b) Hilly areas to achieve the object of defence

    c) Plain areas useful for business activities

    d) River banks

    e) Sea or ocean fronts

    2. Functional aspects:-

    1. Education

    2. Health resorts

    3. Political

    4. Religious

    Ref. Rangwala S., (1995) Town Planning, charotar Publishing house, India, p.8.

  • Guiding Principles of Town Planning

    Green Belt

    Housing

    Public buildings

    Recreation centres

    Road systems

    Transport facilities

    Zoning

    Ref. Rangwala S., (1995) Town Planning, charotar Publishing house, India, p.6.

  • Evolution of Settlements

    Most of the early civilization have sprung on the banks of some navigable rivers or at any natural port which not only provide security to the town but also acted as a communicating link from one civilization to another.

    Physical Safety and communication links are the prime factors which lead to the development of towns.

    The earliest civilizations were seen on the banks of rivers like Nile, Ganga, Sindhu, etc.

    Urban historians classify towns of India as:

    Ancient (Indus valley, Vedic and Buddhist towns)

    Vedic

    Medieval

    Modern

    Ref. NIOS, Indian Culture and Heritage Secondary Course, MODULE V, Painting, Performing Arts and Architecture.

  • INDIAN ARCHITECTURE

    CAVE ARCHITECTURE

    ROCK- CUT ARCHITECTURE

    TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE

    MUGHAL ARCHITECTURE

    COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE

    ANCIENT ARCHITECTURE

    Indian Architecture Civilization has spanned at least 4,500 years and impacted on nearly everything in

    our lives and society Architecture had began as soon as the early cave man began to build his own

    shelter to live in.

    Ref. NIOS, Indian Culture and Heritage Secondary Course, MODULE V, Painting, Performing Arts and Architecture.

  • Rock-cut Architecture

    Most of rock cut architecture are related to various religious communities.

    Numerous caves were excavated by the Buddhist monks for prayer and residence purposes..

    Ref. http://www.culturalindia.net/indian-architecture/ancient-architecture/rock-cut.html

  • Buddhism

    During the period of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya, Kautilya and Chanakya was the chief minister who wrote the famous Arthashastra, a treatise of Town Planning. Features stated in it were;

    Regulation of Zoning depending on communitites

    Highway (Rajmarga) to be parallel to the main cardinal direction

    Road were aligned in grid-iron form

    Rajmarga to be not less than 30 ft. or nearly 3 lanes of traffic

    The excavation carried out at patliputra, capital of Magadha (mow in Bihar), shows evidence of advance knowledge of planning.

    Taksha-sila and nalanda, the renowned place for learning were found in the period.

    Nalanda consist of three main essentials- stupas, temples & hotels for the monks. It had 300 halls for accommodating 10,000 pupils and libraries were nine-storeyed high.

  • Cycle of Birth and Death

  • Path to enlightenment..

  • Nirvana = Enlightenment..

  • Teachings of Buddha

  • Issues of Life..

  • Path to enlightenment..

  • Genesis in various religions

  • Story of life..

  • Teachings of Buddha

  • Bodhisatva no 1.

  • Bodhisatva no. 1

  • Bodhisatva no. 2

  • Bodhisatva no. 3

  • Bodhisatva no. 3

  • Bodhisatva no. 4

  • Path to enlightenment..

  • Path to enlightenment..

  • Donts to enlightenment..

  • Nirvana..

  • Enlightenment..

  • Path to enlightenment..

  • Path to enlightenment..

    Bodhisatva

  • Bodhisatva

  • Basics of Buddhist Town Planning Chaityas and Viharas are those rock-

    cut structures that were hewn out for Buddhist and Jain monks.

    Chaityas= places of worship

    Viharas= residence of monks.

    Most of the Chaityas and Viharaswere constructed in western India. Eg. Karle, Nashik, Bhaja and Kanheri.

    Stupas= A dome-shaped monument, used to house Buddhists' relics

    Pagodas= Religious multi-storey Buddhist towers, erected as a memorial or shrine.

    Chaitya

    Vihara

  • Examples of Buddhist Town Planning

  • Ajanta

  • Ajanta Ajanta consists of 29 Buddhist caves (some unfinished), the

    grandest achievement of the first wave of rock-cutarchitecture in India.

    The cave have intricate carvings , sculptures and wall paintingsthat depicts the Jataka Tales- narration of stories of previouslives of Buddha.

  • Ajanta: Caves Overview

    Further details will be explained on-

    http://www.ajantacaves.org/portfolio/ajanta-caves-street-view/

  • Ellora

  • Ellora

    Ellora Caves, carved out of the vertical face of the Charanadri hills.

    Bestowed with rich styles, of Hindu, Jain and Buddhist architectures.

    One of the worlds UNESCO heritage site.

    Kailasha temple is remarkable example of Dravidian architecture.

    JAIN CAVES

    HINDU CAVES

    BUDDHIST CAVES

  • Ellora: Caves Overview

    Further details will be explained on-

    http://elloracaves.org/caves.php?cmd=search&words=&image_ID=&cave_ID=10017&plan_floor=1

  • Learnings

    The Town planning based in Buddhist period was fully based on religious beliefs.

    Mostly the Settlements are planned nearby the water source

    Majorly the Buddhist planning was focused on two aspects:

    Functional value

    Aesthetics Value

    Allocation of open spaces, green belts, circulation spaces, social gathering spaces, etc. techniques which we are using today are evolved from the planning of ancient period.

    Simply,

    Living in now and Planning for Later.

  • THA

    NK

    YO

    U