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Chapter 3

Chapter 3Ancient GreeceThe Early Greek World

Aegean CivilizationsMinoanCrete 2000 BCIslandTrade and colonization with Fertile CrescentOlive oilPotteryAncestors of Philistines?Knossos, capital city destroyed in 1400 BCMycenaeMainland of GreeceAdopted art, architecture, and commercial practices from Minoans.1400 BC became leading center of Aegean region.Military fervor1200 BC conquered by Dorians.TroyWestern coast of Asia MinorHellespont strait separating Asia Minor from Europe. Linked the land of the Fertile Crescent with the sea trade of the Aegean world.TroyMyceneans attacked them.Ten-year siege.Troy falls.Sneak attack with Trojan horse.Read Trojan War inset p. 56

The Greek Dark Ages1150-750 BCNew intrudersNeglected palace fortresses for simple life in villagesBlended cultures into a common Greek culture.

The Homeric AgeHomers epic poemsIliadOdyssey

Greek Mythology

Myths (stories) explain their beliefs about life, the world, and God. Mount OlympusZeusApolloAthenaPoseidonPolytheism Worship of many godsMonotheism worship of one godGreek gods were anthropomorphic (had human characteristics)Had immortality and extraordinary powersInvented by men, exhibited human sinsGames were held in honor of Zeus every 4 years on Mount Olympus.Ultimate Goal of the Greeks to attain physical perfectionThe games were a rare demonstration of cooperation between the Greeks.

Greek City-StatesGreek City-StatesThe mountains of Greece tended to isolate the Greek city-states and hindered their national unity.They built their cities at the foot of a hill with a fortress at the top.They called their city a polis, and the fortress an acropolis. (acro = high)Greek City-StatesThe polis was the basic political unit of Greece. However, it acted like a nation. The ancient Greeks ultimate source of authority was his polis.

GovernmentGreek city-states experienced 4 basic forms of government.Monarchy rule by oneOligarchy rule by a fewTyranny government had complete controlDemocracy rule by the peopleDevelopmentGreek City-State Period 750-500 B.C.Two opposing political systems and poleisSparta in southern Greece on the PeloponnesusAthens to the northeast on the mainland

SpartaConquered by Dorians who enslaved the Helots who were numerous.Dorians created a militaristic state in response to fear of uprising of the majority.Sparta developed a warrior culture.

SpartaSpartan elders controlled all aspects of the lives of the people.Boys left their mothers at the age of 7 and were placed in army barracks and began their warrior training.They were beaten to learn to be tough.They were starved to learn to be tough.The weak were culled from the pack and eliminated. SpartaThey were encouraged to steal to prove their resourcefulness.At the age of 20 they became part of the army.At age 30, if they had proved their worthiness, they could become citizens of Sparta.They lived in the army camp and were prepared to fight at all times.

Spartan womenSpartan girls were trained to be mothers of warriorsThey also learned to be self-disciplined and tough.Spartan mothers expected their sons to return with their shields or on them.Every aspect of their lives were determined from furniture to food.Spartan GovernmentSparta was an oligarchy.It was ruled by a five elders who guarded against change. They forced the status quo (existing state of affairs).Sparta often forced oligarchy on neighboring city-states and organized them into the Peloponnesian League to guard against the democracy of the Athenians.

SpartaSparta was associated with militarism, isolation, oligarchy, and glorification of the state.

AthensAthens nurtured creativity, commercial endeavors, democracy, and individualism.Athenians loved beauty, art, and learning.

AthensAthens was a monarchy during the Homeric Age.Later the nobles took over and produced an oligarchy with a chief magistrate called an archon.

AthensUnder the statesman Solon, Athens moved toward democracy in 594 B.C. when he gave representation to all sections of Athens in the Council of Four Hundred.

AthensIn the 5th century B.C. under Pericles, Athens established a rule of the people.

The Persian WarsAt the beginning of the 5th century B.C. the Persians advanced across Asia Minor and into Greece.The Athenians, valuing their independence, rebelled and overthrew the Persians.

The Persian WarsKing Darius of Persia crushed the revolt and landed a Persian force at the Bay of Marathon (490 B.C.).The outnumbered Athenians met them and surprisingly defeated the Persians.(Read Herodotus quote on p. 63)Battle of ThermopylaeDarius made plans to invade Greece in revenge but died before he could carry them out.His son, Xerxes (husband of Esther), followed through on the assault on Greece in 480 B.C.

Battle of ThermopylaeAs the Persians advanced, the Greeks disagreed on their strategy. The Spartans wanted to defend the Peloponnesus; the Athenians wanted to defend the mainland.They finally agreed to take a stand at the mountain pass of Thermopylae.

Battle of ThermopylaeAt Thermopylae about 7000 Greeks faced a Persian army numbering at least 200,000. The Persians attacked several times but could not take the pass.

Battle of ThermopylaeAlas, the Greeks were betrayed by one of their own who showed the Persians a secret pass through the mountains.All the Greeks except for 300 Spartans retreated. The 300, led by Leonidas, stayed to hold the pass and give the others a chance.Leonidas and his 300 Spartans fought to the death defending the pass.Leonidas

Battle of Salamis BayThe Persians pressed on to Athens and destroyed it by fire; the Athenians fled in retreat to the isle of Salamis, just off the coast.

Battle of Salamis BayThermistocles devised a trap for the Persians.He sent a slave to report to the Persians that the Greeks were afraid and were sailing northward and that if the Persians sent their navy in at dawn they could catch the Greeks in retreat.

Battle of SalamisUnwittingly, the Persians came into the Bay of Salamis as the tide was going out. Their ships were stranded, and the Greeks destroyed them.The Greeks beat back the Persians and preserved their independence.The Periclean Age (460-429 B.C.)The Greek victory gave the Greek people pride, self-confidence, and patriotism.Under Pericles, Athens advances in thought, art, science, literature, drama, and architecture were unparalleled anywhere in the ancient world.The Periclean Age (460-429 B.C.)Under Pericles, every adult male could vote and participate in government.Note that the women, slaves, and foreigners (about 90% of the population) were still excluded.

The Peloponnesian War431-404 B.C.Athens versus SpartaAthens naval strengthSparta strong land armyA plague weakened Athens and Sparta dominated, returning Athens to a state of oligarchy and tyranny.

Alexanders Empire